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moment want, or the dread of it, man was only the copy of ten thouceases to influence them, they relax sand others. Mankind may be diin their exertions, and prefer the vided into two classes, the prejudiced luxury of oriental indolence to toil and the ignorant. The enlightened badly remunerated. Among such a belong to one, the uninformed to people the absence of employinent is the other; and both produce that far from being an evil ; perhaps their inedley of truth and falsehood which moral happiness depends upon its passes current through the world. continuance, for greater opportuni- I appeal to yourself for the truth ties of earning money could not fail of the picture I have drawn of your of making them dissipated, and con- countrymen.' sequently vicious.'
. “My opportunities of observation, · All your arguments,' I returned, I replied, have not qualified me for • would not be sufficient to deter an judging, as my travels from London Englishman from ridiculing your have been rather limited. I know, habits, or induce him to dine on pota. however, that complaints of distress toes.'
are very frequent in England, but I • The progress of events,' replied must say that our peasantry appear the Exile, * are likely to compel him better lodged than those of Ireland.'. to both. “In the last century,' says "They live in more costly buildings, Paley, “ the diet of those who now live you mean,' he returned; 'but he that upon flesh was milk, fruits, and ve. would exclude comfort from a thatchgetables ;” and, as this is the period ed cabin knows not how much hapEnglishmen love to dwell on, is it not piness is enjoyed on an earthen floor. strange that they should reproach us If it he fair to estimate the value of for living now as their happy fathers the tree by its fruit, it cannot be did then? But our grateful esculent, wrong to infer, from the cheerfulonce deemed poisonous, is now rapidly ness, health, and vivacity of our becoming the only resource of the Bri- peasantry, that they enjoy a considcrtish peasant against pauperism; and able portion of felicity and content. wherever they have been introduced In many parts of England, such as human misery has been diminished.* the west riding of Yorkshire and in -Thus our neighbours have been Devonshire, are habitations as mean obliged to imitate our temperate eco- as those of Ireland, and the dwellings nomy; to abandon their carnivorous of the Scotch peasantry are, if poshabits; and to content themselves sible, much worse; while those with that food which Providence throughout the Continent are scarcely seems to have intended for the sup- better, and in many parts not as good; port of man.
yet their contented inmates are per• During my sojourn in that land, haps the happiest portion of the which the natives call a land of liber- human race. The aspect of England ty, I often mixed with the lower is deceitful; the people mostly reside orders; and have been sometimes in villages, where they endure all the amused, and frequently indignant, at inconveniences of a city; for they live hearing a fellow, over his dinner of in lodgings, several families being four ounces of meat, revile the filthy huddled together in one house, which, and superstitious Irish, going through like a splendid sepulchre, las all its the catalogue of accusations froin , attractions on the outside. These priests to pigs, while his countenance houses are built in the spirit of trade : indicated encroaching disease,brought the proprietor gains by letting them; on by the nature of his occupations; but the cot of our peasant is his own, his distorted frame, at the same time, and he pays rent only for the field atbearing evident marks of premature tached, while his door is agreeably labour, and protracted toil. Yet this encumbered with poultry, goats, and miles to their work every morning before six, and return in the evening, for ten pence or a shilling.
* We have no doubt, indeed, that if potatoes were made the principal article of food, in the southern and middle, as they are in the northern counties, and in Scotland, the number of paupers would be diminished, and the expense of their maintenance greatly reduced.'--Quarterly Review, No. XXIV.
a pig; domestic animals which the “According to your theory,' said poor English labourer can never pos- Emmet, tyranny and liberty apsess. Ideas of cleanliness and comfort proximate more closely than manare purely nätional; and, perhaps, kind have as yet imagined.'. after all, he who has the least is the 'I believe,' replied the Exile, that most likely to be happy.'
liberty and tyranny are phantoms of We were now within view of Rath- the imagination; or, if they ever farnham; and, turning up a secluded had existence, their duration must lane, with hedges on each side, we have been very short ; for no nation knocked at the door of a respectable, has been ever governed by them. but solitary-looking, house. We ob- All governments have been so modi. tained immediate admission, and found fied as to be alike free from the agiour friend waiting for us in a drawing- tations of unrestricted freedom, and room, badly furnished. After dinner the sufferings of uncontrolled desthe conversation, as usual, took a po- potism; while every nation possesses litical turn; and while Emmet saw, some, no nation perfect, liberty ;* in every circumstance of the country, and the degree depends solely upon nothing but indications of distress, circumstances, the happiness of sothe Exile would not admit that the ciety being the same under all these ; want of manufactures, or the absence because Society moulds them to her of the aristocracy, was an evil at all. purposes, as the banks are formed by • You must admit,' said our host, the river ; and, however rugged or
that Ireland is misgoverned; and smooth, narrow or expanded, the surely the consequence of bad laws same quantity of water flows through, inust be misery.'
as much passing over the shallow as 'God,' replied the Exile, has done the deep parts of the channel. so much for the happiness of man- 'How few of all those ills which kind, that government can do but affect mankind “Kings can cause little ; it can neither make the land or cure!” Happiness is individual ; more fruitful, nor the seasons more inequality is the consequence of infavourable.'
• dolence and industry, improvidence • But,' though incapable of adding and avarice, imbecility and strength to the blessings of Providence,' in- of mind. It springs from individual terrupted Emmet, it may do much misfortune, and is found to proceed mischief, as plants that won't nourish from uncontrollable circumstances. may kill.'
Over these legislation can exert no • Man,' returned the Exile, either authority; and, while the dispositions conforms to circumstances or evades and abilities of men are dissimilar, them; submits to what he cannot re- some will be found immersed in demove, or flies, when flight is more plorable want, while others shall desirable than subjection. Oppres- revel in all the enjoyments of luxury.' sion, in a great measure, ceases to be Inequality,' returned Emmet, is oppression when it becomes habitual; not only unavoidably, but absolutely, and habit is the great pervading law necessary. To it Nature owes all her of animated nature. Thus we are charms, and the world all its attracendowed with such wonderful proper- tions. If all were equal there would ties, that the effects even of tyranny be no rivalry; and, where there is no are in a great measure obviated; rivalry, there is neither emulation and Providence has been so bountiful nor pleasure. Most of our actions that the best government can do but and desires proceed directly from the little good, and the worst but little inequality that happily exists in 60mischief. Whoever will not admit ciety; and each man, endeavouring this tacitly accuses the Almighty of to get before his fellow man, puts the injustice, in enduing the many with whole world in motion. In this gedispositions to submit to the dictation neral struggle for superiority we must of the few, unless there was some- seek the effects of liberty and slavery. thing in our nature to counteract the If all are free, every man depends folly and wickedness of legislators.' solely on his own resources, makes
use of such means as appear best fed with human victims ; while injuscalculated for obtaining his end, and tice and murder, like hideous specis content to allow all others to do tres, stalk about the frightened counthe same. All exertion here is fair try'and legitimate ; the course they have "Pardon me,'interrupted the Exile; to run over is the same for all; and these are things I can neither defend success awaits him that best de- nor palliate.' serves it.
Then you will admit,' said Em* But, where some are shackled met, that there is an evil, and that while others are unbound, and where Ireland is miserable ? one set of men are impeded, and I will admit, replied the Exile, others facilitated, in their course, that she is so in idea, though not we must expect not only hideous in reality; that the minds of men are inequalities, but unavoidable discon- unhappy, but not their conditions ; tent. The favoured party cannot and that their complaints proceed conceal their triumph, northe van, from their feelings and not from their quished their dissatisfaction. Jus- sufferings. The people, from the tice is outraged, and the insulted soon fulness of enjoyment, have become become ripe for revenge.'
fastidious; and, having all their na.But,' rejoined the Exile, since tural wants satisfied, they have adsome men must be poor and others mitted artificial ones. The once timid rich, some elevated and others de Catholic, discontented to be sure, but pressed, it is of little importance to his sufferings disavowed, has grown society from what the cause proceeds dignified in his owrr opinion, spurns when the effect is invariably the the subterfuge of concealment, and same; for equal men can never be.' exalts his character by openly pro
Inequality,' returned Emmet, “is claiming his discontent. Before he not deformity; and whatever is not might have been despised or pitied ; just is not natural. Man is entitled but he is now to be admired and to the produce of all his honest en- dreaded. deavours, and has a right not to have “There is a laceration of feelings these endeavours obstructed. Where as painful as stripes upon the body; this is not the case, inequality is and, as political distinction* is the never the result of events, but the most fascinating of allurements, expernicious offspring of a partial and clusion from political honour becomes tyrannical government, begotten on the most cruel of penalties. It may corruption, and fed by the monstrous be only nominal, but is not the less productions of an unnatural state of galling on that account; and, when society. This is the inequality,' con- indignity is the consequence of relitinued Emmet, “that has long pro- gion, bigotry is added to the evils of duced distortion in Ireland. The faction. energies of the people have been fet. But let not any man,' continued tered, and every blessing of heaven the Exile, imagine that the removal and of nature is rendered. fruitless of Catholic disabilities would stifle in consequence of this inequality.' the clamours of faction, or supersede
• To dispute this with you,' inter- national complaints. In England rupted the Exile, 'would be only to Whigs and Tories, both Protestants, recapitulate the arguments I have hate one another as cordially as already used. I admit its existence; Orangemen and Catholics do in Irebut I deny that it has any influence land ; and the party in power always on industry.
effectually and designedly excludes • But you must admit,' returned the other from places of trust and Emmet, 7 that its consequence is emolument, in the same way that worse ; that it arms man against man, Protestants, among us, shut the doors renders life insecure, and produces a of the Castle against their religious moral convulsion through the coun- and political opponents. Party in try. In consequence of it, faction, England has produced all the evils like the ancient monster, is constantly which, in Ireland, result from religi
The reward which, of all others, most awakens the ambition of the human mind, is 'political dignity and importance.'-- Paley's Philosophy.
ous rancour; it has caused a perver- pation cannot be much longer withsion of justice the loss of human held.' life-individual misfortune and na “There you speak as you wish,' tional commotion; and these, pro- said Emmet, 'not as you think ; for bably, in as great a degree as they you know well that the very nature ever have been among us; for I do of the British constitution is inimical not call the late rebellion a religious to Catholic freedom.' one.
•Institutions, returned the Exile, · Emancipation, therefore, would 'must give way to imperative neces, not prove a panacea; neither would sity; if not, an army of circumstances it be without its benefits :-it would quickly surrounds them, and if they destroy imaginary superiority, and do not yield they are destroyed. humble insignificant pride, while it " And, like 'Sardanapalus,' said would flatterihe vanity of Catholics by Eminet, * before they surrender an an ideal elevation. It would do more: iota of their privileges, they will it would deprive agitators of a popu- perish in the flames of their own lar topic of declamation, and gra- temples. I have heard you, Mr. dually subvert the fallacious notion J , with pleasure, and admire the of Ireland's degradation ; for Irish extent of your acquirements; but misery is nothing more than the pre- your arguments, so far from proving valence of an erroneous opinion uni- the absence of misery from Ireland, versally received as truth. The ex, absolutely tend to show that it is peristence of discontent proves nothing manent, by demonstrating that while to the contrary; for the poor, of all we are subject to England we can pations and of all times, are very will- neither have trade, manufactures, nor ing to believe that their poverty pro- a resident aristocracy. You have arceeds froin a conspiracy among the gued relatively; but, in place of atrieh. Nothing is more easy than to tributing our complaints, or rather persuade the bulk of mankind that the cause of them, to a mistaken opi. they are wronged, oppressed, and in- nion, you should have charged them sulted; and, when these epithets are all to the absolute fact--FOREIGN repeated for a short time, they be- DOMINATION. That is the fountain come, like religion, a most important of evil which irrigates the land with and sacred article of the people's be- misery; and whoever should destroy lief. Whatever could occasion the an- the source from which it springs nihilation of this erroneous opinion would deserve what he could not fail in Ireland would be a real blessing; to obtain—the gratitude of the nabut, I confess, I know not any thing tion.' so likely to do it as emancipation, Well!' returned the Exile, you which would, most probably, expel will have it as you wish ; and, as the the hereditary notion that there is evening grows late, we must bid you “no law for a Catholic.” It is, how- good-by. So saying, we arose and ever, cheering to know that emanci- took our departure.
GODFREY K- N.
THE HERMIT IN IRELAND.-NO. V. DOINGS AT CARLOW. able and the delightful. If he is Carlow is a thriving place, and wise, he will endeavour to imitate not an unpleasant spot for the pass- the bee, by trying to extract some ing residence of a inere idler; it sweets even from the midst of the possesses, in common with other poison which surrounds him: it is small towns, its portion of old maids, his interest, and it should be his of tea-drinking devotees, of scandal- inclination, to keep constantly before mongers, grave-looking politicans, him the bright side of things; he clerical meddlers, and professional should make the best of every chagossips : these nuisances, however, racter, and of every circumstance. affect a mere sojourner but slightly; He who pursues this course will your true tranquil wanderer, where- find enjoyment in general to preever he turns, is prepared for a dominate :this, at least, is the reasonable mixture of the disagree- Hermit's philosophy.
· I had idled about the town for a there goes the Leprachaun-catcher few days; I had been on the look-out herself.- Well, sir, it was about for every thing remarkable; I had nine o'clock of a fine evening in seen the Catholic College, a plain but June, when Mrs. Doran lay down extensive building; I had visited the to rest for a while upon the bed in old castle; I had wandered along the her little back parlour; she had been banks of the weedy Barrow, and in the morning as far as Bagenalgazed for hours upon the lofty green stown, to see some friends, and she hills of Clogrennan; I had grown was wearied after her journey; she familiar with the gaol, the chapel, the was quite ready for a good sleep; church, and the meeting-house; I and, as her daughter says, snored cared not to look upon the barrack, beautifully for almost an hour: she for, of all the forms and fripperies of moaned, however, and appeared at this foolish world, I hate military some moments rather uneasy. At forms and fripperies the most ;-'And last she stirred and called out.Mary' is this,' said I to the friend who The daughter didn't answer; she chanced to accompany me, 'is this called again; · Mary, are you there?' all your town has to show?-have “I am, mother,' said the other, you nothing more here that's re- what d’ye want ?' Oh! Mary, inarkable?' – Indeed little more,' jewel!' said she, I've had such a said he. “I shall show you one thing, dream! such a terrible dream enhowever, that's somewhat remark tirely! I'm all in a tremble after it. able, as we happen to be upon the Oh! Lord, save us all-God pity our spot; look over that ditch. He poor dear clargy! I'm afraid there's pointed to a small but pretty garden mischief brewing for them.-Oh! that was just beside us. “Do you such a set of black Swaddling-lookperceive that little sheltered spot like ing men as came to judge thema summer-house in miniature? it lies and such things as they said ! I'm near the upper end.'-'I do,' said I; all trembling after it-but was any • but what of it?'--That,' replied one singing in the street there, Mary? my friend, in a very serious tone, I thought I heard a beautiful song; • is the den of the Leprachaun.'* was there any one there?' 'No, • The Leprachaun!'
mother,' said the girl. Mrs. Doran · Yes,' continued my companion; lay quiet for a few moments. “Why, • did you never hear of the visit that Mary, I tell you there is somebody one of those little gentry paid us ?' singing there : but it's in the garden;
I do,' said I, 'recollect having seen what brings any body into our garsomething in the · Carlow Morning den?' • Mother,' said Mary, “I don't Post,' at one timne, about a small shoe hear any song : I'm afraid you're still that was found, and about a strange dreaming.'- No! no!' said the little being that was seen near it.' other, arising at the moment and
. The shoe was shown at Price's opening a small door that led into office for months after, and all who the garden, "I am not dreaming.' saw it agreed that it never was made She trod slowly along a little gravelled by the hand of man.'-'The Lepra- walk, until she reached the spot I chaun then,' said I, 'is shoemaker showed you, and there, sure enough, to the fairies ?-But have you heard she got a peep at the strange custhe particulars of this very curious tomer I told you of. She was a little affair?'
frightened at first, but she soon saw Mrs. Doran,' replied my friend, what he was; for your old women • has told me it over and over; indeed are all up to these things : he didn't she has almost made me a believer hear her coming, he was so busy at in the story: you must have it as I his work; he wore a cobbler's regular heard it. He looked up the garden working dress; he had no hat on him, for a moment. • Faith, I believe but a little red night-cap that came
* Our contributor, the author of Superstitions of the Irish Peasantry,' writes this word Luprechaun, that being the usual pronunciation. Lady Morgan, however, spells it Leprechaun, and Mr. Croker the Leprechan. According to the last author Cluricaune of the Southern Counties is the saine as the Luprecauns of Leinster, both words being probably derived from the Irish for pigmy.--ED.