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RHODE ISLAND,

ratification of Constitution by, 9.
charter government of, 35.
judges of, to give opinions to governor and legislature, 51, n.
privilege of legislators from arrest, 163, n.
impeachment of judges, 196, n.
protection to person and property by law of the land, 436, n.
liberty of speech and of the press in, 518, n.
privilege of legislators in debate, 556, n.
religious tests for office forbidden in, 583, n.
periodical valuations for taxation, 618.

exclusions from suffrage in, 753.
RIGHTS,

distinguished from the remedy, 348–350.
vested,

(See VESTED Rights.)
in action,

(See Action.)
ROADS,

appropriation of private property for, 664, 665.
appropriation of materials for constructing, 654.
appropriation of, for railroads, &c., 681-681.

(See Eminent Domain.)
regulation of use of, by States, 734.

action for exclusion from, 679, n.
RULES OF CONSTRUCTION,

(See CoxSTRUCTION OF STATE CONSTITUTIONS.)
RULES OF EVIDENCE,
power of the legislature to change, 353, 457–460.

(See EVIDENCE.)
RULES OF LEGISLATIVE ORDER,
are under the control of the legislature, 158–166.

(See LEGISLATURES OF THE STATES.)

S.
SABBATH,

laws for observance of, 594, 734.
SALE OF LANDS,

of incompetent persons, &c., special legislative authority for, 118-129.

propriety of judicial action in such cases, 118.
SCHOOL-HOUSES,

exercise of right of eminent domain for sites for, 665.
SCHOOLS,

impartial rights in, 490, n.
SCOTLAND,

servitude in, 366.
SEAMEN,

impressment of, 367.
SEARCH-WARRANTS,

(See SEARCHES AND SEIZURES.)

SEARCHES AND SEIZURES,

the maxim that every man's house is his castle, 29, 367.
unreasonable searches and seizures prohibited, 367, 368.

origin of the prohibition, 368.
bistory of general warrants in England, 368, n.
general warrants in America, 369-371.
search-warrants, their arbitrary character, 372.

only granted after a showing of cause on oath, 372.
must specify place to be searched and the object, 372.

particularity of description required, 372.
should be served in daytime, 373.
must be directed to proper officer, 373.
must command accused party and property, &c., to be brought before

officer, 373, 374.
cannot give discretionary power to ministerial officer, 374.
not allowed to obtain evidence of intended crime, 374.
cases in which they are permissible, 374-376.

not to seize correspondence, 376, n.
for libels, illegal at common law, 376, n.
officer following command of, is protected, 377.

and may break open doors, 377.
SEAS,

(See High SEAS.)
SECESSION,

not admitted by the Constitution, 10.
SECRECY,

inviolability of, in correspondence, 376, n.
elector's privilege of, 761.

privilege of, as between counsel and client, 413.
SEDITION LAW,

passage of, and prosecutions under, 535, 536.
SELF-ACCUSATION,

not to be compelled, 381-391.
SELF-DEFENCE,

right to, 377, n.
SELF-EXECUTING PROVISIONS,

what are and are not, 99-102.
SELF-GOVERNMENT,

(See ELECTIONS; MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS.)
SERMONS,

privilege of criticism of, 550, n.
SERVANT,

control of, by master, 421.
SERVICES,

laws requiring, without compensation, strictly construed, 494.
to influence legislation cannot be contracted for, 166.

of child, right of father to, 420.
SERVITUDE,

(See SLAVERY.)
SIDEWALKS,
owners of lots may be compelled to build under police power, 734.

(See ASSESSMENTS.)

SIGNING OF BILLS,

by officers of legislature, 186.

by the governor, 186.
SLANDER,
general rules of liability for, 528–531.

(See LIBERTY OF SPEECH AND OF THE PRESS.)
SLAVERY,

former state of, in England, 363.
causes of its disappearance, 363–365.
in Scotland, 366.
in America, 366, 367.
now prohibited, 13.

servitude in punishment of crime, 366.
SLAVE CONTRACTS,

enforcement of, 350, n.
SOLDIERS,

quartering of, in private houses prohibited, 378.
municipal bounties to, 274–281.
military suffrage laws, 755, n.

jealousy of standing armies, 433.
SOUTH CAROLINA,

revenue bills to originate in lower house, 160, n.
title of act to embrace the object, 172, n.
right of jury to determine the law in cases of libel, 399, n.
protection of person and property by law of the land, 436, n.
liberty of speech and of the press in, 521, n.
religious tests for office in, 583, n.
private property not to be taken without compensation, 703, n.

exclusions from suffrage in, 753.
SOVEREIGN POWERS,

separation of, 44, 107, 110, 117.

cannot be granted away, 151, 251, 341-346.
SOVEREIGN STATE,

what it is, 1.

American States not strictly such, 7-9.
SOVEREIGNTY,

definition of, 1.
territorial and other limits of, 2.
in America, rests in people, 36, 751.
division of powers of, in American system, 2, 51.
legislature not to bargain away, 151, 152, 341-346.
exercise of, by the people, 751.

(See ELECTIONS.)
SPECIAL JURISDICTION,

courts of, 508.
SPECIAL LAWS,

forbidden in certain States where general can be made applicable, 133,

134 n., 155, n., 156, n.
due process of law does not always forbid, 487-198.
for sale of lands, &c., 115-129.

SPECIAL PRIVILEGES,

strict construction of, 487-198.
SPECIAL SESSIONS OF LEGISLATURE,

calling of, by the governor, 160, 189.
SPEECH, FREEDOM OF,

(See LIBERTY OF SPEECH AND OF THE PRESS.)
SPEECHES,

of legislators, publication of, 569-572.
SPEED,

upon public highways, regulation of, 734, 741.
SPEEDY TRIAL,

right of accused parties to, 382.
SPIRIT OF THE CONSTITUTION,

must be found in the words employed, 87, 88.

laws in supposed violation of, 208.
STALLIONS,

prohibition of standing of, in public places, 749.
STAMP,

defence to contract based on the want of, may be taken away, 471.
cannot be required on process of State courts, 603.

upon contracts, 603, n.
STAMP ACT CONGRESS,

wbat led to, 7.
STANDING ARMIES,

jealousy of, 433.
STANDING MUTE,

of accused party, proceeding in case of, 382.
STAR CHAMBER,

court of, 423.
STATE,

definition of, 1.
sovereign, what is, 1.
distinguished from nation, 1.

limits to jurisdiction of, 2.
STATE BUILDINGS,

local taxation for, 261, n., 284, n.
STATE CONSTITUTIONS,

in existence when United States Constitution was formed, 28.
pre-existing laws, common and statutory, 28-33, 35, n.

ordinance of 1787, 31, n.

colonial charters, 35.
how modified when not containing provisions therefor, 36.
theory that the people are sovereign, 36.
general rules for modification of, 38–47.
right of people of territories to form, 38.
right to amend, rests in people as an organized body politic, 39.
will of the people must be expressed under forms of law, 39.
conventions to amend or revise, 41.
limitations by Constitution of the United States on power to amend, 41.
protection of personal rights by, 42, 44, 45.

STATE CONSTITUTIONS, continued.

unjust provisions, &c., must be enforced, 43.
what is generally to be expected in, 43.
are not the origin of individual rights, 45.
are presumed to have been drafted with care, 72.
are successors of English charters of liberty, 73.
construction of, 48.

(See CONSTRUCTION OF STATE CONSTITUTIONS.)
STATE COURTS,

removal of causes from, to United States courts, 15.
to decide finally questions of State law, 16.
protection to personal liberty by, 361, n., 426.

(See Courts.)
STATE INDEBTEDNESS,

prohibition of, will not prevent indebtedness by municipal corporations,

270, 271.
STATEMENT,

of defendant in criminal case, right to make, and effect of, 384-393.
STATES ATTORNEY,

fairness required of, 415.
STATES OF THE UNION,

in what sense sovereign, 7.
always subject to a common government, 10.
suits between, in Federal courts, 14.
division of powers between, and the nation, 2.
not suable by individuals, 14.
powers prohibited to, 19–22, 24.
faith to be given to public records of, 22.
privileges and immunities of citizens of, 19, 22, 606, 607.
agreements of, are inviolable, 334.

compacts between, are inviolable, 335,
STATUS,
of marriage, control of, by legislature, 132.

(See Divorce.)
STATUTES,

adopted from other States, construction of, 64.
directory and mandatory, 89–93.
enactment of, 158-193.

constitutional requirements must be observed, 158, 159.
common parliamentary law as affecting, 159.
the two houses must act separately, 159, 160.
to proceed in their own way in collecting information, 163, 164.
journals of houses as evidence, 164, 165.
introduction of bills, 167–170.
three several readings of bills, 96, 97, 170.
yeas and nays, entry of, 171.
what sufficient vote on passage, 171.
title of bill, formerly no part of it, 172.
constitutional provisions requiring object to be expressed, 97, 98.
these provisions mandatory, 182.

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