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year; but it has been estimated by the board at 4,250 for the last year, which is more than two-thirds of all the children of the city between the ages of four and eighteen. According to this estimate the average cost of educating each scholar per year under our present system, instead of being seventeen dollars, as was estimated before the schools were organized, now falls short of two dollars, and the standard of education is infinitely beyond what it was in 1841. When, too, we deduct from this, one-third of the children which are not found, as is above stated, on our public school rolls, all such as are in attendance upon the numerous select schools throughout our city, and such as have already passed into the Store and Workshop, it will be readily seen that the proportion of youth who are not in attendance upon any school at all is exceedingly small, and that our system enjoys a very large share of public confidence.

Public attention is now much more generally attracted to the sehools than formerly; and public sympathy, instead of being arrayed against them, as was the case at first, now rallies warmly around them and lifts up its voice in their praise. In every humble dwelling throughout our widely extended city, as well as in the splendid mansions of the rich, the free schools have now one or more earnest and interested advocates. Men who were first opposed to the whole system, have been insensibly won over to its support by witnessing the additional lustre of character and personal graces which their little ones receive under their refining influence; and those who at the outset embarked with fear and trembling in the support of this noble enterprise, can now enjoy the pleasure of seeing the free school already established as a permanent institution among us. Opposition has ceased its clamor, and confidence has bestowed her smile upon these precious nurseries of our nation's security; and the man who seeks at this late day to pluck them down over our heads, must be prepared, like Sampson of old, to perish in the ruin which his own hand hath wrought.

I know not whether the foregoing hurried and rather superficial sketch of our educational interests will be of any service to you, or afford even one particle of instruction to the student who gleans in this field of inquiry, but leave you to judge—we profess not to be of superior position in this matter, knowing that we have had, and

still have much to contend with; but nevertheless, we feel ourselves deserving, at least, of that humbie plaudit, "you have done what you could;" and I am sure that you will not be disposed to withhold it.

I am, very respectfully,

Your ob't servant,

D. BETHUNE DUFFIELD, Secretary of the Board of Education of the City of Detroit.



The Regents of the University, through their executive committee, submit herewith to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the documents composing their thirteenth annual report:

1st. Report of the Treasurer of the University.

2d. Statement by the Secretary, of warrants drawn upon the treasurer during the year.

3d. Report of the Commissioner of the Land Office.
4th. Report of superintendent of grounds.
5th. Report of expenditures, from executive committee.
6th. Report of the Faculty of Arts.
7th. Report of the Medical Faculty.
8th. Memorial of Alvah Bradish, Esq., on fine arts, &c.
9th. A historical memoir, by Z. Pitcher, M. D.

The receipts and disbursements of the treasurer, which balance each other for the year, amount each to $12,543 79; his report showing that there were no funds remaining on hand, June 30, 1851. On comparing the statement of the secretary, of warrants issued during the year, with the treasurer's report, it appears that the Board have contracted a debt, in the form of outstanding warrants, which amounts to $4,775 11, which the revenues of the Board will be able to extinguish, if no extraordinary appropriations are made in one or two years. This indebtedness of the Board has mainly been contracted in the construction of a building to accommodate the Faculty and students of the College of Medicine, which also contains a laboratory suited to the wants of the department of arts.

The report from the executive committee shows the particular purposes for which the funds of the Board have been expended, and from that of the superintendent of grounds you will see that the receipts for initiation fees and room rent, have amounted to $2,364 95 To this, add the amounts received by the treasurer, viz:

12,543 79

have the gross sum of.....

$15,908 74 received and expended, or accounted for during the last academic or University year.

You are referred to the reports of the respective Faculties for an account of the number of graduates in the two departments of the University, and to that from the Faculty of medicine for a detailed statement of the duties performed by the several members thereof.

For the memorial of Mr. Bradish, the Board of Regents ask special consideration, both on account of the elevation of its sentiment and the purity and chasteness of the style in which it is dressed. His opinions on the influence which a cultivation of the fine arts will exert over the manners and morals of a people, are commended to the careful perusal of all who are charged with the education of youth, or the supervision of institutions of learning.

The memoir by Dr. Pitcher was written at the request of the Board of Regents, for the purpose of bringing before their successors a resume of their acts and the reasons for the adoption of some of their more important measures, in such a form that it might serve as a guide for their action, or a beacon to warn them, according as those acts may be approved or regarded of doubtful utility. We invite special attention to what is said on the subject of branches of the University, and express our opinion that the organization of Union schools in the villages and cities of the State, will both more effectually subserve the purposes for which common schools should be established, and at the same time furnish more efficient auxiliaries to the University than its branches were during their existence. In proof of this, it is deemed proper to state that the Union school at Jonesville, under the direction of A. L. Welch, Esq., a graduate of the University, has furnished candidates for admission to the Freshman Class, prepared in the most satisfactory manner.

This is an important fact, as it shows what kind of fruits the Union school may be made to produce, and what relation these two portions of our educational system may be made to bear to each other. Another motive for its preparation, originating in a desire to make some reply to

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an honorable committee of the House of Representatives, who, by its chairman, had pronounced the University a failure, and to furnish an answer to those citizens who had petitioned the Legislature to abolish the medical department of the University, unless certain professorships therein named should be engrafted upon the present system of instruction in that department of that institution.

The only occurrence which the executive committee can recall as having transpired within the past year, and not alluded to in the reports of the standing committees, is the resignation of the Rev. Andrew Ten Brook, whu occupied the chair of mental and moral philosophy in the University of Michigan. The committee deem it improper to let this occasion pass without expressing their regret that 80 estimable a man, so capable a teacher and so devoted a friend of the University, should have found it necessary or expedient to withdraw from the institution. Very respectfully, your ob't serv't,


In behalf of Ex. Com. Detroit, Sept. 14, 1851.

REPORT OF THE MEDICAL FACULTY OF THE UNIVERSITY FOR 1850-'51. To the Hon. the Board of Regents of the University:

The Faculty organized May 15th, 1850, choosing Prof. Abram Sager, President, and Prof. M. Gunn, Secretary. September 23d, the routine of lectures and recitations was arranged as follows, viz:

MONDAY, A. M. Recitations followed by lectures. Obstetrics, &c., by Prof. Sager. Materia Medica, by Prof. Allen.

MONDAY, P. M. Recitations followed by lectures. Theory & Practice, &c., by Prof. Denton. Chemistry, &c., by Prof. Douglass.

TUESDAY, A. M. Mat. Med., &c., by Prof. Allen. Anatomy, Surgery, by Prof. Gunn.

Theory & Practice, &c., by Prof. Denton. Chemistry, &c., by Prof.

Obstetrics, c., by Prof. Sager. Anatomy, &c., by Prof. Gunn.

Theory & Practice, &c., by Prof. Denton. Materia Medica, &c., by
Prof. Allen.

Obstetrics, &c., by Prof. Sager. Anatomy, &c., by Prof. Gunn.

Theory & Practice, &c., by Prof. Denton. Chemistry, &c., by Prof.

Obstetrics, &c., by Prof. Sager. Anatomy, &c., by Prof. Gunn.

Materia Medica, &c., by Prof. Allen. Chemistry, &c., by Prof. Doug-



Reading and examination of theses, attended by all the Faculty, and occupying from two to four hours. Theses being required only once in two weeks, the alternate Saturday to be occupied by the usual number of recitations and lectures, distributed among the Faculty as convenience and utility at the time dictated.

The course was opened the first Wednesday in October, 1850, by an introductory lecture by the President. With the exception of a few days, early in January, 1851, which were occupied in completing the arrangements for warming the lecture rooms, the exercises continued in accordance with the foregoing schedule, till the Saturday immediately preceding the annual commencement of the medical department.

Ninety-one regular matriculants were in attendance throughout the course, also five honorary members of the class.

It may be mentioned that a considerable number of clinical lectures were given in addition to the regular eurriculum, practically illustrative of interesting points in pathology and therapeutics. Seve eral of the capital operations in surgery were performed before the class, as also many of minor character.

In consequence of the large number of students engaged in practical anatomical study, the professor of anatomy and surgery found his duties so excessively onerous that he was obliged to employ an assistant to act as a demonstrator. The professor of chemistry has also been obliged to make use of an assistant.

Invitation having been extended to the junior members of the class to participate in the exercise of medical composition, a large


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