Imagens das páginas

Skirts may be sometimes re-lined this way on the l if there was a family of daughters, the stays getting up of frock coats, but very rarely. There which had became too small for the elder girl were is the same difficulty in using a coloured silk gown altered for the younger, and that poor women liked for the re-covering of a parasol. The quantity to mend their old stays as long as they would stick may not be enough for the gores, and cannot be together. Perhaps, there may be some repugnance matched to satisfy the eye, for the buyer of a silk -especially among the class of servant-maids parasol even in Rosemary-lane may be expected to who have not had “to rough it"—to wear streetbe critical. When there is enough of good silk collected stays; a repugnance not, perhaps, felt for the purposes I have mentioned, then, it must in the wearing of a gown which probably can be be borne in mind, the gown may be more valuable, washed, and is not worn so near the person. The because saleable to be re-worn as a gown. It is stays that are collected are for the most part exthe same with satin dresses, bnt only a few of ported, a great portion being sent to Ireland. If them, in comparison with the silk, are to be seen they are “worn to rags," the bones are taken out; at the Old Clothes' Exchange.

but in the slop-made stays, it is not whalebone, Among the purposes to which portions of worn but wood that is used to give, or preserve the due silk gowns are put are the making of spencers shape of the corset, and then the stays are for little girls (usually by the purchasers, or by valueless. the dress-maker, who goes out to work for 1s. a Old Stockings are of great sale both for home day), of children's bonnets, for the lining of wear and foreign trade. In the trade of women's Fomen's bonnets, the re-lining of muffs and fur- stockings there has been in the last 20 or 25 tippets, the patching of quilts (once a rather years a considerable change. Before that period fashionable thing), the inner lining or curtains to a black stockings were worn by servant girls, and book-case, and other household appliances of a the families of working people and small trades. like kind. This kind of silk, too, no matter in men; they “ saved washing." Now, even in Petti. how minute pieces, is bought by the fancy cabinet-coat-lane, women's stockings are white, or “motmakers (the small masters) for the lining of their tled," or some light-coloured, very rarely black. dressing-cases and work-boxes supplied to the I have heard this change attributed to what is warehouses, but these poor artisans have neither rather vaguely called “pride.” May it not be means nor leisure to buy such articles of those owing to a more cultivated sense of cleanliness? connected with the traffic of the Old Clothes' Ex- The women's stockings are sold darned and change, but must purchase it, of course at an en- undarned, and at (retail) prices from ld. to 4d.; banced price, of a broker who has bought it at ld. or 2d, being the most frequent prices. the Exchange, or in some establishment connected! The petticoats and other under clothing are not with it. The second-hand silk is bought also for much bought second-hand by the poor women of the dressing of dolls for the toy-shops, and for the London, and are exported. lining of some toys. The hat-manufacturers of Women's caps used to be sold second-hand, I the cheaper sort, at one time, used second-hand was told, both in the streets and the shops, but silk for the padded lining of hats, but such is long ago, and before muslin and needlework were rarely the practice now. It was once used in the so cheap. same manner by the bookbinders for lining the I heard of one article which formerly supplied inner part of the back of a book. If there be considerable "stuff” (the word used) for secondany part of silk in a dress not suitable for any of hand purposes, and was a part, but never a conthese purposes it is wasted, or what is accounted siderable part, of the trade at Rag-fair. These wasted, although it may have been in wear for were the pillions," or large, firm, solid cushions years. It is somewhat remarkable, that while which were attached to a saddle, so that a horse voollen and even cotton goods can be "shoddied" “carried double.” Fifty years ago the farmer and and if they are too rotten for that, they are made his wife, of the more prosperous order, went available for manure, or in the manufacture of paper regularly to church and market on one horse, a -no use is made of the refuse of silk. Though one of pillion sustaining the good dame. To the best the most beautiful and costly of textile fabrics, its sort of these pillions was appended what was “ remains" are thrown aside, when a beggar's rags called the “pillion cloth," often of a fine, but thin are preserved and made profitable. There can be quality, which being really a sort of housing to little doubt that silk, like cotton, could be shoddied, the horse, cut straight and with few if any seams, but whether such a speculation would be remune was an excellent material for what I am informed rative or not is no part of my present inquiry. was formerly called “making and mending." The

There is not, as I shall subsequently show, so colour was almost exclusively drab or blue. The great an exportation of female attire as might be pillion on which the squire's lady rodemand expected in comparison with male apparel; the Sheridan makes his Lady Teazle deny “the poorer classes of the metropolis being too anxious pillion and the coach-horse," the butler being her to get any decent gown when within their slender cavalier--was a perfect piece of upholstery, set off Deans.

with lace and fringes, which again were excellent Stays, unless of superior make and in good for second-hand sale. Such a means of conveycondition, are little bought by the classes who are ance may still linger in some secluded country the chief customers of the old-clothes' men in parts, but it is generally speaking obsolete. London. I did not hear any reason for this from Boots and shoes are not to be had, I am told, any of the old-clothes' people. One man thought, in sufficient quantity for the demand from the slop-shops, the “ translators," and the second-hand 'stand-bottoms,' is from 1s. 6d. to 2s. per pair, as dealers. Great quantities of second-hand boots and they sell generally at 3s. 6d. One man takes, or shoes are sent to Ireland to be “translated" there. did take, 1001. in a day (it was calculated as an Of all the wares in this traffic, the clothing for the average) over the counter, and all for the sort of feet is what is most easily prepared to cheat the shoes I have described. The profit of a ' lick-up' eye of the inexperienced, the imposition having is the same as that of a 'stand-bottom. To show the aids of heel-ball, &c., to fill up crevices, and the villanous way the stand-bottoms' are got of blacking to hide defects. Even when the | up, I will tell you this. You have seen a broken boots or shoes are so worn out that no one will upper-leather; well, we place a piece of leather, put a pair on his feet, though purchaseable for waxed, underneath the broken part, on which we about id., the insoles are ripped out; the soles, if set a few stitches through and through. When there be a sufficiency of leather, are shaped into dry and finished, we take what is called a 'softinsoles for children's shoes, and these insoles are heel-ball' and 'smother' it over, so that it somesold in bundles of two dozen pairs at 2d. the times would deceive a currier, as it appears like bundle. So long as the boot or shoe be not in many the upper leather. With regard to the bottoms, holes, it can be cobblered up in Monmouth-street the worn part of the sole is opened from the edge, or elsewhere. Of the “translating” business | a piece of leather is made to fit exactly into the transacted in those localities I had the follow. | hole or worn part, and it is then nailed and filed ing interesting account from a man who was unt.I level. Paste is then applied, and smother' lately engaged in it.

put over the part, and that imitates the dust of the Translation, as I understand it (said my in. road. This smother' is obtained from the dust formant), is this--to take a worn, old pair of shoes of the room. It is placed in a silk stocking, tied or boots, and by repairing them make them appear at both ends, and then shook through, just like a as if left off with hardly any wear—as if they | powder-putt, only we shake at both ends. It is were only soiled. I'll tell you the way they powdered out into our leather apron, and mixed manage in Monmouth-street. There are in the with a certain preparation which I will describe trade - horses' heads'-a 'horse's head' is the foot to you (he did so), but I would rather not have of a boot with sole and heel, and part of a front- it published, as it would lead others to practise the back and the remainder of the front having similar deceptions. I believe there are about been used for refooting boots. There are also 2000 translators, so you may judge of the extent 'stand-bottoms' and lick-ups.' A stand-bottom' of the trade; and translators are more constantly is where the shoe appears to be only soiled, and a employed than any other branch of the business.

lick-up'is a boot or shoe re-lasted to take the Many make a great deal of money. A journeyman wrinkles out, the edges of the soles having been translator can earn from 38. to 48. a day. You rasped and squared, and then blacked up to hide can give the average at 20s. a week, as the wages blemishes, and the bottom covered with a smo- are good. It must be good, for we have 2s. for ther,' which I will describe. There is another soling, heeling, and welting a pair of boots; and article called a 'flyer,' that is, a shoe soled with some men don't get more for making them. Monout having been welted. In Monmouth-street a mouth-street is nothing like what it was ; as to

horse's head' is generally retailed at 2s. 6d., but curious old garments, that's all gone. There's some fetch 48. 6d.--that's the extreme price. not one English master in the translating business They cost the translator from 1s. a dozen pair to in Monmouth-street-they are all Irish; and 8s., but those at 8s. are good, and are used for there is now hardly an English workman therethe making up of Wellington boots. Some perhaps not one. I believe that all the tradesmen in horses' heads'-such as are cut off that the boots

Monmouth-street make their workmen lodge with may be re-footed on account of old fashion, or a them. I was lodging with one before I married a misfit. when hardly worn-fetch 2s. 6d. a pair. | little while ago, and I know the system to be the and they are made up as new-footed boots, and same now as it was then, unless, indeed, it be alsell from 10s. to 15s. The average price of feet tered for the worse. To show how disgusting these (that is, for the horse's head,' as we call it) is lodgings must be, I will state this :- I knew a 4d., and a pair of backs say 2d.; the back is Roman Catholic, who was attentive to his religious attached loosely by chair stitching, as it is called, duties, but when pronounced on the point of death, to the heel, instead of being stitched to the in and believing firmly that he was dying, he would sole, as in a new boot. The wages for all this is not have his priest administer extreme unction, for 1s. 4d, in Monmouth-street (in Union-street, Bo the room was in such a filthy and revolting state rough, ls. 6d.); but I was told by a master that he would not allow him to see it. Five men he had got the work done in Gray's-inn-lane at 9d. worked and slept in that room, and they were Put it, however, at 1s. 4d. wages--then, with 4d. working and sleeping there in the man's illnessand 2d. for the feet and back, we have 1s. 10d. all the time that his life was despaired of. He was outlay (the workman finds his own grindery), and ill nine weeks. Unless the working shoemaker 8d. profit on each pair sold at a rate of 23. 6d. lodged there he would not be employed. Each Some masters will sell from 70 to 80 pairs per man pays 2s. a week. I was there once, but I week : that's under the mark; and that's in couldn't sleep in such a den; and five nights out

horses' heads' alone. One man employs, or did of the seven I slept at my mother's, but my lodglately employ, seven men on horses' heads' | ing had to be paid all the same. These men solely. The profit generally, in fair shops, in (myself excepted) were all Irish, and all teetotallers, as was the master. How often was Monmouth-street, now the great old shoe disthe room cleaned out, do you say? Never, sir, trict, has been “sketched" by Mr. Dickens, not as never. The refuse of the men's labour was gene- regards its connection with the subject of streetrally burnt, smudged away in the grate, smelling sale or of any particular trade, but as to its terribly. It would stifle you, though it didn't me, general character and appearance. I first cite Mr. because I got used to it. I lodged in Union-street Dickens' description of the Seven Dials, of which once. My employer had a room known as the | Monmouth-street is a seventh :'barracks; every lodger paid him 2s. 6d. a week. “The stranger who finds himself in 'The Dials' Five men worked and slept there, and three were for the first time, and stands, Belzoni-like, at the sitters—that is, men who paid ls. a week to sit entrance of seven obscure passages, uncertain there and work, lodging elsewhere. A little be- | which to take, will see enough around him to fore that there were six sitters. The furniture keep his curiosity and attention awake for no was one table, one chair, and two beds. There inconsiderable time. From the irregular square was no place for purposes of decency: it fell to into which he has plunged, the streets and courts bits from decay, and was never repaired. This dart in all directions, until they are lost in the barrack man always stopped the 2s. 6d. for lodg unwholesome vapour which hangs over the houseing, if he gave you only that amount of work in tops, and renders the dirty perspective uncertain the week. The beds were decent enough ; but and confined ; and, lounging at every corner, as if as to Monmouth-street ! you don't see a clean they came there to take a few gasps of such fresh sheet there for nine weeks; and, recollect, such air as has found its way so far, but is too much snobs are dirty fellows. There was no chair in exhausted already, to be enabled to force itself the Monmouth-street room that I have spoken of, into the narrow alleys around, are groups of the men having only their seats used at work ; | people, whose appearance and dwellings would fill but when the beds were let down for the night, any mind but a regular Londoner's with astonish. the seats had to be placed in the fire-place because

ment. there was no space for them in the room. In “In addition to the numerous groups who are many houses in Monmouth-street there is a sys idling about the gin-shops and squabbling in the tem of sub-letting among the journeymen. In one centre of the road, every post in the open space room lodged a man and his wife (a laundress has its occupant, who leans against it for hours, worked there), four children, and two single with listless perseverance. It is odd enough that young men. The wife was actually delivered in one class of men in London appear to have no this room whilst the men kept at their work enjoyment beyond leaning against posts. We they never lost an hour's work ; nor is this an never saw a regular bricklayer's labourer take any unusual case-it's not an isolated case at all. I other recreation, fighting excepted. Pass through could instance ten or twelve cases of two or three St. Giles's in the evening of a week-day, there married people living in one room in that street. they are in their fustian dresses, spotted with The rats have scampered over the beds that lay brick-dust and whitewash, leaning against posts. huddled together in the kitchen. The husband of Walk through Seven Dials on Sunday morning : the wife confined as I have described paid 4s. a there they are again, drab or light corduroy week, and the two single men paid 23. a week each, trowsers, Blucher boots, blue coats, and great so the master was rent free; and he received from yellow waistcoats, leaning against posts. The each man ls. 6d. a week for tea (without sugar), idea of a man dressing himself in his best clothes, and no bread and butter, and 2d. a day for pota to lean against a post all day! toes—that's the regular charge.”

“The peculiar character of these streets, and In connection with the translation of old boots the close resemblance each one bears to its neigh. and shoes, I have obtained the following statistics. bour, by no means tends to decrease the bewilder. There are

ment in which the unexperienced wayfarer through

'the Dials' finds himself involved. He traverses In Drury-lane and streets adjacent, about.... 60 shops. I street

streets of dirty, straggling houses, with now and Seven-dials Monmouth-street do.

then an unexpected court, composed of buildings

40 do. Hanway-court, Oxford-street

do. as ill-proportioned and deformed as the half-naked Lisson-grove do.

do. children that wallow in the kennels. Here and Paddington

do. Petticoat-lane (shops, stands,

there, a little dark chandler's shop, with a cracked Somers' town

do. bell hung up behind the door to announce the enField-lane, Saffron-hill

40 do. Clerkenwell

30 do.

trance of a customer, or betray the presence of Bethnal-green, Spitalfields

do. some young gentleman in whom a passion for shop Rosemary-lane, &c.

tills has developed itself at an early age; others, as if for support, against some handsome lofty

building, which usurps the place of a low dingy employing upwards of 2000 men in making-up | public-house ; long rows of broken and patched and repairing old boots and shoes ; besides hun windows expose plants that may have flourished dreds of poor inen and women who strive for a when 'The Dials' were built, in vessels as dirty crust by buying and selling the old material, pre- as “The Dials' themselves; and shops for the viously to translating it, and by mending up what purchase of rags, bones, old iron, and kitchenwill mend. They or their children stand in the stuff, vie in cleanliness with the bird-fanciers and street and try to sell them.

rabbit-dealers, which one might fancy so many



0 do.






30 do. 774 shops,



arks, but for the irresistible conviction that no, with the front kitchen's children; the Irishman bird in its proper senses, who was permitted to comes home drunk every other night, and attacks leave one of them would ever come back again. every body; and the one-pair back screams at Brokers' shops, which would seem to have been everything. Animosities spring up between floor established by humane individuals, as refuges for and floor ; the very cellar asserts his equality. destitute bugs, interspersed with announcements Mrs. A. 'smacks' Mrs. B.'s child for making of day-schools, penny theatres, petition-writers, faces. Mrs. B. forth with throws cold water over mangles, and music for balls or routs, complete the Mrs. A.'s child for calling names.' The husbands ' still-life of the subject; and dirty men, filthy are embroiled—the quarrel becomes general--an women, squalid children, fluttering shuttlecocks, assault is the consequence, and a police officer the noisy battledores, reeking pipes, bad fruit, more result." than doubtful oysters, attenuated cats, depressed Of Monmouth-street the same author says :dogs, and anatomical fowls, are its cheerful accom “We have always entertained a particular paniments.

attachment towards Monmouth-street, as the only “ If the external appearance of the houses, or true and real emporium for second-hand wearing a glance at their inhabitants, present but few at apparel. Monmouth-street is venerable from its tractions, a closer acquaintance with either is little antiquity, and respectable from its usefulness. calculated to alter one's first impression. Every Holy well-street we despise ; the red-headed and room has its separate tenant, and every tenant is, red-whiskered Jews who forcibly haul you into by the same mysterious dispensation which causes their squalid houses, and thrust you into a suit of a country curate to increase and multiply' most clothes whether you will or not, we detest. marvellously, generally the head of a numerous “The inhabitants of Monmouth-street are a family.

distinct class; a peaceable and retiring race, who “The man in the shop, perhaps, is in the baked immure themselves for the most part in deep 'jemmy'line, or the fire-wood and hearth-stone cellars, or small back parlours, and who seldom Jine, or any other line which requires a floating come forth into the world, except in the dusk and capital of eighteen pence or thereabouts : and he coolness of evening, when they may be seen and his family live in the shop, and the small back seated, in chairs on the pavement, smoking their parlour behind it. Then there is an Irish la- pipes, or watching the gambols of their engaging bourer and his family, in the back kitchen, and children as they revel in the gutter, a happy troop a jobbing-man — carpet-beater and so forth- of infantine scavengers. Their countenances bear with his family, in the front one. In the front a thoughtful and a dirty cast, certain indications one pair there's another man with another wife of their love of traffic; and their habitations are and family, and in the back one-pair there's a distinguished by that disregard of outward apyoung 'oman as takes in tambour-work, and pearance, and neglect of personal comfort, so dresses quite genteel,' who talks a good deal common among people who are constantly imabout 'my friend,' and can't 'abear anything low.' mersed in profound speculations, and deeply enThe second floor front, and the rest of the lodgers, gaged in sedentary pursuits. are just a second edition of the people below, ex- “Through every alteration and every change cept a shabby-genteel man in the back attic, who Monmouth-street has still remained the burialhas his half-pint of coffee every morning from the place of the fashions; and such, to judge from all coffee-shop next door but one, which boasts a little present appearances, it will remain until there are front den called a coffee-room, with a fire-place, no more fashions to bury." over which is an inscription, politely requesting that, ' to prevent mistakes,' customers will ' please

OF THE STREET-SELLERS OF PETTICOAT AND to pay on delivery.' The shabby-genteel man is

ROSEMARY-LANES. an object of some mystery, but as he leads a life IMMEDIATELY connected with the trade of the of seclusion, and never was known to buy any- central mart for old clothes are the adjoining streets thing beyond an occasional pen, except half-pints of Petticoat-lane, and those of the not very dis. of coffee, penny loaves, and ha'porths of ink, his tant Rosemary-lane. In these localities is a fellow-lodgers very naturally suppose him to be an second-hand garment-seller at almost every step, author; and rumours are current in the Dials, but the whole stock of these traders, decent, that he writes poems for Mr. Warren.

frowsy, half-rotten, or smart and good habilments, “Now any body who passed through the Dials has first passed through the channel of the Exon a hot summer's evening, and saw the different change. The men who sell these goods have all women of the house gossiping on the steps, would bought them at the Exchange--the exceptions be apt to think that all was harmony among them, being insignificant—so that this street-sale is but and that a more primitive set of people than the an extension of the trade of the central mart, native Diallers could not be imagined. Alas ! the with the addition that the wares have been made man in the shop illtreats his family ; the carpet- ready for use. beater extends his professional pursuits to his wife ; ! A cursory observation might lead an inexpethe one-pair front has an undying feud with the rienced person to the conclusion, that these old two-pair front, in consequence of the two-pair clothes traders who are standing by the bundles of front persisting in dancing over his (the one-pair gowns, or lines of coats, hanging from their doorfront's) head, when he and his family have retired posts, or in the place from which the window hasi for the night; the two-pair back will interfere been removed, or at the sides of their houses, or

piled in the street before them, are drowsy people, young Irishman, his red beard unshorn for perfor they seem to sit among their property, lost haps ten days, and his neck, where it had been in thought, or caring only for the fumes of a exposed to the weather, a far deeper red than his pipe. But let any one indicate, even by an ap beard, and he is carrying a small basket of nuts, proving glance, the likelihood of his becoming a and selling them as gravely as if they were articles customer, and see if there be any lack of diligence suited to his strength. A little lower is the cry, in business. Some, indeed, pertinaciously invite in a woman's voice, “ Fish, fried fish! Ha'penny; attention to their wares; some (and often well

eir wares ; some (and often well- fish, fried fish!” and so monotonously and medressed women) leave their premises a few yards chanically is it ejaculated that one might think to accost a stranger pointing to a “good dress the seller's life was passed in uttering these few coat" or "an excellent frock" (coat). I am told words, even as a rook's is in crying " Caw, caw.” that this practice is less pursued than it was, and Here I saw a poor Irishwoman who had a child it seems that the solicitations are now addressed on her back buy a piece of this fish (which may chiefly to strangers. These strangers, persons be had “hot” or “cold”), and tear out a piece happening to be passing, or visitors from curiosity, with her teeth, and this with all the eagerness and are at once recognised; for as in all not very ex relish of appetite or hunger; first eating the tended localities, where the inhabitants pursue a brown outside and then sucking the bone. I never similar calling, they are, as regards their know saw fish look firmer or whiter. That fried fish is ledge of one another, as the members of one to be procured is manifest to more senses than family. Thus a stranger is as easily recognised one, for you can hear the sound of its being fried, as he would be in a little rustic hamlet where and smell the fumes from the oil. In an open a strange face is not seen once a quarter. window opposite frizzle on an old tray, small Indeed so narrow are some of the streets and pieces of thinly-cut meat, with a mixture of alleys in this quarter, and so little is there of onions, kept hot by being placed over an old pan privacy, owing to the removal, in warm weather, containing charcoal. In another room a mess of eren of the casements, that the room is com- batter is smoking over a grate. “Penny a lot, manded in all its domestic details; and as among oysters," resounds from different parts. Some of these details there is generally a further display of the sellers command two streets by establishing goods similar to the articles outside, the jammed- their stalls or tubs at a corner. Lads pass, carryup places really look like a great family house ing sweet-stuff on trays. I observed one very with merely a sort of channel, dignified by the dark-eyed Hebrew boy chewing the hard-bake he name of a street, between the right and left suites vended--if it were not a substitute with an exof apartments.

pression of great enjoyment. Heaped-up trays In one off-street, where on a Sunday there is a l of fresh-looking sponge-cakes are carried in temptconsiderable demand for Jewish sweet-meats by ing pyramids. Youths have stocks of large hardChristian boys, and a little sly, and perhaps not looking biscuits, and walk aboutcrying, "Ha’penny very successful gambling on the part of the in- biscuits, baʼpenny; three a penny, biscuits ; ” genuous youth to possess themselves of these con-these, with a morsel of cheese, often supply a fectionaries at the easiest rate, there are some dinner or a luncheon. Dates and figs, as dry as mounds of builders' rubbish upon which, if an in- they are cheap, constitute the stock in trade of quisitive person ascended, he could command the other street-sellers. “Coker-nuts" are sold in details of the upper rooms, probably the bed pieces and entire ; the Jew boy, when he invites chambers--if in their crowded apartments these to the purchase of an entire nut, shaking it at traders can find spaces for beds.

the ear of the customer. I was told by a costerIt must not be supposed that old clothes are monger that these juveniles had a way of drummore than the great staple of the traffic of this ming with their fingers on the shell so as to district. Wherever persons are assembled there satisfy a “green” customer that the nut offered are certain to be purveyors of provisions and of was a sound one. cool or hot drinks for warm or cold weather. The Such are the summer eatables and drinkables interior of the Old Clothes Exchange has its which I have lately seen vended in the Petticoatoyster-stall, its fountain of ginger-beer, its coffee- lane district. In winter there are, as long as dayhouse, and ale-house, and a troop of peripatetic light lasts-and in no other locality perhaps does traders, boys principally, carrying trays. Outside it last so short a time-other street provisions, the walls of the Exchange this trade is still | and, if possible, greater zeal in selling them, the thicker. A Jew boy thrusts a tin of highly-glazed hours of business being circumscribed. There is cakes and pastry under the people's noses here; then the potato-can and the hot elder-wine appaand on the other side a basket of oranges regales ratus, and smoking pies and puddings, and roasted the same sense by its proximity. At the next apples and chestnuts, and walnuts, and the several step the thoroughfare is interrupted by a gaudy. fruits which ripen in the autumn-apples, pears, looking ginger-beer, lemonade, raspberryade, and | &c. nectar fountain;" a halfpenny a glass, a halfpenny | Hitherto I have spoken only of such eatables a glass, sparkling lemonade!” shouts the vendor and drinkables as are ready for consumption, but as you pass. The fountain and the glasses glitter to these the trade in the Petticoat-lane district in the sun, the varnish of the wood-work shines, is by no means confined. There is fresh fish, the lemonade really does sparkle, and all looks generally of the cheaper kinds, and smoked or clean-except the owner. Close by is a brawny dried fish (smoked salmon, moreover, is sold ready


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