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an impressible and excitable temperament, are not dangerous in themselves, and after a short experience will pass away, not to return again for months or perhaps years. A difficult case of discipline, the anxiety concerning an approaching examination, or a disappointment in the performance of some model scholar on a day of public exercises, has often resulted in a raking headache, and a nervous prostration which was materially relieved by a "hearty crying spell," but left its traces in sunken eyes and oppressive languor, the next day; but the disease is not serious or generally dang erous, and the fair invalid usually regains her vivacity in a day or


More serious, because more enduring and less amenable to treatment, are the various forms of neuralgic suffering, sometimes appearing in the form of what the French have well named tic-douloureux, affecting the nerves of the fifth pair, and running along the jaw, ascending to the temple, or extending in sharply defined lines along the scalp, occasionally inflicting terrible agony in the region of the ear; at other times affecting the muscles of the chest or limbs, in that form now designated as rheumatalgia; and everywhere causing a sharp, wearisome, unendurable pain, which may leave the part affected in five minutes, never to return, or may come on in regular or irregular paroxysms for months and even years.

The presence of this painful affection indicates previous disorder of the system, and though in rare cases the result of some local irritation of the nerves, such as the presence of decayed teeth, or of some spiculæ of bone, or other irritant pressing upon a nerve, it is far oftener the consequence of a reduced state of the system, the result of over-exertion, or prostration from climatic or other influences. It need not be said that the sufferer from neuralgia is not in a fit condition to teach; but if, as sometimes may be the case, the labor which has become a most intolerable burden, must be continued for a time, resort should be had to tonics, and especially to some of the preparations of iron.

A more frequent class of diseases incident to the teacher's profession, is the legion of affections of the air passages-catarrhal, buccal, laryngeal, bronchial, and pharyngeal. In common with members of the clerical and legal professions, public lecturers, public singers, and large numbers of persons of no profession, enlarged tonsils and uvula, catarrh, sore throat (the common name of

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a half-dozen distinct diseases), occasionally loss of voice, and some bleeding from the throat are common diseases among the teachers of our cities and large towns. There seems to be satisfactory evidence that these affections are on the increase, not only among teachers, but among the other different classes we have named.Popular opinion assigns the sudden changes in our climate as the cause of them; but popular opinion in this, as in so many other cases, is in the wrong. The climatic changes were as numerous and sudden thirty or forty years ago as now, but these diseases did not then prevail to any thing like the same extent. The sceret

of the prevalence of throat affections and other diseases of the air passages at the present day, is impure air, acting as a poison upon the air passages when these tissues are in the highest state of excitement. In former times, our school-houses were not by any means air-tight; the air came whistling up through the floor, found its way in around the window-sashes, and very often, too, through the broken panes of glass; and when the door was opened, Great Gust walked, or rather rushed in, to the sad confusion, often, of writing-books and paper. Now, our school-houses are of brick or stone, the floors and windows made tight (the latter often by the use of some patent weather-strip); and into this close room is forced hot air, deprived of all its moisture by passing over the redhot flues of a furnance; or still worse, the air of the room is made intolerable by the presence of a great, red-hot cast-iron stove in the room. Ventilation is very inadequate, a small hole at the top of the room, or perhaps two, being the only outlets for the mass of carbonic acid gas, and other irrespirable gases, which fill the room, and which being generally heavier than atmospheric air, refuse to rise and pass out of these holes.

Teachers and scholars, intent on progress in study, breathe this foul air, till the head throbs with pain, the eyes burn and smart, the throat feels husky and parched, and every effort at study or teaching, calling the blood more fully to the brain and chest, only aggravates these sensations; and the same state of things recurring from day to day, the throat, lungs, and nostrils become permanently disordered, and ulcerations and other forms of irritation of the air-passages are the result. This class of diseases, from their greater exposure to them, are more prevalent among the female than the male teachers of our schools; and it is perfectly within

bounds to say, that the health of some thousands of our female teachers is permanently impaired, and the lives of hundreds sacrificed to the ignorance and stupidity of those who build our schoolhouses; and when we consider that the children who attend these schools suffer to an almost equal extent, the injurious effects of this ignorance are almost incalculable.

We can say but little in regard to the means of prevention of these diseases, because in most instances the teacher does not realize the existence of danger until his health is seriously impaired. We may recommend, however, that the teacher should exert all his or her influence to have the ventilation of the school-room improved, where it is defective; that in default of the existence of architectural means of ventilation, the windows should be dropped from the top, water placed where it may slowly evaporate from the heat of the furnace or stove, and the air of the room be thoroughly changed by opening of the windows, at recess, as well as in the intervals, if there are such, as there should be, between the morning and afternoon sessions of the school. While due regard should be had to wearing seasonable clothing, we cannot recommend the use of heavy furs, neckerchiefs of merino or other woollen material, respirators, or any other nonsence of the sort, to protect the throat and chest from cold. All such measures, by retaining the insensible transpiration of the skin, or obstructing the free respiration of pure air, do more hurt than good. The throat should be free from any pressure, and have as little clothing upon it as is consistent with moderate comfort. Pure air, and plenty of it, is the best restorative to these unhealthy conditions of the air-passages. It will be for the advantage of the teachers to have, at all times, a considerable walk to and from the school-room. The lungs and respiratory apparatus will thereby be invigorated, and such open-air exercise is worth infinitely more to his or her health, than the movements necessitated by the exercises of the school-room. The diet of the teacher should be regulated, at least in quantity. The almost universal tendency is to eat too much, and of food which does not readily digest; and so intimate is the sympathy between the stomach and brain that the activity of the one inevitably involves the excitement of the other; and the attempt to keep both actively employed at the same time, imperils the health. For this reason, the food taken by the teacher during the noon recess should be

simple, easily digestible, and very moderate in quantity; and a full meal should not be taken, until the care and mental anxiety and disquietude of the day are laid aside.

This leads us to speak of indigestion, or dyspepsia, which, though by no means peculiar to teachers, is not an infrequent disorder among them. This is invariably the result of errors in diet, and want of sufficient open-air exercise. The errors of diet may be in one direction or another: either from a diet too meager and scanty, or too exclusively vegetable; or from an excess in quantity, and consisting of too much carbonaceous food, fats, butter in excess, etc.; or too highly seasoned food. Often, too, the food is taken with too little mastication, and when the mind is preoccupied with some difficult problem, or disquieted by some carking care. Food taken under such circumstances, will not digest, and will soon impair the powers of the stomach.

Still, we cannot caution the teacher too strongly, especially if inclined to physiological studies, or infected with any dietetic theory, against watching too closely the effect of any article of food on his stomach, or considering constantly whether it is not possible that this article or that may affect his health. The stomach is an admirable servant, but it will not endure watching; and if its action be constantly noticed, it will very soon be found that that action will become abnormal. Blessed, indeed, is that teacher who is never made conscious, by any sensations of discomfort, that he possesses a stomach.

Affections of the liver, such as enlargement, torpor, obstructions of the gall-duct, or of the portal circulation, hemorrhoids, etc., are not infrequent among teachers, as well as other persons engaged in literary pursuits, and those passing an indoor and sedentary life. These are to be prevented, or relieved, by frequent bathing and friction, especially in the region of the liver; by regulation of the bowels; by diet; the wearing of flannel or woollen under-clothing next the skin all the year round, and by vigorous and uniform exercise.

Affections of the heart, except that class which do not come fairly within the physician's province, are not common among teachers. When they occur, they are usually either hereditary, or induced by rheumatism or a sedentary life. In either case, the mischief is accomplished before prevention can have the opportunity

of warding it off. There are, however, simulated affections of the heart, such as palpitation, severe pain in the region of the heart, irregularity of pulse, and apparent cessation of its action for one or two strokes, which are really only disorders of the nervous system, the result of a low grade of action.

Rheumatism and its allied diseases are not so common among 'teachers now, as they were thirty or forty years since. These discases are dependent, to a very considerable extent, upon atmospheric causes, though the torpid condition of the liver has often considerable to do with them. The use of flannel under-clothing for the limbs is one of the best preventives, as "patience and flannel" form, perhaps, the surest cure. Frequent bathing, in warm or cold baths, the capacity of the subject for speedy reaction being the guide as to which shall be chosen, will be found a powerful adjuvant to the maintenance of sound health.

But we must close as we began, by insisting that teaching is, in itself, beyond most others, a healtful profession; that if untainted by hereditary infirmities, the teacher using sufficient open-air exercise, and a well-regulated diet, may reasonably hope to attain to as venerable an age as the worthies whom we have enumerated.With better ventilated school-rooms, a simple but healthful diet, and vigorous and regular exercise, the coming generation may see venerable white-haired patriarchs, and equally venerable matrons, the teachers of more than half a century's experience.-Dr. L. P. Brockett, in Educational Monthly.

Marking and Averages.

THE prevailing system of marking daily recitations, adopted in all our institutions of learning, though conducive to the highest good, is attended with great labor, and much that is useless. Under the college and public-school system of this country it is the only method by which trustees, committees, and parents can know the real and comparative standard of the scholar. By it the spirit of honorable emulation can alone be secured, and it is the only true standard of promotion in the class, or to higher classes and schools.

Having governed a school of one hundred pupils for some time by this instrumentality alone, I have sought to make it as thorough

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