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figures are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains two crotchets, the figures are prefixed; and when each measure contains four crotchets, a capital C, or the figures 4 are prefixed. When a piece is in triple time, and each measure contains three quavers, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music; when each measure contains three crotchets, the figures are prefixed; and when each measure contains six quavers, the figures are prefixed to the words, or the music. The upper figure, in each of these cases, shows how many notes of a certain description there are in each measure; and the lower figure, how many of these notes are equal in value to a semibreve.
Oft has it been my lot to mark
Common Time ; two Crotchets in a Measure. ild old laryddold d los
Triple time ; three Quavers in a Measure. DIDI DISIDE The rose had been wash'd, just wash'd in a shower,
MOVEMENT. MOVEMENT is the velocity with which a sentence is read or sung, or a strain of instrumental music is played.
The rate of movement should be such as the senti
ment demands. Solemn discourse requires a slow movement; simple narrative, a medium rate of utter. ance; animated description, as well as all language expressive of any sudden passion, as joy, anger, &c., a movement more or less rapid, according to the intensity of emotion. In the science of music, various terms have been employed to denote the rate of movement, the principal of which are the following:
ADAGIO,..... very slow; the slowest time.
Adagio, andante and allegro, are the three chief divisions of time; the other terms mark the intermediate degrees.
In addition to the foregoing terms, which mark the movement, there are others, which indicate the style of performance. Some of these are as follows:
Affetuoso, .. affectionate—a soft and delicate style of performance.
Sometimes these terms are used in connexion with those which express the rate of movement, thus:
Allégro con spirito, quick with spirit — in a quick and spirited manner.
The rate of movement is not definitely marked by the terms Adagio, Largo, Larghetto, &c.; it may, how. ever, be designated with precision by means of the
METRONOME OF MAELZEL. This instrument has a graduated pendulum, to which 18 attached a sliding weight. The higher this weight is moved upon the pendulum, the Drag. 17 slower are its vibrations; and the contrary. When the weight corresponds to the number 50, the vibrations of the pendulum are the slowest; when it corresponds to 160, they are the quickest. All the numbers on the instrument have reference to a minute of time. Thus, when the weight is placed at 50, fifty beats, or ticks, occur in a minte; when at 60, sixty beats in a minute ; when at 100, one hundred beats in a minute, &c. The engraving in the margin represents the instrument in action.
In reading, as a general rule, the time should be marked on the metronome by whole measures — in other words, each measure should correspond to one tick of the instrument.
In music, it is most convenient to mark the time on the metronome in adagios, by quavers; in andantes, by crotchets; in allegros, by minims; and in prestos, by whole measures.
EXAMPLES OF THE SEVERAL MOVEMENTS. In the following Examples, the words which indicate the movement and the corresponding numbers on the metronome, are both employed.
Adagio. Metronome 60 – two beats in a measure.
The tree of deepest root is found 78158 IFIBI Least willing still to quit the ground.
• NOTE. The figure 3 over the three quavers which compose the first measun significs that they are to be pronounced in the time of two.
Allegro con spirito. Metronome 104 - one beat in a measure.
THE postures of the body, with respect to vocal delivery, may be divided into favourable and unfavourable; and, the better to suit my purpose in giving their illustration, I shall first treat of the unfavourable.
The most unfavourable posture is the horizontal. If a reader or a speaker should lie prone, or supine, he would not be likely to deliver a discourse with energy and effect. I have never known an orator to deliver a discourse in the horizontal posture; but I have known individuals to speak in public in postures almost as inappropriate.
As impressions communicated through the medium of the eye, are the most lasting, two series of figures are