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ample scope for the exercise of their talents, discretion and firmness. They have abundint opportunity to manifest their desire to advance the public education, morals and interest. A competent education of the entire man, universally enjoyed, would prevent many of the phys. ical evils to which man is liable; and nearly all the vices, with all their consequent miseries, that infest the world. It promotes the most desirable objects that pertain to man. It has a direct bearing upon his happiness and honor, in his present and future existence. Hence its immense magnitude is apparent. Its paramount claims upon the highest regards and energies of mankind, individually, and in every form of society, are strong and imperative.—[0. C. ComSTOCK, Superintendent, 1845.

COURSE OF STUDIES PROPER TO BE PURSUED IN THE SCHOOLS. The relations of life are many and various; and out of these relations spring all the duties of lile. There are duties which men owe to each other as rational and moral beings, duties which they owe to the State that sustains them, and duties which they owe to the government of the State that protects them. These duties grow out of the relations which they bear to each other, to the State, and to its government. Without proper instruction, how can they know, much less discharge these duties? Without such instruction in early life, how can it rationally be expected that they will be properly qualified, judiciously to exercise the elective franchise, the most important duty of freemen? Without it, how can they go forward from time to time, and understandingly exercise that portion of the sovereignty of the State, which resides in themselves? Without it, how can they properly judge in regard to the most important questions and measures of government, and so determine in all cases as to promote the general welfare? It results, therefore, that our young men of all conditions in life, should be taught the great principles of the constitution and laws of the State, and of the United States. It is of the first importance for them to have a correct knowledge of these things, because the sovereignty of the State resides in a majority of its citizens. Such young men as have no correct understanding of these great subjects, must be miserably fiited for the active duties of life. For the want of this, they may be led unwittingly to invade the rights of others, and thereby forfeit their own. If unexpectedly called to fill important trusts, and discharge responsible duties, they are necessarily subjected to great inconvenience, as well as extreme mortification, and find themselves obliged to commence the study of those things which they ought to have learned in childhood and youth. The young men of our country can scarcely fail of being called to judge of measures for the improvement of the district in which they reside, for the government of the township to which they belong, for the promotion of the larger interests of the county organization, for the growth and enlargement of the State, and the full development of its abun lant resources, and for the protection, advancement and permanent prosperity, peace, happiness and glory of this great and united republic. But without education, what can they

do? What services can they render? They must sink down into utter insignificance.

There are also other branches of knowledge of great importance, with which the youth of our country ought early to be made acquainted; and branches, too, which have an especial reference to their own future prospects and interests; but to a knowledge of which they can never expect to attian without correct instruction. Most certuinly it would be of great utility to them to have a general acquaintance with the business transactions of the country; with its foreign and domestic commerce and relations; with its manufacturing and agricultural productions; with its internal improvements, population and power, as well as with its geography, history, literature and language. These things are interesting in the roselves, and as useful as they are interesting. They should also have some correct understanding of the great business of civil magistracy, and be made acquainted with the names of the different officers of government under the constitution of the United States, and of the respective States; and also of their appropriate duties. Nor should the young men of our country be suffered to grow up in utter ignorance of the business and course of legislation; of the organization, proceedings, and poculiar functions of courts of justice, and the object and duties of courts of equity. Without some knowledge of the kind, they are not qualified to read either with pleasure or profit to themselves, even the common newspaper publications of the day. In addition to these things, the arts of husbandry, the history and use of domestic animals; the principles of mechanism and the mechanic arts; the various agents and powers of nature, which have been called into the service of man; mensuration, civil engineering, architecture and gardening, are each and all of them highly important and profitable branches of knowledge. It may be thought, however, thai so wide a range of studies is unnecessary, if not injurious. But the truth is, the more the mind acquires, the more it is capable of acquiring. On the mole hill, in the valley, the vision of man is limited; if led from this position to some eminence on the surrounding hills, no difficulty is felt; and if transported to the chief summit of the loftiest mountain upon earth, po injurious consequences result; the eye is found to be equally well adapted to this large sphere of observation; and the depth of the emotion felt, and the pleasurable sensations excited, are proportionate to this enlargement of view. So it is with the mind. A desire of knowledge is one of its original, innate elements. It is one of the essential principles of the human mind. It belongs to the constitution of man, and forms a part of his existence. It is early developed in children; they uniformly love to learn; and the more they study, the more they wish to study; and the more they read, the more do they wish to read, provided the books put within their reach are what they should be, plain and easy to be understood, and filled with useful and interesting matter.

Every new acquisition gives additional strength to the mind; and this additional strength increases the power for acquiring further knowledge. Besides, nature is one, and the arts and sciences, like

her children, of one family and kindred. An acquaintance with one facilitates an acquaintance with another, and the liyht of one is the surest guide to a knowledge of the others. As all the colors are necessary to make up the white and pure light of day, so all principles of knowledge are but parts of one great and glorious whole. It has often been a matter of wonder, how any man could, like Sir William Jones, acquire in one short life a facility in speaking and writing twenty-eight living languages; yet when we consider that all languages have a common root, whose members are grouped in classes, we come to admire not so much a giant intellect as a patience of investigation worthy of all renown. But however desirable it may be to lead the children and youth of our State far onward in the paths of literature and science, it is nevertheless true that a much less amount of knowledge will be found to be sufficient for the ordinary transactions of life.

The education of Washington the great, was confined in early life to the ordinary branches of an English education, at a period when knowledge and the means of acquiring it were not what they now are. This fact strikingly illustrates the truth of the remark of a great man, that, “give a child a sufficient mastery of the English language to enable bim to spell, read and write it, and out of this amount of instruction, with a desire of improvement, he would work his way to the highest achievements of intellectual power.” Hence, says Paulding, in his life of Washington, “ while it serves to exalt the character and abilities of this famous man, to learn that though his means of acquiring knowledge were not superior, nay, not equal to those now within the reach of all for whom I write, yet did he, in after life, by the force of his genius and the exercise of a manly perseverance, supply all bis deficiencies; so that when called upon to take charge of the destinies of his country, and bear a load as large as was ever laid upon the shoulders of man, he was found gloriously adequate to the task, and bore her triumphantly tbrough a struggle which may be likened to the agonies of death, resulting in immortality. As with him, so with my youthful readers, most of whose opportunities of acquiring knowledge are greater than those of Washington, and who, though they will not reach his fame, may rationally aspire to an imitation of his perseverance, his integrity, and his patriotism. Opportunities for great actions occur but seldom; but every day and every hour presents occasion for the performance of our duties.” Who would not teach his children to lisp the name of Washington, and to emulate his virtues? Who would not wish every child of the State to study his character, and read the history of his splendid achievements? But a consummation so much to be desired, can be attained only by furnishing every such child with a good education. With such an education the children of our State universally can and must be furnished.-[J. D. PIERCE, Sup'i, 1838.

As there probably is some difference of opinion on the subject, it may be proper to consider at some length what is implied in a good education-in such an education as the primary schools ought to fur

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nish. It appears evident to the undersigned, that the public expectation is not sufficiently raised in regard to what they are capable of doing. They are obviously fitted to do more, and to enter upon a bigher career of usefulness, than has ever yet been asked of them. Let justice be done our schools, and they will soon exceed in their achievements the highest expectation of friends. The following considerations are presented as the result of experience and much reflection.

A good education necessarily implies a knowledge of ourselves. Know thyself, was one of the tirst precepts of an ancient teacher; and it is emphatically a precept of the first importance. A knowledge of what we are is essential. The nature of man is complexed -two elements, matter and mind, are combined in his present existence. The body is the dwelling place of the living rational agent. How important to know the laws by which this complex being is gov. erned, and how these two principles mutually affect each other.

Children should be early informed in regard to their bodily constitution. They ought to have a clear and correct knowledge imparted to them of what is necessary to its highest beauty, perfection, activity, vigor and health. Much of their usefulness and enjoyment of life, through coming years, depend on the early attainment of this essential knowledge. Did the fairer portion of our land know more of their bodily frame, of its different vital organs and their uses, is it conceivable that so many of them, in obedience to the dictates of an imported prostitute fashion, would willingly incur the guilt of selfmurder? Did they know themselves, is it to be believed that any of them would continue to lay violent hands upon that beautiful frame which God has given them, when certain that death must ensue? It is highly important to us as a people, to have a more accurate and thorough knowledge of that wonderful formation, and curious product of divine wisdom—the body—the house in which we are destined while here to live, move, think, feel and act. This knowledge of our frame-of its organization and parts-of its wants and relations to surrounding objects, is essential to preserve and prolong life. The average of human life, in different countries, will be found to be in exact proportion to the prevalence of such knowledge. A man who knows what his physical constitution is, and requires, will not be likely to be either a glutton or a drunkard—but temperate in all things

If a good education implies a knowledge of our bodily frame, how much more a knowledge of our rational nature. This nature is obviously three-fold--intellectual, moral and religious. The chief intellectual powers are perception, memory, reason, association of ideas, imagination and fancy; the moral powers are, ability to distinguish between right and wrong-to will, choose and refuse; while the affections, emotions and passions, form the heart, and constitute our religious being. It is in the highest degree important, and essential to our welfare as individuals, to have a correct knowledge of this intellectual, moral and religious nature. We ought as a people to know more of the powers and susceptibilities of the human mind

of its workings-of its relations; what it can and what it cannot achieve-when and under what circumstance it can be most easily enlarged and improved. Such knowledge is essential to the instructor, and equally so to parents. Children should be early taught to turn their thoughts back upon themselves, for the purpose of observing the varied operations of their intellectual, moral and religious being.

It is highly important to know more of the relation between matter and mind, and how each is affected by this relation. If the brain is the chief instrument of mind in all its operations, then whatever may affect the brain must necessarily affect the mind. Both parents and teachers should fully understand and appreciate this law of our present existence. Without this knowledge, a child in feeble health may be permanently injured, if not sent to an early grave. Being unable to do much else, the child is kept close at study-the worst thing that could be done. The brain being unduly stimulated and excited, the whole system becomes deranged, and unless timely arrasted, dissolution must ensue. It is also to be surther observed, that in children, muscular energy is often excessive-hence they need much exercise. Long continued confinement renders them uneasy, fretful, restless, miserable. Punishment in no form, neither chiding nor flogging, will cure this; it is human nature. In no case should they be kept, either in or out of school, more than one hour at close study, without giving them ful! liberty for that kind of exercise which they need. If allowed to run, skip, hop, jump, romp-as nature dictates—they will not be likely either to pull down benches, or wrench off doors from their hinges. If kept longer than one hour, the laws of our being are transgressed; both body and mind injured; and the whole man, for the time being, rendered unfit for further improvement. Disgust, hatred of schools, books, teachers, is the sure result. These things ought to be more generally known. Parents should know them; teachers also should know them; a good education implies a knowledge of them.

It implies, moreover, a knowledge of our country. To be ignorant of the country which gave us birth—sustained and protected usmis bighly disgraceful. Every child should know the geography of his native land—its boundaries, grand outlines and features-the relative position of its different mountains and valleys, bays and harbors, lakes and rivers, and navigable waters. Destitute of this information, no person can read understandingly a common newspaper. He may read of transactions upon the great lakes and rivers of our country, but he knows not whether they occurred among the Esquimaux, Hindoos, Hottentots or among his own people. It is equally important to know its political divisions—the number and relative position of the States—their capitols, chief towns, ports of entry, and principal commercial cities. Ignorance of such things pertaining to our country, should not be suffered, where primary schools exist. Nor should it be allowed in regard to its geological formation. In the bosom of the earth, there is an abundance of treasure---resources without limits-materials of untold inportance

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