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readily lent his car, and, from motives be understood as not reflecting in of the purest benevolence, subscribed the remotest degree on those who to Bible and Tract Societies, which advocate the right of the laity to promised to illuminate the Irish the free use of both Testaments : we mind. Report followed Report, each believe that they do 80 conscientiousconfirming the misrepresentation of ly; and, in return, we request of the former, and calling for a further them to extend the same candour tosubscription; for religionists, like wards their opponents, and confess warriors, look upon money as the that they mistook their character; sinews of their respective armies. for, in the words of Dr. Doyle, the
A notion was long prevalent in Ire- Catholic clergy of Ireland are enerland that Biblemen disbelieved the getic, active, laborious, shrewd, and statements of their missionaries, the intelligent: they are the most moral Catholics supposing it impossible for class of persons, pot only in this Christians, otherwise enlightened, to country, but, I think, existing on the give credit to inconsistent and con- earth : they are exact, or rather, they tradictory reports. But the event are filled with zeal, in the discharge has proved the sincerity of these sub- of their duties. It would be inviscribers ; for, within the last twelve dious to particularize individuals ; yet months, a beardless boy, and a rugged it would be unjust to withhold' our tar, overflowing with enthusiasm, be- opinion of the talents displayed, durlieved themselves fully adequate to ing the late religious war, by the the task of illuminating the benighted venerated dignitary before us, or the Irish, and defeating in argument the Rev. Mr. M'Sweeny, of Carlow-a Popish priests. Such, too, had been gentleman who deserves the honour of the influence of uncontradicted calum- being called the 'modern O'Leary.' nies, that this extravagant pair met Believing, as we do, that all relithe support of men who, from their gious teachers, no matter of what creed opportunities, should have known or sect, who enjoy the confidence of better, and succeeded in gaining to the poor classes, must necessarily be their side nearly all the Protestant moral, austere, and pious, it was with talent, and certainly all the Protes- no small satisfaction that we hailed tant rabble, in the kingdom. What the recent discussions in Ireland. So was the result 7The Catholic Asso- far from considering them, with Dr. ciation had already inspired confi- Doyle, as mischievous, we are inclined dence in all ; and, under their au- to regard them as forerunners of spices, the clergy burst from their better days—as lights that will direct silence met their opponents on legi. the public eye to the condition of the timate ground—and never has tri- people, and show to the world that umph been more complete. Their abstract opinions do not incapacitate habitual libellers were compelled to the inind for either moral or political acknowledge their scholastic abilities; truths. Already they have been proand the English people were asto- ductive of good they have tended to nished at the learning displayed by exalt the Catholics in the estimation men whom they believed not only of their neighbours, and relieve their ignorant themselves, but the cause of clergy from the foul imputations ignorance in others. It is a fact, too, which had been attached to their which should be generally known, names; while they have disabused the that, while evangelical advocates were English people, who now begin to brought from the most distant parts look upon their fellow-subjects, not to each Bible discussion, they were as serfs degraded by ignorance and encountered only by the parish priests superstition, but as men entitled to an and curates of the place—men equality of privileges. Truth will result
• Passing rich with forty pounds a year;' from discussion, as fire is elicited from who, notwithstanding the obscurity the contact of steel and flint; and, beof their lives, evinced on these occa- lieving that religious rancour originates sions a knowledge of books and men, in mutual ignorance, we hail the occacertainly not displayed by their ad- sion which has brought men of opposite versaries.
creeds together, convinced that, when In stating these facts, we beg to the heat of argument has subsided, they will see in each other much to good they might have done, yet they admire, and nothing to perpetuate the are an evidence of what the predomihostile feelings they have hitherto in- nance of public opinion is capable of dulged in. The ‘Bible war,' 'tis true, wringing from the defenders of politiproduced a great excitation in the cal incubuses which weigh down the public mind; but, in the moral, as energies of a people. in the physical world, agitation is not The Tithe Composition Bill, inasunfrequently productive of great and much as it does not guard against a lasting blessings.
return to the decimal division, is deAmong the chief causes which fective: yet it may lead to a comhave contributed to inspire the Irish plete extinction of this unjust impost people with confidence in their just on labour, industry, and capital. The demands, and to arouse the whole Irish peasantry,' says the doctor, ‘are nation to a fearless assertion of their partially relieved by it; the proprieundoubted rights, may be mentioned tor of the land not only has his inthe writings of J. K. L., the episco- come diminished by it, but he is pal initials of the Right Rev. Dr. brought into closer contact with the Doyle. His sentiments reflect much Church; the value of tithes throughcredit on the sacred profession of out the kingdom will be ascertained which he is a member, while they do by it; and all who have eyes can see honour to his patriotism and univer- the glories of the 'Establishment. sal philanthropy. Until the present Only let the Church lands be now asvolume, however, Dr. Doyle has con- certained and estimated, let her parofined himself to occasional pamphlets, chial assessments by vestries be placed one or more of which are embodied before the public, and we shall see in the work before usa work every whether this mighty Babylon can be way creditable to the Irish press. suffered to exist; whether this enor
These Letters, twelve in number, mous mass of wealth can remain unare written in a graceful towing touched in a country which has no style, frequently rising to sublimity, exchequer, which cannot pay the inand scarcely ever descending to medi- terest of her debt, which has no pubocrity; while it is completely free from lic institution that is not sectarian; that cant, which, like a noxious poi. a country where there are upwards of a son, infuses itself into the writings of million of paupers, and one half of most divines-only to deaden them. the operative classes destitute of emThe doctor discusses nearly all the ployment. We shall see whether this topics which affect the state of Ire. magnum latrocinium, as it was called land; and, while we are compelled to by Burke, be compatible with the differ with him on some points, there exigencies of the state, the interest are many others on which we entirely of the proprietors, and the peace or agree. A political writer is in per- prosperity of the empire. petual danger of his subject being • We may hear in and out of parrendered uninteresting by the muta- liament special pleading and electiontion of party feeling; and we trust the eering harangues, proving the utility conciliatory measures now in pro- and decorum of this monstrous Estagress will shortly have this effect on blishment; we may hear of her mithe remarks contained in the doctor's nisters being all saints, and her chilletter on the state of parties, as well dren without the comforts of life ; but as that on the administration of jus- we can refer, in reply, to the thoutice. No man, we are sure, will re- sands and hundreds of thousands joice at this more than our reverend which she wrenches from the hand of author himself; and we do trust that industry. We may be told that it is it will be effected without any in- the proprietor alone who pays her infringement being made upon the come ; but the proprietor, in self-depopular rights of the great body of fence, will argue for the inviolability the people. There is an evident dis- of his estate ; and he will also plead position in the Government to do jus- for the seed, and sweat, and labour of tice'to Ireland; and, though the his tenant, which are now overlooked Burial Service Bill and the Tithe Com- or entirely forgotten. The claim of position Bill have not effected all the property will be advanced ; and sonje
lawyer, from his brief, will support fers to the following document in it against common sense and honesty, proof of this opinion: and without regard to the title by Average number of births and which it is held: but he will be pass- marriages in the united parishes of ed unheeded; whilst every man will
consisting of an extensive see that the Establishment was cre- district of champaign country, as well ated only for the good of the people, 'to as a small, but very thriving, town. provide them with religious teachers, Average number of Births in each to support their public worship, to
year, from 1784 to 1787, both clothe the naked, and to feed the poor, included
296 --and that it no longer fulfils those From 1803 to 1806, ditto . 281 ends. The law will be advanced as
Froin 1810 to 1813, ditto
. 303 the great safeguard of this Mammon From 1820 to 1823, ditto
305 of iniquity in the hands of churchmed; but the wisdom of the law and Average number of Marriages in each
of the above years. its justice will be questioned, when, From 1784 10 1787, in each year, like other noxious laws, it operates
48 1803 to 1806, ditto
48 not for the good, but to the
56 of the commonwealth. The excess
1820 to 1823, ditto
55 of the Establishment, to be ascertains
Number of deaths in 1823, 136 ed by this Act, must be corrected. Religion must be rescued from the It is to be observed, that, according plague of riches ; her ministers must to the above returns, the number of divest themselves of all characters but marriages in the last year were exactly their own; the absurd fiction, by the same as in the year 1784—that is, which they are compared to proprie forty years ago; and that the number tors, must cease, or the real proprie- of births were almost equal in one tors themselves must become vassals year, at that remote period, to what of the Church. For the commence- it has been in the year just ended ; ment of this godly work we are in the difference being only nine in a debted to the Irish Government; and, total of about three hundred.' though it were their only merit, it We have heard that Government should endear them to the people.' has provided for the emigration of
The Burial Service Bill, which was two millions of the Irish people to intended to preserve the Catholic the inhospitable wilds of Canada. priest from the arrogance of the Pro- We hope the report has no foundatestant rector, has been, by the ab- tion in truth; for, if such be the insurd provisions introduced into it, tention of ministers, they are capable rendered a dead letter ; and the Con- of greater folly than we suspected stabulary Bill, from the description them to be burdened with. Ireland, of persons employed under it, las we have already stated, is fully capable contributed, in no slight degree, to of supporting her present population; that disaffection among the peasantry and in this assertion we are borne which it was intended to suppress. out by Dr. Doyle : but we will even A ineasure thus necessary and wise, go farther, and give it as our opinion, rendered worse than abortive by the that were her inhabitants doubled, exclusive system which prefers none nay, even trebled, enough would still but loyalists in Ireland, is a comment remain to feed and employ them. on Catholic disabilities which we re- Can this be doubted when we know commend to the serious attention of that a more perfect system of husthose who oppose emancipation. bandry would quadruple her produc
In our last we threw out some tions that capital could bring under hints respecting the increase of po- the dominion of the plough a million pulation, and we are happy to find acres now completely waste ? At preour ideas on this head confirmed by sent she exports more agricultural so high an authority as Dr. Doyle. produce than any country of the same He asserts--and we perfectly agree extent in Europe-perhaps as much with him that the population has in- grain, beef, and butter, as her inhacreased but very little, if at all, dur- bitants consume at home. To'talk, ing these last fifty years; and he re- therefore, of superabundant popula
tion, is inere nonsense; and to tell race-horse, or at least a hunter, in his us that one-fourth, or one-third, of stable ; while he spent more money an agricultural people, in a country at fairs and patterns than would make enjoying any thing like a free trade, his whole farm as rich as a cabbageare subject to a state bordering upon garden. Every one who knows Irefamine, is telling us what never did, land knows that we state a fact; and nor ever can, permanently exist. Pro- it must be admitted that much of the vidence, as if foreseeing the tyranny recent misery was attributable to their and injustice of man, has wisely or
own improvidence. A better system dered that personal liberty and inde- of husbandry is undoubtedly wanted pendence may be enjoyed in an agri- in many parts of Ireland; and to cultural country in spite of despotism prove that, even under existing cirand arbitrary power. If proof of this cumstances, independence is within he wanted, we need only refer to the reach of agricultural industry, we Turkey, Italy, and other states where have only once more to refer to the civil liberty is unknown, but where county of Wexford. In the baronies the peasant is, perhaps, the happiest of Forth and Bargie there are no resion the globe.
dent gentry; the farms are all small; We here repeat our foriner asser- and yet, though subject to the same tion, that the condition of the Irish laws as other baronies in Ireland, peasantry is totally misunderstood. the people have been, comparatively, We should not take for a criterion wealthy and happy, though they pay the few preceding years, because they higher rents and tithes than
other suffered a depression from which no people in the kingdom. part of the empire was free. England, The parliamentary inquiry into too, had her Captain Rocks, her dis- the state of Ireland which is now gotress, and want of employment, during ing on renders any detailed observathe last ten years. Her riots were tions premature : yet we cannot pass more sanguinary than those in Ire- over in silence the contemplated disland ; for we cannot forget Notting- franchisement of the forty-shilling ham, and other manufacturing towns, freeholders. To these men the nawhere a system similar to that in tion is under lasting obligations ; for, Munster was carried on. Property were it not for them, the representawas destroyed, individuals were as- tion of the kingdom had been still in saulted, the poor combined against the hands of a few intolerant families, the rich ; and, were it not for the poor- whom these freeholders have long laws, her misery would have been since deprived of monopoly and power. still greater. She has now recovered, But, independe:t of gratitude, there and the natural operation of things is another and a mightier reason why is rapidly producing the same happy they should not be deprived of their change in Ireland. We look forward right to vote at elections: their very to better prospects, and are fully existence depends upon it, because persuaded that we shall again witness the system, it may be said, created peace and plenty in possession of the them, and the destruction of the peasantry. We know them well, and system would be their destruction have often compared their condition also. with that of the peasantry of other We are glad that a man of Dr. and far distant nations; and returned Doyle's talents and character has taken with the conviction that happiness is up this subject, and thrown the shield as available in Ireland as in any coun- of reason and patriotism over this detry on the globe. They have--we ad- fenceless class of his countrymen. mit and deplore it-suffered much Did his book contain nothing more distress since 1815 ; but events are
than this Letter it would be invaluarapidly producing a state of things ble; and the following extract is so similar to what existed previously to full, clear, and rational, that we quote that period, and we personally know it with pleasure :that, at that time, it was a very usual • But if there be one measure more than thing for a farmer who tilled not more another calculated to seal the doom of than thirty or forty acres to keep a Ireland, to eradicate from her soil the very
seeds of freedom, and to ensure fus ever and if this be what we recommend to her degradation, that measure is, in my strangers, whence the thought of inverting opinion, the disfranchisement of the forty- the process, when we wish to cure our sbilling freeholders!
own diseases ? But it is said, though the • It is the natural right of man-a right forty-shilling freeholds be abolished, and interwoven with the essence of our consti- the qualification raised to suppose ten or tution, and producing, as its necessary twenty pounds, you will still bave a great effect, the House of Communs, that a man number possessed of the elective franchise. wlio has life, liberty, and properly, should This supposition is unfounded; you will have some share or influence in the dis- have but a small number, and they more posal of them by law. Take the elective corrupt than the lowest class now are. franchise from the Irislı peasant, and you Freeholders then will be of that descripnot only strip him of the present reality tion of fariving esquires who are always or appearance of this right, but you dis- looking for some situation or place for able him and his posterity ever to acquire their children or friends, the hope of ob. it. He is now poor and oppressed, you taining which will supersede in their mind then make him vile and conteinptible; every other consideration. They will be he is now the image of a freeman, he will the most corrupt class of electors in Eube then the very essence of a slave; he rupe ; just as mucii so as the Irish electors lias now a hope that, should his country were before the extension of the fianchine iniprove, he may one day raise his voice to Carholics. These men, moreover, will on the hustings, and plead the cause of revive amongst us the class of widdlemen, all who belong to liis class in life, whilst the worst description of oppressors that the he proclaims the virtue of the candidate curse of Cromwell has produced in Irewhom lie supports, or upbraids the re- land. The peasantry, who are now recreant who betrays the public trust : but garded as something by the proprietors, take from him his freehold, and you will be cast out of their holdings, and cast bim out of the constitution. Like the either left w perishi on the bighways, or helot at Athens, he may go to the forum subjected to the torture of these middleand gaze at the election, and then return men; a torture with which I am well ac. to hew his wood or setch his water to the quainted, and which is the most cruel that freeman; an inhabitant, but not a ciiizen, has ever been inflicted on any people, of the country which gave him birih. unless upon the Irish and the slaves in the
*Why do we decry, and so justly, those West Indies. despotic governments
which depress “The taking away a vole is the taking the energies, debase the faculties, and away a shield which the subject has not break down the health and vigour of the only against the oppression of power, but buman race? Why do we preach up to that worst of all oppression, the persecue kings and states the justice and necessity tion of private society and private manners. of giving constitutions to their subjects? No candidate for parliamentary influence What do we niean by 1'.e lectures we read is obliged to the least attention towards them, if it be not to admit those who cou- them either in cities or counties : on the stitute the community, and bear the bur. contrary, if they should become obnoxidens of the state, to have some actual or ous to any bigoted or malignant people virtual share in the making and adminis. amongst whom they live, it will become tering of the laws under which they are to the interest of those who court popular Jive? Are they absolute monarchies we favour to use the numberless means which wish them to establish? No: these are always reside in magistracy and influence blessings which they already enjoy. Are to oppress them. The proceedings in a they republics we recommend them to certain county in Munster, during the onadopt? Ah, no: we wish these to flourish fortunate period I have mentioned, read only beyond the Atlantic. Do we submit a strong lecture on the cruelty of deprivto them whether an aristocracy or an oli- ing men of that shield on account of their garchy be not desirable? Of these we are speculative opinions.”--These are the so enamoured, that I believe we would words of Mr. Burke, a name and an aunot be disposed to infringe on such nations thority which all revere. as enjoy a monopoly of this species of go- • But it is said that the forty-shilling vernment. What is it then that we so freeholders are now brought to the hustings forcibly and frequently recommesid? We like cattle, and that they exercise no liwant these foreign governnients to admit berty in giving their votes. This is true some little tincture of democracy, to let of many of them; but what would be their in on the inert pool of wealth and indo- condition if they could not vote! In place lence of hereditary wisdom even a little of forming the herd of the nobleman or acid extracted from the people. Well, wealthy commoner, they would be the