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From which we would not have you warp.-Call


instead of

which, being taught, return,
To plague the inventor. This even-handed ju s ti

Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice,” &c. Again, in Much Ado about Nothing, edit. 1623, p. 103:

And I will break with her. Was't not to this end,” &c. instead of

And I will break with her, and with her father,

And thou shalt have her. Was't not to this end,” &c. Again, in Romeo and Juliet, folio, 1623 :

“ And hither shall he come, and that very night

“ Shall Romeo," &c. instead of

“ And hither shall he come, and he and I
Will watch thy waking, and that very night

“ Shall Romeo,” &c.
The following passage, in King Henry IV. Part I. which is con-
structed in a manner somewhat similar to the present when cor-
rected, appears to me to strengthen the supposition that two half
lines have been lost:

Send danger from the east unto the west,
“ So honour cross it from the north to south,

And let them grapple."
Sufficiency is skill in government; ability to execute his office.
“And let them work,” a figurative expression; “ Let them fer-
ment." Malone.

the TERMS] Terms mean the technical language of the courts. An old book called Les Termes de la Ley, (written in Henry the Eighth's time,) was in Shakspeare's days, and is now, the accidence of young students in the law. BLACKSTONE. 5

the terms For common justice, you are as PREGNANT in,] The later editions all give it, without authority –

- the terms

Of justice, -" and Dr. Warburton makes terms signify bounds or limits. I rather think the the Duke meant to say, that Escalus was pregnant, that is, ready and knowing in all the forms of the law, and, among other things, in the terms or times set apart for its administration.

Johnson. The word pregnant is used with this signification in Ram-Alley, or Merry Tricks, 1611, where a lawyer is represented reading :

• In tricessimo primo Alberti Magni

“ "T'is very cleare-the place is very pregnant." i. e. very expressive, ready, or very big with apposite meaning.


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I say, bid come before us Angelo.

[Erit an Attendant. What figure of us think you he will bear? For you must know, we have with special soul Elected him our absence to supplyo; Lent him our terror, drest him with our love; And given his deputation all the organs Of our own power : What think you of it?

Escal. If any in Vienna be of worth To undergo such ample grace and honour, It is lord Angelo.


Look, where he comes.
Ang. Always obedient to your grace's will,
I come to know your pleasure.

There is a kind of character in thy life,

“—the proof is most pregnant."

STEEVENS. 6 For you must know, we have with SPECIAL SOUL

Elected him our absence to supply;] By the words with special soul elected him, I believe, the poet meant no more than that he was the immediate choice of his heart. A similar expression occurs in Troilus and Cressida :

with private soul,
“ Did in great Ilion thus translate him to me.”
Again, more appositely, in The Tempest :

for several virtues
“ Have I lik'd several women, never any

“ With so full soul, but some defect,” &c. Steevens. Steevens has hit upon the true explanation of the passage ; and might have found a further confirmation of it in Troilus and Cressida, where, speaking of himself, Troilus says:

ne'er did young man fancy With so eternal, and so fix'd a soul.To do a thing with all one's soul, is a common expression.

M. Mason. we have with special soul This seems to be only a translation of the usual formal words inse all royal grants :“ De gratia nostra speciali, et ex mero motu«," Malone.

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That, to the observer', doth thy history
Fully unfold: Thyself and thy belongings
Are not thine own so proper', as to waste
Thyself upon thy virtues, them on thee'.
Heaven doth with us, as we with torches do ;
Not light them for themselves : for if our virtues



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7 There is a kind of character in thy life,

That, to the observer, &c.] Either this introduction has more solemnity than meaning, or it has a meaning which I cannot dis

What is there peculiar in this, that a man's life informs the observer of his history? Might it be supposed that Shakspeare wrote this?

“ There is a kind of character in thy look.History may be taken in a more diffuse and licentious meaning, for future occurrences, or the part of life yet to come. If this sense be received, the

is clear and

proper. JOHNSON. Shakspeare must, I believe, be answerable for the unnecessary pomp of this introduction. He has the same thought in Henry IV. Part II. which affords some comment on this passage

before “ There is a history in all men's lives,

Figuring the nature of the times deceas'd: • The which observ'd, a man may prophecy,

With a near aim, of the main chance of things

“ As yet not come to life,” &c. Steevens. On considering this passage, I am induced to think that the words character and history have been misplaced, and that it was originally written thus :

“ There is a kind of history in thy life,
“ That to the observer doth thy character

Fully unfold.” This transposition seems to be justified by the passage quoted by Steevens from The Second Part of Henry IV. M. Mason,

thy belongings -] i. e. endowments. Malone. 9 Are not thine own so proper,] i. e. are not so much thy own property. STEEVENS. Them on thee.] The old copy readsthey on thee.

STEEVENS. Corrected by Sir Thomas Hanmer. MALONE. for if our virtues, &c.]

Paulum sepultæ distat inertiæ

Celata virtus. Hor. THEOBALD. Again, in Massin ger's Maid of Honour :

“ Virtue, if not in action, is a vice,

And, when we move not forward, we go backward."


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Did not go forth of us, 'twere all alike
As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely

But to fine issues : nor nature never lends 4
The smallest scruple of her excellence,
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines
Herself the glory of a creditor,
Both thanks and use". But I do bend my speech
To one that can my part in him advertise ;


Thus, in the Latin adage—“Non progredi est regredi.”

STEEVENS. to fine issues :) To great consequences; for high purposes. Johnson.

4 — NOR nature Never lends —] Two negatives, not employed to make an affirmative, are common in our author. So, in Julius Cæsar :

“ There is no harm intended to your person,

Nor to no Roman else." STEEVENS. s- she DETERMINES

Herself the glory of a creditor,

Both thanks and use.] i. e. She (Nature) requires and allots to herself the same advantages that creditors usually enjoy, thanks for the endowments she has bestowed, and extraordinary exertions in those whom she hath thus favoured, by way of interest for what she has lent.

Use, in the phraseology of our author's age, signified interest of money. Malone.

I do bend my speech To one that can my part in him advertise ;] This is obscure. The meaning is, I direct my speech to one who is able to teach me how to govern ; my part in him, signifying my office, which I have delegated to him. My part in him advertise; i. e. who knows what appertains to the character of a deputy or viceroy. Can advertise my part in him; that is, his representation of my person. But all these quaintnesses of expression the Oxford editor seems sworn to extirpate; that is, to take away one of Shakspeare's characteristic marks ; which, if not one of the comeliest, is yet one of the strongest. So he alters this to

“ To one that can, in my part me advertise." A better expression, indeed, but, for all that, none of Shakspeare's.

WARBURTON. I know not whether we may not better read

“ One that can, my part to him advertise."

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Hold therefore, Angelo?;
In our remove, be thou at full ourself ;
Mortality and mercy in Vienna
Live in thy tongue and heart 8 : Old Escalus,
Though first in question', is thy secondary :
Take thy commission.

Now, good my lord,
Let there be some more test made of my metal,
Before so noble and so great a figure
Be stamp'd upon it.
One that can inform himself of that which it would be otherwise
my part to tell him. Johnson.

To advertise is used in this sense, and with Shakspeare's accentuation, by Chapman, in his version of the eleventh book of the Odyssey :

Or, of my father, if thy royal ear

“ Hath been advertis'd -." STEEVENS. I believe, the meaning ism-I am talking to one who is himself already sufficiently conversant with the nature and duties of my office ;-of that office, which I have now delegated to him. So, in Timon of Athens :

“ It is our part, and promise to the Athenians,

To speak with Timon.” MALONE. 7 Hold therefore, Angelo ;] That is, continue to be Angelo; hold as thou art. JOHNSON

I believe that—“Yold therefore, Angelo,” are the words which the Duke utters on tendering his commission to him. He concludes with -" Take thy commission.” Steevens.

If a full point be put after therefore, the Duke may be understood to speak of himself. Hold therefore, i. e. Let me therefore hold, or stop. And the sense of the whole passage may be this.The Duke, who has begun an exhortation to Angelo, checks himself thus : “ But I am speaking to one, that can in him [in or by himself] apprehend my part [all that I have to say]: I will therefore say no more [on that subject].” He then merely signifies to Angelo his appointment. TYRWHITT. Mortality and

in Vienna Live in thy tongue and heart.] That is, “ I delegate to thy tongue the power of pronouncing sentence of death, and to thy heart the privilege of exercising mercy.” These are words of great import, and ought to be made clear, as on them depends the chief incident of the play. Douce. 9 - first in question, That is, first called for; first appointed.




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