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PROPERTY, continued.

protection of, by fourteenth amendment, 13.
of municipal corporations, control of, 289, 290.

(See EMINENT DOMAIN; PRIVATE PROPERTY; VESTED Rights.)
PROROGUEMENT,

of the legislature by governor, 160.
PROSCRIPTION,

of persons, for their opinions, 489, 580-585.
PROSECUTING OFFICERS,

duty of, to treat accused parties with judicial fairness, 382 and n., 417, 418.
PROTECTION,

the equivalent for taxation, 699.
PROVISIONS,

regulations to prevent sale of unwholesome, 748.
PUBLIC CORPORATIONS,

(See MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS.)
PUBLIC DEBT,

inviolability of, 13.
PUBLIC GOOD,

laws should have reference to, 141, 142, n., 156.
PUBLIC GRANTS,
strict construction of, 495.

(See CHARTER; FRANCHISE.)
PUBLIC GROUNDS,

lands dedicated for, not to be put to other uses, 292, n.
PUBLIC INTEREST,

when property affected with, 742–746.
PUBLIC MORALS,
regulations for protection of, 748, 749.

(See Religious LIBERTY.)
PUBLIC OFFICERS,

(See OFFICER.)
PUBLIC OPINION,

not to affect construction of constitution, 67.

expression of, by elections, 751, 752.
PUBLIC PURPOSES,
appropriation of property for, 650.

(See EMINENT Domain.)
PUBLIC STATUTES,

what are, 488.
PUBLIC TRIAL,

accused parties entitled to, 383.

not essential that everybody be allowed to attend, 383.
PUBLIC USE,
of property, what constitutes, 663.

(See EMINENT DOMAIN.)
PUBLICATION,

of statutes, 190-193.
of debates in Parliament formerly not suffered, 523.
of books, &c., censorship of, 522–524.

PUBLICATION, - continued.

of debates in American legislative bodies, 524, 525.
of legislative speeches, 569–572.
of judicial proceedings, 559-562.
of notice to non-resident parties, 504-507.

(See LIBERTY OF SPEECH AND OF THE Press.)
PUBLISHERS OF NEWS,

not privileged in law, 563-569.
PUNISHMENTS,

what changes in, the legislature may make applicable to previous offences,

325-331.
of crimes by servitude, 366, 367.
cruel and unusual, prohibited, 406-408.
must not exceed measure the law has prescribed, 408.
(See Bills OF ATTAINDER; CRIMES ; Ex Post Facto Laws.)

Q.
QUALIFICATIONS,

of officer or voter under constitution cannot be added to by legislature, 78.
of members of legislature to be determined by the two houses, 161.

of voter, inquiring into, on contested election, 791.
QUARANTINE,

regulations by the States, 729.
QUARTERING SOLDIERS,

in private houses in time of peace forbidden, 378.
QUASI CORPORATIONS, 295.
QUORUM,

majority of, generally sufficient for passage of laws, 171.
of courts, must act by majorities, 117.
full court generally required on constitutional questions, 197.

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RACE,

not to be a disqualification for suffrage, 13.

marriages between persons of different, 490, n.
RAILROADS,

authorizing towns, &c., to subscribe to, is not delegating legislative power,

144.
whether such subscriptions may be made, 260–272.
appropriations of lands for, 665.

and of materials for constructing, 654.
and of lands for depot buildings, &c., 676.
corporations may take, 671.

(See EMINENT DOMAIN.)
appropriation of highways for, 681-684.

must be legislative permission, 681.

whether adjoining owner entitled to compensation, 682.
police regulations in respect to, 714-725.

requiring corporations to fence track and pay for beasts killed, 722.

RAILROADS, - continued.

regulation of grade and crossings, 723.

ovisions regarding alarms, 724.

responsibility for persons injured or killed, 724, 725.

bridges for, over navigable waters, 738.
READING OF BILLS,

constitutional provisions for, 96, 169, 170.
REAL ESTATE,

not to be taxed out of taxing district, 622, 623.
within taxing district to be taxed uniformly, 625.
taking for public use,

(See Eminent Domain.)
REASONABLENESS,

of municipal by-laws, 243.
of limitation laws, 456.
of police regulations,

(See POLICE POWER.)
REBELLIONS,

employment of militia to suppress, 12.
RECITALS,

in statutes, not binding upon third parties, 117.

when they may be evidence, 117.
RECONSTRUCTION OF STATES,

control over, 43, n.
RECORDS,

public, of the States, full faith and credit to be given to, 22, 23.
judicial, not generally to be contradicted, 23, 509.

(See JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS.)
REDEMPTION,

right of, cannot be shortened or extended by legislature, 356.
REFUSAL TO PLEAD,

in criminal cases, consequence of, 382.
REGISTRATION,

of voters, may be required, 757.
REGULATION,

of commerce by Congress, 14, 725, 734.
of navigable waters by Congress, 737, 738.
police, by the States,

(See Police POWER.)
of the right of suffrage, 756–759.

right of, does not imply a right to prohibit, 247, n.
REHEARING,

(See New Trials.)
RELIGIOUS LIBERTY,

care taken by State constitutions to protect, 580-586.
distinguished from religious toleration, 581.
does not preclude recognition of superintending Providence by public
authorities, 587.
nor appointment of chaplains, thanksgiving and fast days, 588.

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY, continued.

nor recognition that the prevailing religion of the State is Christian,

588.
the maxim that Christianity is part of the law of the land, 588–595.
punishment of blasphemy does not invade, 589–592.

or of other forms of profanity, 593.
Sunday laws, how justified, 594, 734.
respect for religious scruples, 595.
religious belief, as affecting the competency or credibility of witnesses,

596.
REMEDIAL STATUTES,

liberal construction of, 75, n.

parties obtaining, are bound by, 117.
REMEDY,

power of legislature over, in criminal cases, 325-333.

in civil cases, 116, 351-359, 448–456.
legislature cannot take away all remedy, 354.

may give new remedies, and defences, 351.

may limit resort to remedies, 453-456.

for compensation for property taken by public, 699-701.
REMOVAL,

of causes from State to national courts, 15, 16.
REPEAL,

of old English statutes, 34, n., 35, n.
all laws subject to, 152-154.
of statutes at same session of passage, 186.
by implication, not favored, 186.
of a law, terminates right to give judgment under it, 476.
of laws conflicting with unconstitutional law, 224.

question of, not to be referred to the people, 148, 149.
REPORTS,

of public meetings, 543, 544.
of legislative proceedings, publication of, 522–525, 569–572.
of judicial proceedings, publication of, 559-562.

(See LIBERTY OF SPEECH AND OF THE Press.)
REPRESENTATION,
constructive, 73, n.

(See LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT; LEGISLATORS.)
REPRIEVE,

power of, not included in power to pardon, 140, n.
REPBULICAN GOVERNMENT,

guarantee of, by United States to the States, 23, 41.

maxims of, do not constitute limitations on legislative power, 205, 206.
REPUBLICATION,

of amended statutes under certain State constitutions, 183, 184.
RES ADJUDICATA,

parties and privies estopped by judgments, 60.
force of judgment does not depend on reasons assigned, 60.
strangers not bound by, 61.
parties and privies not bound in new controversy, 61.

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RESERVED POWERS,

under United States Constitution in the States and people, 25.
RESIDENCE,

gives jurisdiction in divorce suits, 501, 502.

but not unless bona fide, 502.
as affecting right to impose personal taxes, 622.

of voters, what constitutes, 757-756.
RESTRICTIONS,

'on trade by municipal by-laws, 246.
in United States Constitution on powers of the States, 19-25.
on power of people to amend constitutions, 39, 41.
on powers of legislature,

(See LEGISLATURES OF THE STATES.)
RESUMPTION OF GRANTS,

by the States is forbidden, 334.
RETROSPECTIVE LEGISLATION,

when admissible generally, 113, 460–479.
cannot revive demands which are barred, 460.

nor create a demand where none ever equitably existed, 460.
may take away defences based on informalities, 461.
may cure irregularities in legal proceedings, 462.

or in corporate action, &c., 463, 465.
what defects can and what cannot be covered by, 462, 463.
may validate imperfect marriages, 465.

or other imperfect contracts, 467, 469.

or invalid deeds, 469-472,
may take away defence of usury, 467.
bona fide purchasers not to be affected by, 472.
legalizing municipal action, 278, 474.
pendency of suit does not affect power to pass, 476.
cannot make good what the legislature could not originally have permitted,

477.
cannot cure defects of jurisdiction, 478, 479.
forbidden in some States, 461, 462, n.
statutes generally construed to operate prospectively, 76, 461.

prospective construction of constitution, 76.
REVENUE,

in some States bills for, to originate with lower house, 160.
cannot be raised under right of eminent domain, 656.

(See Taxation.)
REVISION,

of State constitutions, 39-47.
of statutes,

(See STATUTES.)
REVOLUTION, AMERICAN,

powers of the Crown and Parliament over Colonies before, 6-8.
Congress of the, its powers, 7–9.

division of powers of government at time of, 7, n.
REWARDS,

cannot be paid by towns for apprehension of offenders, 258, n.

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