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this formidable auxiliary to his ad. On the 17th of January the first vice, bastened to the palace, where intelligence was brought to Rio de it produced instant alarm, and the Janeiro that the King and royal faorder was given to prepare for the mily had left Europe, and were at voyage to the Brazils. But the na. hand. The Brazilians were delighttional spirit was not yet exorcised ed with the prospect. They saw in from those fluctuating and somno

this arrival the commencement of lent councils. The French were freedom of trade, of general opunot come, the palace was not fired, lence, of public improvements, and, nor Lisbon paying a forced loan tó above all, the high gratification of Napoleon's Field-Marshal; and satis- their pride in becoming a kingdom. fied with this, the preparations paused From the first report of the good again. Napoleon's avidity was the news, the whole sea-coast was in a notorious cause of his final ruin. But state of excitement bordering on we must have a deeper knowledge of frenzy. Every band was busy in the history of his vivid and triumph- preparation, every eye was turned to ant career, to know how often he the telegraph which was to announce who overreached all others over- the first symptom of the royal fleet reached bimself; how often he mar- on the horizon; houses were furnishred his own successes by furious rash- ed for the illustrious guests, palaces ness and violent cupidity, and how were cleared of the murkiness of a keenly he paid the penalty of grasp. century; the masters of such maning at all things, with a contempt sions as were likely to be required alike of the common decorums even for the accommodation of the court, of triumph, and an insulting confi- were called on to surrender them, dence in his own fortune. He would which they are said to have done have been master of Portugal and its without a murmur. Such was the monarch, if he had kept every soldier eager loyalty of the time; all Brazil of France, for a year to come, a hun- was in a ferment with anxiety, expecdred miles from its frontier. He tation, and rejoicing, that at last they threw his troops into the country, were to see their monarch among and from that moment it was his no them. longer; he seized the capital, and The royal squadron followed the found that the only result was the intelligence in a few days. Its pasescape of the King.

sage had been rapid, and on the 17th At length the news was brought of January 1808, it was signalled as that the enemy were not only in off the coast. But the public disapPortugal, but hurrying on at full pointment was proportionably great, speed; and that the next twenty-four on learning that this arrival was conhours would see Junot in Lisbon. fined to a single ship, containing The court were now fully roused at some of the ladies of the court. The last. Orders were given for convey- fleet had been dispersed in a storm ing the royal family, the court, and a month before; and as the dispersion all their property, on board the fleet was complete, fears began to be enin the Tagus. On the 29th of No- tertained for the safety of the King. vember 1807 the embarkation was But the Brazilians were resolved to effected, with all the tumult, loss, and have a fête at all risks. The day on misery that belong to excessive which this single vessel appeared was haste and a fugitive throne. But it the feast-day of St Sebastian, the was effected; another day would have usual illumination of one day was made the difference to the King of prolonged to three, and at the same Portugal between sovereignty and a

time the churches rang with supplidungeon. The French dragoons arcations and ceremonies for the royal rived while the fleet were still with safety. This suspense continued an in the Tagus, and the last look of entire month. At its close the pubthe King shewed him the French flag lic fears were appeased by an exwaving on the hills above Lisbon. press from Bahia, announcing that But he was escorted by the British the fleet had reached that port in fleet; and Junot, outrageously disap- safety, and all was exultation once pointed, was forced to be content more. with having driven a dynasty from The Sovereign, whom I have the Old World to the New.

bitherto called King, was nominally but Prince Regent until the year or limited scale, without reservation 1816, his mother, the Queen Donna or exception.". The next step was Maria, dying in that year, and the one of extraordinary daring for PorPrince even then deferring the pro- tuguese legislation. It was the estaclamation of his accession to the blishment of a newspaper. The fortythrone till the year of mourning was first birthday of the Prince Regent at a close. He arrived in his South was made memorable in all the American empire evidently willing future records of Brazilian literature to conciliate the people. His first by the appearance of a royal gazette, act in landing at Bahia was to issue published at a royal printing office! a decree worthy of a King. It was The spirit spread, and in a short a declaration freeing the Brazils from period newspapers were propagated all the fetters of the exclusive Por- throughout the entire country. tuguese system, and opening to them The government, encouraged by the commerce of all nations. The the popularity with which its new decrec was received with universal measures were hailed on all sides, rejoicing. The Regent then re-en- now pursued its manly and wise probarked for Rio de Janeiro, to the gress with double activity. It had great sorrow of the Bahians. There actually to lay the foundations of the he arrived on the 7th of March 1808, whole system of public prosperity, and was received with all the plau- for hitherto this magnificent territory dits and honours that could be heap- had known nothing of civilized rule ed on a popular monarch by a grate- but its monopolies, privations, and ful and zealous people. The arrival oppressions. The coarsest manufacof the court was a matter of eminent ture had been forbidden; the attempt importance to the prosperity of Rio; to print a page of any thing, much it brought a conflux of the Portu

more a newspaper page, would have guese nobility, who, of course, quick- sentenced the unlucky innovator to ened expenditure in every direction; the mines. But now all the privithe court festivities not only enliven- leges of rational freedom, which ed the people, but excited their in- amount, in their highest and happiest dustry; foreigners began to visit the state, simply to the permission to port, and before the expiration of a every man to follow the bent of his few months, several opulent and own abilities without injury to others, active foreign establishments were and with protection in the fruits of formed in the capital. The govern- his industry, were accorded to the ment seconded those favourable inci- population. A national bank was dents with praiseworthy assiduity. next formed, an essential expedient Early in the same year Dom John to quicken and direct the national proclaimed the right of every Bra- industry. A royal treasury was then zilian to exercise trade, profession, established, with a council of finance and pursuit, according to his free to regulate the public expenditure. will. The old restrictions which the Then followed royal schools of medijealousy of the parent state had, for cine, lazarettoes, royal powder manearly three centuries, laid upon the nufactories, commissions of justice, activity of this great province, were ordinances for the Indians, &c. Vaccithus totally abolished. In the lan nation was introduced soon after, a guage of the decree, “ The govern- great blessing in a country where ment, desirous of increasing the the small-pox still amounts to a wealth and prosperity of the Brazi- frightful pestilence. In the rear of lian people by manufactures, agri- those important and necessary proculture, and arts, and thus increa- visions followed the arts of enjoysing the number of productive hands, ment. In 1813 the Theatre of St and diminishing the amount of that John, so called in compliment to the vice and misery which result from Prince, was opened on the birthday idleness and poverty, have now fully of his son Dom Pedro. The higher dorevoked every prohibition which still native of a public Library was given exists, and hereby encourage and in- in the next year to Rio. The royal vite all faithful Brazilians to engage library having been saved from the in every kind of manufacture to grasp of the French, and conveyed which they are inclined, on a large with the fleet, it was now put under the care of two learned Portuguese, the voyage of Æneas with his own. and opened to the public. A new The fleet had put to sea in too much Treasury and Mint were built. Fo- haste to provide the due accommoreigners were invited to reside in the dations for its multitude of passencities. Indian villages were raised. gers. Among other things, the stock And the whole fabric of constitution- of royal linen ran low, and the young al and patriotic activity was consum- Prince landed in shirts made of the mated by a royal decree of the 16th sheets of his own bed. On the death of November 1815, declaring Brazil of his tutor, which occurred at an to be elevated to the dignity of a early period after his arrival, the kingdom; thenceforth to form with young Prince considered his educathe European dominions of the mo- tion complete, and thenceforth purnarch, the “ United Kingdoms of sued knowledge in his own way. He Portugal, Algarves, and Brazil.” The had a natural dexterity of hand, and proclamation was received with a became a turner, made a billiard transport of national joy. All the table, a model of a man-of-war, and towns were illuminated. Deputa- other ingenious things. He became tions and addresses poured in upon a first-rate billiard player, and, by a the palace, thanksgivings were offer- better application of his tastes, an · ed up in all the churches, and in the excellent musician, a performer on midst of the tumult of festivity and several instruments, and a clever gratitude the national constitution musical composer. His feebleness of was born. On the 5th of January 1818, frame had now disappeared, and he the Prince Regent, Dom John, was exhibited himself as a capital horseproclaimed and crowned first King man, a daring rider through the foof Brazil, or, in the ancient phrase of rests and precipices of his untamed the Portuguese constitutions,“Royal, country, and a charioteer of the highroyal, royal, the very high and est breed of Jehu, distinguished for powerful Senhor, King Dom John “ driving furiously.” the Sixth, our Lord.”

The time was now come when he Dom Pedro, whose reverses, acti- must undergo the common fate of vity, eccentricity, and present enter- princes, and marry a wife of the amprise, now occupy so considerable a bassador's choosing. The bride sespace in the eyes of Europe, was lected was the Archduchess Leoborn in Lisbon, on the 12th of Octo- poldina, daughter of the Emperor ber 1798, the second son of Dom John Francis the First, and sister of Maria VI., and of Carlotta Joaquina, daugh- Louisa, the Queen of Napoleon. The ter of Charles IV. of Spain. By the Marquis of Marialva had the honour early death of his brother, Dom An- to be the official lover and husband tonio, he became heir-presumptive to on the occasion. This marriage by the throne. His frame was feeble, proxy was celebrated on the 13th of and he seemed to be of a sickly tem- May 1817; an auspicious day in the perament. In the first alarm of the royal kalendar, as the anniversary of Portuguese court, it had been intend- his father's birth, and his grandmo. ed to send the young heir to Brazil, ther's accession. The Austrian prinfor the purpose of securing him from cess was received at Rio with great French hands. But the rapid ad- popularity; her florid face and light vance of Junot's troops made a ge. hair looked captivating in the eyes neral movement necessary, and the of the Brazilians; and her honest and Prince was embarked along with the good-humoured manners, which gave court. He was at this time ten years at once curious evidence of the rusold, had acquired some education, ticity of even the highest German and exhibited considerable intelli- life, and of her genuine good-nature, gence. His quickness of mind and made her instantly and universally body on the voyage gave favourable popular. symptoms of his future career. He But other thoughts than marrying occupied himself much with the and giving in marriage were soon to working and machinery of the ship; try the wisdom of the government, and, when not thus engaged, was and the energy of the Prince. Oporto, often employed in reading Virgil at the headquarters of liberalism in Porthe foot of the mainmast, comparing tugal, raised a riot, which it called a national movement, and constructed ade were in the habit of treating the a Jacobin theory, which it called a Brazilians with consummate scorn. constitution. On the arrival of the The native troops shared the conintelligence in Rio, two parties were tumely; and it was even carried so formed ;-a party for change, at the far, that they demanded that every head of which was the Prince; and Brazilian above the rank of captain a party for keeping things in their should be dismissed, and his commisold position, at the head of which sion given to a Portuguese! As they were the ministers and the King. The now spread through the streets, with Prince was speedily ejected from the arms in their hands, and ready for Council of State; but this affront he any excess, the populace were rawas not disposed to bear meekly. pidly wrought into equal irritation ; He rushed into the Council Cham- and to avoid a general massacre, the ber, attacked the ministers in an in- Council burried together. dignant harangue, and having threat- The decisions of men in a hurry ened them with the vengeance of a are always foolish, and the Council deceived people, and an angry pos- established the maxim. They offered terity, rushed out again. The old to concede every thing to any body, King was an honest and harmless public or private, that would ask any man, but he was not born a hero. thing. The Prince left them no opThis explosion of his son's politics portunity to retrace their steps. Riterrified him, and the next act of his ding to the square where the insurCouncil was to promise the Brazilians gent troops were drawn up, he first a constitution, accompanied by the informed them of the King's submiswiser expedient of sending his too sion, and then arranged a deputation energetic son to talk over the subject of the soldiers and populace to wait with the philosophers of Oporto. upon himself, and demand the dis

The man of the south always lives missal of the ministers, and the proin a state of conspiracy; and it is next clamation of the new form of governto impossible to discover how far the ment. Armed with the will of the most striking catastrophes are due populace, he returned to the King, to the course of things, or to private and, having obtained all that was retreason. The Brazilian is the genuine quisite there, appeared at a balcony descendant of the Portuguese. While in the square, with the list of the new the Council were trembling at the ministry in his hand. He then swore prospect of being called on to per- as follows to the insurgents :~"I form their promise, and the Prince swear, in the name of the King, my was probably contemplating with father and lord, veneration and reequal dislike a voyage across the At- spect for our holy religion, and to lantic, which was palpably but a con- observe, keep, and support for ever, trivance to expel him from the seat the constitution, as it is established of government for the time, on the by the Cortes in Portugal.” This 25th of February 1821, the capital triumph of liberty by the pike and was thrown into sudden alarm by an musket was, of course, hailed with insurrection of the troops. A brigade prodigious acclamations. The next of Portuguese infantry, and guns, demand was, that the old King should which had been brought to the Bra- appear before his loving people. The zils four years before, for the pur- King dared not refuse, and he got pose of suppressing the insurrection- into his carriage to visit the square ary movements at Pernambuco, and where the troops were still drawn had since been suffered to idle away up. But another specimen of popuits time in the capital, had taken up lar ardour was still to teach him the arms, and was proceeding to take the spirit of the time. The mob stopped law into its owu hands. Robbery the carriage, and, whether for the and the new constitution were the purpose of doing him peculiar hostimulants, and these legislators pro- nour, or of simply indulging their ceeded to define the rights of liberty newly-discovered faculty of doing and property bayonet in hand. All what they pleased, they insisted on soldiers, but the British, consider drawing the vehicle. The old King, themselves as the supreme race of in the midst of the contention, was the nation ; and the Portuguese brig- evidently alarmed for his personal safety, and probably with no slight natural feeling began at last to make reason; he fell back in the carriage, its way. A meeting of the electors and nearly fainted. In the language of the deputies to the Cortes bad of the writer who has furnished those been summoned to the Exchange, to details, “ the horrors of the French take cognisance of a plan of the conRevolution were before his eyes, and stitution proposed for the future dihe expected that the fate of the un- rection of the Brazils, in the absence fortunate monarch, who resembled of the King. This assembly rapidly. himself in irresolution and goodness proceeded from the dull routine of of heart, would be his own." This discussing principles of government grand revolution was rounded with to the business that came home to an opera! Such are the weighty men's hearts and bosoms, the departmovements of foreign freedom. The ure of the Royal Family. It became birth of the new constitution would at length a maiter of discussion whehave been nothing without a ballet. ther the money which the King was At this opera the populace command- about to take with him should be ed the King to make his appearance. suffered to go out of the country. But even the popular command can- One orator stated that the King was not make the sick well. The old about to carry off the funds of some Monarch was in his bed, sick with of the charitable institutions; another his late alarm, sick with disgust, and moved that measures should be inprobably to the full as sick of the li- stantly adopted to prevent the sailberty which, beginning by popular ing of the squadron until they were insurrection, threatened to close in searched; and orders were actually royal massacre. From that bed we sent to the forts commanding the may date the resolution which so bay to fire on any ship of the squasoon led him, by an extraordinary dron which attempted to sail. It was effort of decision, to abandon the clear that, if this spirit of oratory were Brazils to their orators and philoso- allowed to spread its wings even so phers. On the 7th of March follow- far as the next street, a rising of the ing, a proclamation appeared, an- populace would be the next thing, nouncing the royal determination to and the King and his ships would embark immediately for Portugal, have put off their voyage together there to hold the Cortes.

sine die. But though the national It is difficult to ascertain who was feeling was strong for detaining the the chief director in those popular King, there was a private and permovements; but it seems a striking sonal feeling, equally strong, for getcircumstance that the King's an- ting rid of him as fast as possible. nouncement of his thus leaving the And the distinction was, that the Brazils to struggle for themselves, national feeling waited for a leader, produced no tumult of any kind. and was therefore ineffective; while Yet no measure was more likely to the personal feeling waited for nohave roused the people to violence, thing but the first opportunity of or would have more unquestionably gaining its point. The debates of the roused them a few months before. assembly at the Exchange had awaBy the return of the royal family to kened its jealousy, and a determinaLisbon, the Brazils must become tion was adopted to give those emagain a subordinate government,- barrassing debaters an early lesson, their deputies must attend the Portu- which should teach them the hazard guese Cortes,-their country must of impeding the will of their supe, lose the rank of the seat of the mo- riors. The sitting had been prolonged narchy, and their capital the advan- on this occasion till midnight, and the tage of the large expenditure of the hall was still crowded, when the tramp court and nobles. But the populace, of soldiery was heard, and a whole hitherto so turbulent, were perfectly Portuguese regiment, without farther tranquil on the occasion. It was per question or explanation, poured in. fectly clear, that whoever had pulled to the hall. To the astonishment and the strings of the puppets before, horror of every body, those misnow pulled them no longer, or were creants instantly levelled their muspleased to let the puppets remain in kets, and began a regular fire upon a state of quiescence. However, the the unarmed electors. A scene of

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