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National Association of Public Television Stations, Stephen Salyer, vice presi

dent and director, educational division, WNET/Thirteen, on behalf of, pre

pared statement......
National Congress of Parents and Teachers, prepared statement.
National Science Teachers Association, Robert E. Yager, president, and Bill

G. Aldridge, executive director, joint prepared statement..
Newman, Frank, president, University of Rhode Island, prepared statement ....
Nichols, Roger, director, Museum of Science, Boston, Mass., prepared state-

ment...
Parent, M. Joan, first vice president, National School Boards Association,

prepared statement..
PEER, Project on Equal Education Rights, prepared statement.....
Pontarelli, Arthur R., commissioner of elementary and secondary education,

State of Rhode Island, accompanied by Charles Shea, chairman of the
Rhode Island Board of Regents

Prepared statement
Randolph, Hon. Jennings, a U.S. Senator from the State of West Virginia,

prepared statement.....
Rhode Island Congress of Parents and Teachers, prepared statement
Roberts, Jessie S., science teacher, Welch Junior High School, Welch, W. Va.;

Dr. Quincalee Brown, executive director, American Association of Universi-
ty Women, Washington, D.C.; Maida Townsend, president, Vermont Nation-
al Education Association, Montpelier, Vt.; and Maudine Cooper, Urban

League
Rutherford, F. James, chief education officer, American Association for the

Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.; Bill G. Aldridge, executive di-
rector, National Science Teachers Association, Washington, D.C.; Stephen S.
Willoughby, president, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Wash-
ington, D.C.; and David B. Leeson, president, California Microwave, Inc.,
Sunnyvale, Calif.; and member, board of directors, American Electronics
Association, a panel.

Prepared statement
Shanker, Albert, president, American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO, pre-

pared statement..
Smith, Joshua, president, Borough of Manhattan Community College, pre-

pared statement (with attachment)....
Smith, Robert L., executive director, Council for American Private Education,

prepared statement..
Stennis, Hon. John C., a U.S. Senator from the State of Mississippi, prepared

statement (with attachments).
Sweet, David, president, Rhode Island College; and Frank Newman, president,

University of Rhode Island .
Townsend, Maida F., president, Vermont National Education Association,

prepared statement..
Tsongas, Hon. Paul E., a U.S. Senator from the State of Massachusetts

Prepared statement
Warner, Hon. John W., a U.S. Senator from the State of Virginia

Prepared statement
Willoughby, Stephen S., president, National Council of Teachers of Math-

ematics, prepared statement.
Wolfenbarger, Robert, director, National Association of State Boards of Edu-
cation, prepared statement........

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Articles, publications, etc.:

A Nickel-a-Book Tax? by William J. Byron, from the Washington Post,

Thursday, February 3, 1983.....
American Federation of Teachers Report on the Math/Science Teacher

Shortage, Curriculum Standards, Business Involvement and Computer

Activity.
Criteria for Assessing Math/Science Education Proposals.
Low-Tech Education Threatens the High-Tech Future, from Business

Week, March 28, 1983.........
National Assessment Findings and Educational Policy Questions, by Rex-

ford Brown, from the Education Commission of the States, December
1982 .....

312

451

152

636

607

675 624 626 619 621

61

138

448

325 602

596

94 Page 741

220

528

468

525

756

174 214

229 233 234

Articles, publications, etc.

Continued
Science, Museums and Science Education, by Bonnie Van Dor, executive

director, Association of Science Technology Centers, February 10, 1983 .. Communications to:

Garn, Hon. Jake, a U.S. Senator from the State of Utah, from Bill G.

Aldridge, executive director, National Science Teachers Association,
Washington, D.C., February 21, 1983 (with attachments)...
Kennedy, Hon. Edward M., a U.S. Senator from the State of Massachu-

setts, from William L. Lucas, assistant superintendent, Los Angeles
Unified School District, Los Angeles, Calif., March 22, 1983..
McCurdy, Hon. Dave, a Representative in Congress from the State of

Oklahoma, from Charles B. Saunders, Jr., vice president for govern-
mental relations, American Council on Education, Washington, D.C.,

February 18, 1983.
Stafford, Hon. Robert T., chairman, Subcommittee on Education, Arts
and Humanities, from:
Lucas, William L., assistant superintendent, Los Angeles Unified

School District, Los Angeles, Calif., March 22, 1983...
Roukema, Hon. Marge, John N. Erlenborn, and William F. Goodling,

Representatives in Congress, April 12, 1983.
Questions and answers:

Responses of Bill G. Aldridge, executive director, National Science Teachers Association to questions asked by:

Senator Stafford (with enclosures)

Senator Pell (with enclosures)........
Responses of Stephen §. Willoughby, president, National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics to questions asked by:

Senator Pell
Senator Dodd.

Senator Stafford....
Responses of Dr. David B. Leeson, president, California Microwave, Inc.
to questions asked by Senator Stafford in letters dated:

March 10, 1983

March 25, 1983
Responses of Robert L. Smith, executive director, Council for American

Private Education to questions asked by Senator Stafford....
Responses of Gilbert D. Johnson, manager, training and education, Elec-

tronic Data Systems Corp. to questions asked by Senators Pell and

Dodd.
Responses of Robert Wolfenbarger, vice president, New Jersey State

Board of Education to questions asked by Senator Stafford
Responses of Calvin M. Frazier, president, Council of Chief State School

Officers, to questions asked by Senator Stafford..
Responses of M. Joan Parent, first vice president, National School Boards

Association to questions asked by Senator Stafford ..
Responses of Susan B. Adler, director, Washington office, Education Com-

mission of the States to questions asked by Senator Stafford
Responses of Albert Shanker, president, American Federation of Teach-

ers to questions asked by Senator Stafford Responses of Willard McGuire, president, National Education Association

to questions by Senator Stafford Responses of Patricia Albjerg Graham, dean, Harvard University to ques

tions asked by Senator Stafford... Responses of E. K. Fretwell Jr., chancellor, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, to questions asked by:

Senator Stafford...

Senator Dodd and Pell.
Responses of Howard Mehlinger, dean, Indian University to questions

asked by Senator Stafford...
Responses of William J. Byron, S.J., president, Catholic University of
America to questions asked by:

Senator Stafford..

Senators Pell and Dodd.
Responses of Richard I. Brod, director, Foreign Language Programs,

MLA, to questions asked by Senator Stafford
Responses of Joshua L. Smith, president, Borough of Manhattan Commu-

nity College to questions asked by Senator Stafford.

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246

248

252

255

259

323

495

496

501 505

506

509 511

513

515 Page 517

Questions and answers-Continued

Responses of Gilbert D. Johnson, manager, training and education, Elec

tronic Data Systems Corp. to questions asked by Senator Stafford Responses of William L. Lucas, assistant superintendent, Los Angeles

Unified School District, to followup questions asked by Senator Stafford
in letters dated:

March 25, 1983.
April 13, 1983
April 14, 1983

530 534 540

EDUCATION FOR ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT

TUESDAY, MARCH 8, 1983

U.S. SENATE,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
OF THE COMMITTEE ON LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES,

Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:03 a.m., in room SD-430, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Senator Robert T. Stafford (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Senators Stafford, Pell, and Quayle.
Also present: Senators Domenici, Hart, and Chiles.

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR STAFFORD
Senator STAFFORD. The Subcommittee on Education, Arts and
Humanities will come to order.

I am very pleased to convene this first day of hearings on legislative responses to the problems of mathematics, science, and foreign language education, problems which impede America's economic growth and undermine our national security.

Legislation to deal with the critical shortage of teachers qualified to instruct students in mathematics, science, and foreign languages is urgently needed in the United States if this country is to compete adequately with other nations in an increasingly competitive economic arena.

The litany of our deficiencies in these areas is appalling. Nationwide, according to my most recent information, 22 percent of teaching posts in mathematics are unfilled. In 1981, half the newly hired instructors in mathematics and science in secondary schools were not certified to teach those subjects.

Virtually five times as many science and mathematics teachers left the teaching profession for nonteaching jobs than left due to retirement. Fewer than one-half of the high school graduates have taken even 1 year of a foreign language as a part of their curriculum.

Certainly, education is principally a State and local responsibility, and our State and local school boards and our colleges and universities must play a major role in responding to these glaring deficiencies. So, too, must industry and our educational system fashion a cooperative approach to solving these problems.

Yet, there is also the national problem of our ability to cope generally with rapidly changing technology and changing labor-force requirements, and a pressing national need to improve our international economic competitiveness. These national problems demand a response at the Federal level.

Numerous bills to address these problems have been introduced in the House of Representatives on both sides of the aisle, and our colleagues in the House have moved quickly to pass legislation to deal with them.

I, too, believe that there is a most serious and urgent need for legislation, for any legislative response to improve teaching and learning in math, science, and foreign languages will have to have as its goal the development of a more technically competent and knowledgeable citizenry. This is indeed a long-range goal, but we must act deliberately and soon if it is to be achieved.

On February 17, Senator Pell and I introduced S. 530, the Education for Economic Security Act. I believe that this legislation represents a good start in the subcommittee's efforts to fashion a measured approach to a complex set of problems in mathematics, science, and foreign language education, problems which cut across our education system at all levels.

I recognize that our legislative approach falls within the jurisdiction of the Department of Education. Therefore, it should be seen as the foundation for a more comprehensive approach which includes a merit-based program under the aegis of the National Science Foundation.

I intend to work closely with the chairman and ranking member of the full Labor and Human Resources Committee, Senators Hatch and Kennedy, under whose jurisdiction the NSF falls, to develop such an initiative.

Through our hearings, we hope to accomplish three things: first, to determine the nature and magnitude of our problems of mathematics, science, and foreign language education; second, to assess current and prospective initiatives at all levels of government and within the private sector to address these problems; and third, to develop the most appropriate Federal legislative approach which will help us to strengthen America's economy and security.

I look forward to this challenge and to working closely, as always, with my subcommittee colleagues, and particularly our ranking member, Senator Pell, who I hope will be here later. A severe illness suddenly developed in his staff and that is why he is not here now. We will enter his statement into the record at this point. [The following was received for the record:)

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR PELL Senator PELL. At the outset, Mr. Chairman, I want to commend you for holding this, the first of several hearings on S. 530, the Education for Economic Security Act, and on related science and mathematics legislative proposals before this subcommittee.

These hearings could well be the most important education hearings we will hold this year. Their importance can be seen in the number of bills that have already been introduced in this area.

We are fortunate indeed this morning to hear from Senators Domenici, Hart, and Chiles. Each of these distinguished colleagues of mine has either introduced or will soon be introducing legislation in the math and science areas. I eagerly look forward to their testimony.

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