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their neighbors until they had overrun India, Persia, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, Kurdistan, Armenia, and all of Europe except Finland and that small portion of northern Spain which is occupied by the Basques. Upon the lands thus conquered they imposed their language and their civilization. At the, dawn of history, that is, in 776 B.C., they were in possession of all Europe.

These movements must have taken ages. They took so much time that the memory of them was lost and the original Aryan lan

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The British Museum, London, The Repository of English Learning

guage became so changed that the different branches of the race could no longer understand one another. The result was that, at the dawn of history, Europe was occupied by five related Aryan races who were quite unconscious of the fact that they had all sprung from the same stock. These five races were the Greeks, who held much the same land which they possess to-day; the Romans, who were probably an offshot from the Greeks; the Celts, who were in possession of Spain, France, and the British Isles; the Teutons, who held Belgium and western Germany; and the Slavs, who, in the time of Julius Cæsar (55 B.C.), had possession of eastern Europe, including the land on which both Berlin and Vienna stand to-day. These all carried on a constant struggle with one another for the possession of the continent, a struggle which, by the way, still bursts out every few years with undiminished fury.

All this will be made a little clearer by the following table, which is designed to show the genealogy, or family history, of the Aryan languages.

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About 1860, however, the Asiatic origin of the Aryans began to be doubted. Owing to the fact that there are no words for “ camel,” “lion," "tiger," "ass," or "cat” common to all Aryan languages, it was argued that the original Aryans did not know these animals and hence did not live in a warm climate. The words.“ wolf," “ bear,” and “ birch ” being common, on the other hand, to all of the Aryan languages, it was inferred that they did live in a cold climate. All Europe is named with words of Aryan origin. Asia is not so named. The theory of the Asiatic origin of the race was therefore seriously shaken.

It was shaken still further by a series of discoveries which began to be made about 1865. These comprised, among other things, prehistoric burial mounds in the British Isles, prehistoric human remains in the region of Dordogne in France, prehistoric villages built on piles in the lakes of Switzerland, and huge prehistoric piles of bones known as kitchen middens in Denmark. From the geological strata in which the earliest of these relics were found it was concluded that Europe had been inhabited for a much longer period than had been supposed; and from the comparative study of the skulls unearthed it was seen that, instead of one race, at least four still existing races have held Europe since the ice age. Only one of these, of course, could have been the original Aryan stock. German scholars mostly hold that this was Teutonic, while French maintain it to have been Celtic. The fact that the Celtic skulls have a larger capacity than the Teutonic makes it appear probable that the latter inference is

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C=Celtic; G=Germanic; L=Lettic; S=Slavonic; $c = Scythian; Sa=Sarmatian; D= Dacian; T=Thracian; 1= Illyrian; It=Italic; H=Hellenic; P=Phrygian; A=Armenian; Ir= Iranian; In=Indian.

right. The evidence now available seems to indicate that the Celts conquered the races of Illyria, Italy, Dacia, and Germany, and imposed on them their culture and language. Then, after a time, the conquerors died out, became merged in the conquered, or were in turn themselves subdued. Their language, however, though changed in details, remained in its fundamental structure and vocabulary intact. The new races which had thus acquired the Aryan languages in turn communicated them to other races and so on until they had spread as far east as India. Exactly this same thing has continued into historic times. Thus the Romans, themselves a non-Aryan race, imposed their Aryan language on the Spaniards, a second nonAryan race; and they in turn carried it to South America, Mexico, and the Philippines, where it is now spoken by millions of Indians and Malays. English in the same fashion has spread over North America, South Africa, and Australasia, and is making some progress in India, China, and Japan. At the present time, therefore, it is

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Facsimile taken from an eleventh century manuscript containing descriptions of the won.

ders of the East. Probably such manuscripts inspired Sir John Mandeville

believed that the relationship of the Aryan languages can be more accurately represented by the diagram on Page 16 than by the genealogical table on Page 15.

This diagram represents the situation when Rome was founded, 753 B.C. The Romans spoke Latin, which is a dialect of Italic. In course of time, that is to say, about 150 B.C., they subdued Spain and imposed their language upon its inhabitants. A hundred years later, under Julius Cæsar, they also conquered Gaul. Here, too, Latin gradually supplanted Celtic. When the Roman empire went to pieces about 400 A.D., the Latin language, however, remained in both Spain and Gaul the language of the people. But it was modernized and simplified in course of time until it ceased to be called Latin and became what we now call Spanish and French. Italian is also a modern dialect of Latin. Celtic survives in Welsh, Highland Scotch, and Irish. Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian are similarly modern dialects of Germanic or Teutonic. Russian is a survival of Slavonic and Persian of Iranian, while in India there are no less than fourteen modern Aryan languages derived from Sanskrit.

Modern English is a curious and interesting mixture of French and German. How this union came about is to be told in the next three chapters.

QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES 1. Find and copy into your note-book ten words which are common to

English and either French, German, or Latin. 2. With what does the science of comparative philology deal ? 3. Make a two-minute speech about Sir William Jones. 4. Explain the exact nature of his contribution to comparative philology. 5. Discuss briefly the relationship of Sanskrit to Latin, French, and

German. 6. In what nation and by what men was the science of comparative phil

ology developed ? 7. Who were the Aryans ? 8. Where did they originate? 9. Are all Aryan-speaking races Aryan? 10. Cite some modern examples of the transference of language from race

to race.

Suggested Readings.-(a) Henry Morley's "English Writers," vol. i, Book I; (b) “From the Beginnings Till After the Norman Conquest," by Stopford A. Brooke, vol. i, P. I, of Chambers' Encyclopædia of English Literature; (c) “A School History of England,” by C. R. L. Fletcher and Rudyard Kipling, Chapter I; (d) “The Knife and the Naked Chalk," a story by Rudyard Kipling; (e) “Ab, the Cave Man," by Stanley Waterloo ; (f) “The Origin of the Aryans,” by Isaac Taylor; (g) “The Story of Ung," a poem, by Rudyard Kipling; (h) “How the First Letter Was Written” and “How the Alphabet Was Made,” two stories, by Rudyard Kipling.

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