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th

ASPIRATES
fame, if, drift,

femme.
h

hut, hence,
k
kite, wreck, kick,

cor.
р
pit, up,

papa.
sin, nice, crisp,

seur.
sh

shade, push, flushed, chaise,
t
tin, it, tart,

tour.
thin, truth, months,
wh

what, when, which, The reader may ask why C, J, Q, and X, have not been classed with the elements. These letters have no sounds which are not represented, in the above scheme, by other letters. C has three sounds — the sound of k, as in cat; that of s, as in cedar, and that of sh, as in ocean. J expresses the combined sounds of d and z in azure. Q has the sound of k. X, as in exercise, expresses the combined sounds of k and s; in example, the combined sounds of & and 2 in zone; in anxious, the combined sounds of k and sh. In Xenophon, « has the sound of z in zone.*

• Xin Xenophon was pronounced by the ancient Greeks as we pronounce x in exercise, thus--Ksenophon; and I am informed by Mr. Castanis, a native of the island of Scio, that the modern Greeks no pronounce it.

CHAPTER II.

THE VOWELS.

The vowels are divided into Monothongs, Diph thongs, and Triphthongs.

The Monothongs consist of one kind of sound throughout their concrete movement, and consequently are simple elements; they are represented by the italics in the following words:

arm, all, an, eve, end, in, on, up, full. The Diphthongs consist of two vowel sounds, which coalesce so intimately that they appear like one uniform sound; they are represented by the italics in the following words:

ale, ile, lose, tube. The diphthong å, as well as i, has a characteristic sound for its radical, and the monothong, i, for its vanish. These diphthongs, under certain circumstances (for instance, when they are carried through a wide range of pitch, as in interrogation with surprise), are converted into triphthongs, the third constituent being the monothong, e.

The diphthong 8, as well as ủ, has a characteristic sound for its radical, and the subvowel w, for its vanish.

The Triphthongs consist of three vowel sounds which coalesce so intimately that they appear like one uniform sound; they are represented by the italics, in the following words:

old, our. The first constituent of d, as well as that of ou, is a sound characteristic of this element; and the diphthong ô constitutes the second and the third constitu ent of these triphthongs.

The following scheme is an analysis of the diphthongs and triphthongs. The reader will observe that

the letters which are employed to represent the diph-
thongs and triphthongs, are used under the head, Con-
stituents, to represent their radicals only.
Diphthongs. Constituents. | Triphthongs. Constituents.
à
à - i

à -1-
1
i-1

1 1-1-
0
o

0
ů
ů

ou

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W

W
W

- W

ou -0.

There is one diphthong, and three triphthongs, besides those already noticed; they are represented by the italics, in the following words:

oil, ay, boy, buoy. But, as all their constituents are to be found among the fifteen vowels before enumerated,

they do not increase the number of the elements. This may be seen by the following analysis : Diphthong. Constituents. Triphthongs. Constituents. oi à -1

å-i-é oy à-1

иоу 0-i-é During the utterance of a monothong, the aperture of the mouth remains stationary; but during that of a diphthong, or triphthong, the aperture is gradually diminished till the commencement of the last constituent; It then remains stationary till the sound is ended. This is illustrated by the following diagrams: Diagram 1.

Diag. 2.

Diag. 3.

ay

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1 à 8

:D The opening of the tube (Diag. 1,) represents the Aperture of the mouth in the utterance of the mono

I have said that à and I are sometimes diphthongs, and some times triphthongs; hence, above, they appear under both heade.

thong à, and the length of the tube represents the duration of the sound.

The large end of Diag. 2 represents the aperture of the mouth in commencing the utterance of the diphthong ở — the portion of the figure between ô and w, shows the gradual diminution of the aperture of the mouth during the utterance of the first constituent, and the remaining portion shows the stationary position of the aperture of the mouth during the utterance of the second constituent.

The large end of Diag. 3, represents the aperture of the mouth in commencing the utterance of the triphthong • — the portion of the figure between ò and , shows the gradual diminution of the aperture of the mouth during the utterance of the first constituent the portion between 8 and w, shows the gradual diminution of the aperture of the mouth during the utterance of the second constituent; and the remaining portion of the figure, the stationary position of the aperture of the mouth during the utterance of the third constituent.

CHAPTER III.

THE SUBVOWELS.

B CONSISTS of a vocal sound and an aspirate. The first constituent is formed with the lips closed; the second, by aspirating the vowel ů, at the moment of their separation.*

When B is doubled, as in rabbit, the second constituent of the first B is omitted. When B is whispered, the second constituent only is heard. When words in which B is doubled are whispered, the first B is mute.

D consists of a vocal sound and an aspirate. The first constituent is formed with the tip of the tongue

Care should be taken not to make the second constituent vocal.

pressed against the gums of the upper incisory teeth ; the second, by aspirating the vowel ů at the moment of its removal.*

When D is doubled, as in addition, the second constituent of the first D is omitted. When D is whispered, the second constituent only is heard. When words in which D is doubled are whispered, the first D is mute.

G consists of a vocal sound and an aspirate. The first constituent is formed with the root of the tongue pressed against the curtain, or vail of the palate; † the second, by aspirating the vowel ů at the moment of its removal.*

When G is doubled, as in haggard, the second constituent of the first G is omitted. When G is whispered, the second constituent only is heard. When words in which G is doubled are whispered, the first G is mute.

L is a vocal sound, made with the tip of the tongue pressed against the gums of the upper incisory teeth.

M is a nasal sound, made with the lips closed.

N is a nasal sound, formed with the tip of the tongue pressed against the gums of the upper incisory teeth.

NG, as in song, is a nasal sound, formed with the root of the tongue pressed gently against the curtain of the palate.

R is a vocal sound, of which there are two varieties. The first is called the trilled R, and is made by causing the tongue to vibrate against the gums of the upper incisor teeth, while the breath is propelled through the mouth; the second is called the smooth R, and is made with the tip of the tongue elevated towards the centre of the roof of the mouth. R should be trilled when it precedes a vowel, as in roll, crush, &c,; but when it follows a vowel, as in air, orb, &c., it should be made smooth.

I have met with a number of individuals who could not trill the R, and others who did it with difficulty. Those who cannot trill i

Care should be taken not to make the second constituent vocal
In the language of anatomy, velum pendulum palali.

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