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degrees of ecclesiastical order, namely, bishops, priests, and deacons, which had their beginning from Christ and His blessed Apostles themselves.Ibid., sect. 12.

Page 47 (V). OBLIGATION OF GRATITUDE.—It is a curious instance of the power which, among his other various gifts, Dean Stanley possesses, of making his imagination domineer over the facts with which he has to deal, that he has not scrupled to write, publish, and republish in a second edition, what follows; he is speaking of the Revolution of 1688: “When the earthquake came in which Episcopacy perished (!), the Scottish soil had been to a certain degree prepared for its overthrow by the fact that the earliest evangelisers had not been bishops.”—Four Lectures, &c., p. 24, 2d edit., 1879. The reader will be able to judge of the accuracy of this statement from what he will find below, p. 101, where the subject is again referred to.


KNOX HIMSELF THE ASSISTANCE RECEIVED FROM ENGLAND. -See his History, ii. 84-87, and compare S. Giles's Lectures, p. 129.

Page 51 (). THE PEOPLE'S DETERMINATION TO ASSIMILATE ENGLAND TO SCOTLAND BY FORCE OF ARMS.— “ The Solemn League and Covenant” was framed in Edinburgh, 1643, under the influence of Vane, who had gone thither to induce the Scotch to join the Parliamentary forces against the king; which they did upon the condition that England was to accept the same League and Covenant.

—Comp. the remarks of Dr Rainy, Three Lectures, p. 39 et seg. “The effect was that the nation proved to have pledged itself to a work beyond its strength, and Scotland to a task as much beyond her rights as beyond her strength.”

Page 52 (10). MISTAKEN PROMINENCE GIVEN TO THE OLD TESTAMENT. —See Dr Cunningham's Church History, ii. 137. “The Old Testament epoch seemed to have been revived in our country. . . . Religion was dominant in the national mind, but it was not that of the Gospel; it was narrow in its notions, and somewhat bitter in its spirit.” Again, ibid., p. 255—“The partiality for the Old Testament, which began immediately after the Reformation, still continued, and was very characteristic of all the Covenanters.” A quotation from the Old Testament lost the battle of Dunbar.—See Lyon's Personal History of King Charles II., 1650 -51, p. 78; and comp. Macaulay, Hist., iii. 25, quoted by Dean Stanley, Four Lect., p. 83 et seq.

Page 53 (11). OBSERVANCE OF FASTS AND FESTIVALS ABOLISHED.—See First Book of Discipline, chap. i.

Page 54 (12). FOUR ARMIES IN SCOTLAND, EACH MAINTAINING A DIFFERENT CAUSE. — Viz., (1) the Scotch (Presbyterian) army, under General Lesley, for King and Covenant combined; (2) the English (Independent) army, under Cromwell, which was for neither; (3) the Highland army, under General Middleton, which was for the King without the Covenant; (4) the Westland, or ultra-Covenanting army, which was for the Covenant without the King.

Page 55 (13). PRINCIPAL R. BAILLIE'S TESTIMONY TO THE STATE OF THE TIMES.—See his Letters and Journals, ed. 1842, iii. 127.

Page 57 (14). TESTIMONY OF THE COMMISSION OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY TO THE STATE OF THE TIMES. — See Balfour's Annals of Scotland, iv. 318-321.

Page 60 (15). FOURFOLD INFLICTION OF DIVINE PUNISHMENT. —See South's Sermon on Isaiah v. 4; Works, iv. 91 et seq.

Page 61 (16). CONDUCT OF THE BREDA COMMISSIONERS TOWARDS CHARLES II. — See Jaffray's Diary, first published by one of his descendants in 1834. Lyon's Pers. History, p. 30. The Rev. John Livingston, one of the three clerical commissioners, seems to have been consciencesmitten by a similar feeling of remorse. See Lyon, ibid., pp. 20, 29, 41; and comp. Burton, Hist., viii. 20; and Carlyle, there quoted.

Ibid. (17). THE KING'S SUBSEQUENT COURSE OF DUPLICITY. -See, for example, his Dunfermline Declaration, Aug. 16, 1650, and his speech in the Parliament of Perth, Nov. same year. Dr Rainy, in reference to the Breda document, though manifestly anxious to make the best of that unhappy period, confesses that “immediate entanglements followed, which got worse and worse, till Scotland was utterly paralysed and bewildered.” — Three Lect., p. 40. No king had ever to undergo a more painful contrast than Charles II. underwent in the religious ceremonies of his coronation at Scone, Jan. 1, 1651, and of his coronation at Westininster Abbey, April 23, 1661. It is things like these which ought to lie heavy upon the conscience of a Christian people, and which give so much occasion for the solemn petition of our Litany: “Remember not, Lord, our offences, nor the offences of our forefathers, neither take Thou vengeance of our sins !

Ibid. (18). FALLACY OF CONFOUNDING POPERY AND PRELACY. — Among the various weapons forged, with little regard to truth and fairness, in order to be used against Episcopacy, there is none that has been employed more frequently or more unscrupulously than the fallacy which represents it as necessarily tending to, or closely allied with, Popery. Whereas the fact is, that even Presbytery itself has not been to it a more fatal enemy. This has been felt and understood so well throughout Eastern Christendom, where Episcopacy was universal from the beginning, that so far from any token of sympathy or alliance being visible there between it and Popery, the most determined antagonism is to be found between them. On this subject, which is a highly interesting and important one, the reader may see the facts of the case fully, and I trust accurately, stated in my Tercentenary Discourse on the Scottish Reformation, Appendix, chap. v., and in Outlines of the Christian Ministry, pp. 117-136.

Page 63 (19). DUNBLANE DIOCESAN SYNODS (1662-88). -See the authentic and complete Report, preserved in the Diocesan Register, which was published in 1877 by Dr John Wilson, the late esteemed parish minister of Dunning


Ibid. (20). TESTIMONY OF THE LATE PRINCIPAL P. C. CAMPBELL OF ABERDEEN IN FAVOUR OF NORTH AMERICAN EPISCOPACY. — “Surely the the visible Church is not always to remain in its present divided condition. ... In the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States, the admirable constitution of which combines the advantages of Presbytery and Episcopacy, the lay element is represented and employed in a most wise and efficient manner.”' -Theory of Lay Eldership, p. 66 et seq.

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Page 69 (21). TESTIMONY OF LAWRENCE CHARTERIS, MINISTER OF DIRLETON. — See Grub, Eccles. Hist., iii. 325-327. Charteris had been a friend of Leighton, and was a man of such high and independent character, that he resigned his professorship of Divinity in the University of Edinburgh, rather than consent to the Test Act of 1681. Page 70 (22). BISHOP ROSE's INTERVIEW WITH THE PRINCE OF ORANGE. — See his letter to Bishop Campbell, October 1713, first published by Bishop Keith in his historical Catalogue, 1755. In the second edition, 1824, it is to be found, pp. 65-72.

Page 75 (23). ARTICLE OF THE REVOLUTION SETTLEMENT IN FAVOUR OF PRESBYTERIANISM, April 11, 1689. — The reader who wishes to see the accuracy of this article of the Claim of Right fully canvassed may consult Bishop Sage's work, Fundamental Charter, &c., Examined, first published 1695, and reprinted for the Spottiswood Society, 1844. Burton's History, chap. lxxxiii. will also afford sufficient light upon the secular and unconstitutional character of the same settlement.

Page 77 (24). See Dr Rainy's Three Lectures, in answer to Dean Stanley, p. 46.

Ibid. (25). See Dr Rainy, ibid., p. 49.

Page 80. (26). Was SCOTLAND REFORMED FROM POPERY BY PRESBYTERS ?-On this point, see Bishop Sage's Funda mental Charter, pp. 98-101.

Ibid. (27). SCOTLAND CONVERTED FROM HEATHENISM BY BISHOPS. — This subject has been already touched upon above, p. 47. On the facts stated in the text, see Grub's Eccles. Hist., vol. i. : for S. Ninian, p. 12; for S. Palladius, S. Serf, and S. Ternan, pp. 26, 28 et seq.; for S. Kentigern, p. 36; for S. Machar, p. 55.

Having mentioned in the text that the first evangelisers of Scotland, even when not bishops themselves (as S. Columba probably was not), were ordained and sent by bishops (as S. Columba was ordained by Finian, Bishop of Clonfert, see Cunningham, Church Hist., i. 54), I may add here that the only reference to Ordination which I have

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