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PRODUCED JOBS IN INTERPRETATION AND TRANSLATION (THERE ARE

72 TRANSLATION BUSINESSES LISTED IN THE D.C. YELLOW PAGES),

SOCIAL SERVICES, SALES, HOTEL MANAGEMENT AND SO FORTH.

THIS IS NOT TO SAY, OF COURSE, THAT BUSINESSES ARE HIRING

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THE EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM, AND WE ANTICIPATE THAT THE

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"JAWBONING" THE PROBLEM (TO BORROW FROM THE JARGON OF

ANOTHER DISCIPLINE).

WHILE NATIONAL ATTENTION IS IMPORTANT, THIS APPROACH

TAKES TIME, AND WITH A FEW EXCEPTIONS, IT IS UNLIKELY THAT

LOCALITIES, WITH VERY LIMITED FINANCIAL RESOURCES,

WILL

MOVE TO ADDRESS WHAT THEY ACCURATELY PERCEIVE AS A NATIONAL

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FOR SMALL COLLEGES AND THE LESS COMMONLY TAUGHT LANGUAGES.

CONSEQUENTLY, IT IS NECESSARY TO PROVIDE FUNDS TO ASSIST

EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS AT ALL LEVELS WITH

THE COST OF INSTRUCTION, MATERIALS AND TRAINING.

EQUALLY

IMPORTANT, HOWEVER, IS THAT THESE FUNDS PROVIDE EVIDENCE

OF A COMMITMENT TO OVERCOMING A NATIONAL EMBARRASSMENT

WHICH THREATENS OUR SECURITY AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS.

THE URGENT NEED FOR INCENTIVES, AT ALL EDUCATIONAL

LEVELS, CANNOT BE OVERSTATED.

OF EQUAL IMPORTANCE, HOWEVER,

IS THAT WE CANNOT AFFORD TO CUT BACK EXISTING PROGRAMS

WHICH PROVIDE FUNDING FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION.

THE ADMINISTRATION'S PROPOSED ELIMINATION OF TITLE VI

FUNDING FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGES AND AREA STUDIES PRESENTS

YET ANOTHER THREAT TO THE STATE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDY

IN THIS COUNTRY.

THE ZERO FUNDING LEVEL FOR FY 84, WHICH

WOULD BE DECREASED FROM $26 MILLION IN FY 83, IS CLEARLY

A MOTION WHICH OVERLOOKS THE POSITIVE ATTRIBUTES OF

FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN THE LONG-TERM ECONOMIC AND STRATEGIC

INTERESTS OF OUR NATION.

TITLE VI CURRENTLY SUPPORTS NINETY NATIONAL RESOURCE

CENTERS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES,

WHERE NEARLY 80% OF THE NATION'S FOREIGN LANGUAGE TRAINING

IN THE LESS COMMONLY TAUGHT LANGUAGES OF AFRICA, ASIA,

LATIN AMERICA, THE SOVIET UNION, AND EASTERN EUROPE TAKE

PLACE.

ALTHOUGH FEDERAL FUNDS HAVE NEVER SURPASSED TEN

TO FIFTEEN PERCENT OF THE OPERATING COSTS OF THE CENTERS,

SUCH FUNDS HAVE BEEN VITAL IN ATTRACTING FURTHER FINANCIAL

SUPPORT FROM INSTITUTIONAL, STATE, AND PRIVATE SOURCES.

THE ABSENCE OF FEDERAL FUNDING COULD SEVERELY JEOPARDIZE

SUPPORT FROM THE PRIVATE SECTOR.

THE PLANNED ELIMINATION WOULD TERMINATE FELLOWSHIP

SUPPORT FOR SOME 700 GRADUATE STUDENTS ALREADY ENGAGED

IN AFRICAN, ASIAN, LATIN AMERICAN, MIDDLE EASTERN,

SOVIET

AND EASTERN EUROPEAN LANGUAGE STUDIES.

SUCH STUDIES ARE

UNIQUELY COSTLY AND LONG-TERM DUE TO THE DESIRABILITY

OF SPENDING A PORTION OF TIME CONDUCTING RESEARCH IN

THE COUNTRY OF SPECIALIZATION.

THE BUDGET WOULD FURTHER END SUPPORT FOR A MINIMUM

OF 35 GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES

PROGRAMS AS WELL AS HALT THE NEW MATCHING GRANTS PROGRAM

IN BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, AN AREA WHERE

INITIATIVES ARE VITAL.

AT A TIME WHEN LANGUAGE CONCERNS ARE BEING RECOGNIZED

AS IMPORTANT AND WE HAVE SEEN A SLIGHT AND TENUOUS REVIVAL

IN DEMAND FOR THEM, WE CAN ILL-AFFORD TO LOSE THE VERY

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I MAY HAVE SLIGHTED SOME AREAS OF IMPORTANCE AND RAISED

AS MANY QUESTIONS AS I HAVE ANSWERED.

I WOULD BE PLEASED

TO ELABORATE OR TO ANSWER ANY QUESTIONS YOU MIGHT HAVE.

Senator STAFFORD. Thank you very much, sir. I overlooked the fact that you were supposed to have been next, Reverend Byron, so now I will correct that by coming back to you.

Father BYRON. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I know we are not here to talk about student aid, but I cannot resist the opportunity to thank you for the help you gave us during the last session, and we are very grateful for that, and also to Senator Pell.

The problem that we are dealing with today, of course, is wide and it is very deep. I think the deepdown problem is one of motivation. Why do we resist the acquisition of quantitative skills? Why do we resist the study of mathematics and science? Why do we resist foreign languages?

So I think research is needed to discover explanations for the absence of motivation and then even more research to find methods for filling that void. Federal funding of such research would be a very good investment.

It is also my view that the primary target for public policy responses to this problem before your committee—the primary target should be the teachers: the attraction, the retention of excellent science, mathematics, and language teachers in our elementary, high school, college, and university classrooms.

In this I mean to include more than the recruiting and training of new teachers. I have very much in mind the renewal and the reward of those relatively underappreciated and certainly undercompensated teachers already in the classroom.

All of us need better equipment, and Federal funds should help us acquire it. But the best equipment will not assist the motivated learner unless that equipment is passed to the student through the hands of a creative, dedicated, energetic, highly motivated, and adequately compensated teacher.

It can be argued that the most important work going on in America at this hour is in the Nation's classrooms. And as that work goes, so goes just about everything we value for our national life.

So, Mr. Chairman, target on the teachers. Foster the research that we need on new instructional technologies, and I am sure the research community will respond to requests for proposals. Perhaps funds would be well spent first on a few conferences designed to identify the central research questions that touch on this problem.

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By ail means, provide fellowship and scholarship support for students interested in teaching careers, and be generous in funding renewal workshops for teachers already in the field.

Let me conclude with a plea for the house in which this work of teaching mathematics, science, and foreign language will continue to take place; namely, the physical plant and the equipment necessary for this intellectual formation. In so many cases, the house is in a state of physical decay, and the equipment is obsolete. It comes down to a question of a balanced support of both plant and persons.

Replacement and renewal of plant should accompany strategies for the recruitment and renewal of persons in the teaching profession. Such renewal will produce an environment within which the cultivation of that motivation to learn is more likely to succeed.

At bottom the problem of motivation remains to be solved. In this regard, money is not the ultimate solution, but without more money-money for teaching salaries and for learning fellowshipswithout more money, no national solution is likely to emerge.

Perhaps Federal assistance to the learners should be enhanced by special merit scholarships directed toward national need, recognizing, however, that the Nation needs poets and philosophers, as well as mathematicians and microbiologists.

With respect to teachers' salaries, I recommend Federal support of sabbaticals, those summer study stipends that we have heard of earlier today, and, of course, generous research grants. I also suggest that tax credits for teachers be considered, as well as nontaxable Federal bonus awards to full-time teachers at stated intervals in their careers. I recognize we are not here to consider tax legislation, and I also recognize this is not a policy proposal for a deficit plagued Federal budget, but it does seem to me that if we are relating this to the productivity of the Nation and to the health of the economy where investment tax credits are very freely discussed, why not give teacher tax credits so that the compensation of teachers could thus be enhanced? I do think that what I am raising here is a policy question to be taken seriously by those searching for means of motivating those who have the talent needed to overcome the national problem being considered by this committee.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Senator STAFFORD. Thank you very much, Reverend Byron. The Chair will just comment that in connection with your recommendations concerning plant, that another hat I wear is chairman of the Environment and Public Works Committee. And there we are looking under the new buzzword “infrastructure" at some jobs legislation which, as we now contemplate it, would include the refurbishing of the schools of America as a necessary job that needs to be done that could be expedited in order to put people back at work this year and next year and 1 or 2 years beyond that. So we recognize it, but we are trying to reach that part of it through a different committee and a somewhat different tack.

Father BYRON. I applaud that. I had an essay on the op-ed page of the Washington Post a month ago about the renewal of research

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