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science, and two in physics who were qualified to teach the subjects in Indiana secondary schools.
Since 1977, there has been a steady decline in math scores for entering Purdue University students. More than one-third of Purdue students are unprepared for college calculus and must take remedial math courses.
In 1982 Indiana's major State universities graduated sufficient mathematics teachers to fill only 58 percent of the vacancies listed in Indiana schools.
Indiana, at a time of critical need for training, retraining, and preparation for industries of the future, requires only 1 year of high school science and 1 year of mathematics for graduation.
The statistics for our Nation as a whole, and particularly our standing internationally, are just as dismal:
In the U.S.S.R., East Germany, the P.R.C. and Japan, the school year averages 240 days, compared with 180 days in the United States.
The secondary school system in these same countries is a balance of science and math together with social science, languages, and humanities. Students must carry seven to nine courses a semester to accommodate the demanding curriculum.
English is the language of science around the world. Today there are more adults learning English in China than there are English speaking people in the United States.
Mr. Chairman, I believe this situation points toward a crisis, not just this year in whether we can fill all our teaching positions, but on into the future, in America's ability to compete in a free world market, and to defend that free market from its adversaries.
I am certainly not one who believes the Federal Government must try to solve every crisis in America's classrooms. But there is a Federal role here, and if properly narrowed and focused, the Federal Government can provide the resources needed for equal opportunity and access to excellence.
I believe we must explore incentives for our best teachers in the sciences to continue in teaching. William Raspberry's column in yesterday's Washington Post entitled "Paying Teachers More" may point the way toward action that must be taken at the State level. If we are seeking excellence, then we must recognize it in our schools, and we must pay for it.
There are many other issues I hope will be explored during these hearings. Among the questions I would like our panelists to address are:
One, should science and math teachers at the secondary level be recognized for their results—with teaching awards, salary bonuses, and incentives for quality work?
Two, what role should the Federal Government play vis-a-vis the States and local education agencies?
Three, how can we provide incentives for American business and industry—the ultimate consumers of a well-educated labor forceto become involved with math and science education earlier in the process?
Four, what should the role of our best colleges, universities, and schools of education be in this effort?
Five, should our best and brightest students receive our best attention, allowing the United States to compete on a world scale in an increasingly competitive world?
Again Mr. Chairman, thank you for your leadership in conducting these hearings, and I look forward to questioning and reviewing the testimony of all our witnesses.
Senator PELL. You are the chairman, if you can see the next panel through. Can you stick around?
Senator QUAYLE. I can stick around for 10 minutes. I guess we are going to conclude this in 15 minutes and we can call the next panel.
Senator PELL. You are chairman.
Senator QUAYLE. I did not realize I was going to be chairman today.
Thank you very much for your input. I will read it in the record and look forward to working with you.
Which panel are we on?
Senator QUAYLE. Dr. Forbes, Dr. Frazier, Dr. Lucas, Mr. Wolfenbarger, Dr. Smith, and Dr. Parent.
Senator PELL. And the record is staying open so that Senators can submit questions at a future date.
[Whereupon, Senator Pell resumed the chair.]
Senator PELL. Gentlemen, we are under considerable time pressures here, so my hope is that you could confine your talk to as short a period as possible. In fact, from the viewpoint of the Senators, the thing that we listen to most is when you make a point, one, two, three, four, and that stands in our memory. But when monotone reading goes on, you eventually get what we call the MEGO factor, the "mine eyes glaze over” factor.
So, I would wonder if the statements could appear in full in the record and if you would abbreviate them to make these very short points. Thank you.
First, working from left to right, we would ask Ms. Adler to start out.
STATEMENT OF SUSAN B. ADLER, DIRECTOR, WASHINGTON
OFFICE, EDUCATION COMMISSION OF THE STATES, WASHINGTON, D.C.; CALVIN M. FRAZIER, COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION, STATE OF COLORADO, DENVER, COLO., AND PRESIDENT, COUNCIL OF CHIEF STATE SCHOOL OFFICERS; ROBERT WOLFEN. BARGER, VICE PRESIDENT, NEW JERSEY STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION, SUMMIT, N.J., AND DIRECTOR, NATIONAL ASSOCI. ATION OF STATE BOARDS OF EDUCATION; ROBERT L. SMITH, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, COUNCIL FOR AMERICAN PRIVATE EDUCATION, WASHINGTON, D.C.; AND M. JOAN PARENT, FIRST VICE PRESIDENT, NATIONAL SCHOOL BOARDS ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D.C.
Ms. ADLER. Good morning, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee. I am Susan Adler, director of the Washington Office for the Education Commission of the States. Roy Forbes, lead staff person to our ECS Task Force on Education for Economic Growth was scheduled to testify here this morning but was unable to join you.
The same questions that Senator Stafford raised at the outset of this hearing which focused on: (1) looking at the scope of the problem, (2) looking at what kinds of initiatives are underway by the political and educational leadership within a State to deal with this problem, and (3) looking at appropriate roles for business and industry, are being addressed by our task force. Governor Jim. Hunt of North Carolina, serves as task force chairman. Governor du Pont of Delaware and Frank Cary of IBM serve as cochairmen.
There is a blue sheet attached to my testimony that lists all the members of our task force. Many of the people on today's panel are members. Cal Frazier, to my left, serves as a task force member. The National School Board Association and the National Association of State Boards of Education also have representatives on our task force.
As our first goal, we set out to define with our members the scope of the problem. In answering that question, we built on the data that the National Assessment for Education Progress. The National Assessment has been housed with the Education Commission of the States for the last 13 years.
Senator Chiles mentioned this briefly in his testimony, and I would like to build on what he said. We have found, that students have made the greatest gains in the basic skills—how to multiply, how to read a sentence, how to do arithmetic. And, the most dramatic improvements were largely among students in the lowest 25 percent of those assessed.
The largest declines occurred for students in the highest achievement class, the students in the top 25 percent in each learning area evaluated. The problem-solving, critical thinking, analyzing, reasoning, the complex learning skills that we need in this modern technological society we are fast approaching, are the very skills that the majority of our students do not now have. In certain skill areas, up to 85 percent of our students are unable to demonstrate competence.
We took this information to our task rce. The business representatives called those skills "learning to learn" skills; define the educators as "higher order/critical thinking skills." Our task force members also told us that we need to add to that skills definition attitudes, behaviors, and motivations-some of the kinds of comments that Senator Domenici mentioned this morning. Given this definition of the problem, the second goal of our task force is to address what a State and local policy leader-governor, legislator, State board member, chief State school officer-can do in his or her own State to increase the opportunities for our high school graduates to have and use these skills.
We are asking the kinds of questions that you are asking, Senator Pell. How do you create a learning environment in your State that motivates teachers and students? What changes in the educational delivery system do we need? Should we think about extending the length of the school day? What are the costs involved? What happens if business should be approached and asked to teach in the schools? How can that be done? Where is it already being done?
Our third area of focus concentrates on the appropriate responsibilities of business and industry. What are the incentives and disincentives for business to develop our partnerships with schools? What kind of framework does business need in order to make a long-term investment.
Our task force was established at the end of November. The first phase of our work, which concentrates on students in the K-12 school years, will end in July. We will have most of our recommendations in place by May. These recommendations will include suggested actions for each of our separate leadership groups-Governors, legislators, and State local school board members, chief State school officers, and corporate executive officers.
What we have found in our meetings therefore is that state leadership has moved ahead of the Federal Government in addressing this issue. In State after State, the framework is already being set in place. And, these are frameworks which seek to tie education directly to State plans for economic growth.
Senator Pell, I mentioned on page 3 of my testimony the Murray Commission operating now in your State. You probably know that this commission is composed of Rhode Island State and local business leaders, and the Governor's own people from the State Departments of Labor, Economic Development, Education. Governor Garrahy has asked the commission to give him an economic blueprint by April of Rhode Island's development needs and where education fits into these needs.
I am encouraged in listening to your hearing this morning. The manner in which you have framed your bill, the Education for Economic Security Act, must be the way to address this problem. Education must be considered a key component of whatever economic strategies are developed to deal with our short-term and long-term economic needs.
I will stop there.
STATEMENT OF SUSAN B. ADLER
DIRECTOR, WASHINGTON OFFICE
SUB COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES COMMITTEE ON LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES
UNITED STATES SENATE
THE EDUCATION FOR ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT
RELATED SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS LEGISLATION
March 8, 1983