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is necessary to enforce obedience to a lawful command, or to ac complish a lawful purpose, the injury thus received is not the punishment for the excess or cruelty of which the master may be held criminally liable.

The boy testifies that he was struck on the head with the butt end of a horse-whip. The fact is, no such instrument was used. He swears, too, that he was knocked down, and afterwards lifted by his feet, and his head thrown against the iron support of a chair. This story is not only improbable, but its falsity is abundantly established by the testimony of other witnesses, teachers as well as pupils. He states, that he made use of no improper language. On the contrary, it appears that he was exceedingly profane and indecent in his remarks; and on other material points he is so clearly in error, that I am compelled to take his whole statement with much allowance.

The boy was whipped by Mr. Lewis, after getting him into the recitation-room, but I do not find that the whipping was either cruel or excessive, and though severe, taking into consideration all the circumstances under which it was inflicted, it was not in my judgment unreasonable, but entirely justifiable. The accused is therefore discharged.-American Educational Monthly.

NOTE.-The above decision was upon a case brought by the State of Connecticut against John G. Lewis, principal of one of the public schools in New Haven, charging him with an assault and battery on one Francis M. Hoban, a pupil in the school, on the 21st day of July last.-ED.

VALUE OF VOCAL MUSIC IN SCHOOLS.-I here introduce a fact which has been suggested to me by my profession, and that is, that the exercise of the organs of the breast, by singing, contributes very much to defend them from those diseases to which the climate and other causes expose them. The Germans are seldom afflicted with consumption, nor have I ever known but one instance of spitting blood among them. This, I believe, is in part occasioned by the strength which their lungs acquire by exorcising them frequently in vocal music, for this constitutes an essential branch of their education.-DR. Rusu.

Editorial Miscellany.

Teachers' Wages.

No class of labor is so poorly paid for as teaching. It is a conceded principle that demand fixes prices. We fail to see it in the wages of teachers. The demand for teachers throughout the West and South is far greater than the supply. Young men and women are plenty who wish to teach and try to teach, but fail. There is a large class of these would-be teachers. Many districts will hire an inefficient teacher, if he can be secured for $50, or $100, less than one whom they know to be an excellent and experienced teacher. This is not only true of the country but of towns. Good teachers, then, are compelled to teach for a mere pittance or move to other States, where their labors are better appreciated. We know of several of our best teachers who have recently left this State and gone to Missouri or California.

A good machinist receives from $80, to $150, per month; stonemasons and carpenters from $50, to $100; clerks from $50, to $200; miners $45; wood-sawyers, (if they can saw one cord per day), $50; the average wages for teachers is only $36, for males, and $22, for females. It is a great shame. The inducements for young men to fit themselves for teachers is poor indeed, and there is no wonder that there are so few professional teachers; the wonder is that there are so many. There are many teachers that have spent seven and eight years of hard study after leaving the common school, and from $1000, to $3000 in money, in obtaining an education. It is truly poor encouragement to such as these to know that men with nothing invested, and no recommendation but muscle, receive greater compensation than they. Just so long as unskilled labor and labor requiring no capital except time spent in acquiring a trade, and even then but two or three years, command better pay our American youths will resort to those trades that

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pay best," for in America there is no aristocracy of labor; but money! money! is the cry, it matters little how it is obtained.

Quack physicians we despise and shun; unskilled artisans look in vain for employment; a lawyer, who understands not his profession, whistles for his clients; but the young man who teaches three months in a year merely for the money to help him along, using this most important of all professions simply as a steppingstone to some other profession or occupation has no difficulty in getting employment; as an only requirement he must answer a few questions which a child of fourteen ought to be able to answer. When will this end? Only when teachers are encouraged by suitable compensation. The State is about to establish Normal Schools for the especial education of teachers, but we anticipate that the attendance will be very irregular (especially of males), and but few will complete the prescribed course unless some inducement is held out as to better pay. California pays her male teachers $76, and her female teachers $60, per month. If she does not have better teachers than any other State in the Union, the reason is that distance and expense prevent the better class from migrating thither; but from what we learn the schools of that State are officered by better teachers and are in a more flourishing condition than schools in other new States. In many States, the wages of teachers have been increased 50 per cent. since the war; even this is small enough and is not in proportion with the increase in price of other things consumed by the teacher. While the State is making bountiful provision for the education of teachers, we hope the people will make some effort to support and preserve them. Teachers never get rich from their profession; they simply live, and instead of traveling during their vacations to recreate the mind and body, they are forced to go into the workshop or on to the farm or quietly remain at home and amuse themselves with the dish-cloth and broom. We hope for a reformation, but unless it come we shall feel like inciting teachers to a revolution.

"IF your hands cannot be usefully employed, attend to the cultivation of your mind."

THE following subjects were discussed at the last annual meeting of the Indiana State Teachers' Association: "A Course of Study for Common Schools;" "The Political and Social Relations of Teachers;""The Practicability of Cultivating Taste and the Arts in the Public Schools;" "A State Reform School;" "Mode of inspiring pupils with Enthusiasm in Study, and cultivating Habits of Self-Reliance;" "The Teacher's Work, and the Relation of the Study of Nature to that Work;" "The Study and Teaching of Physiology in Schools;" "The Teacher may be a Man;" "Some of the Causes of Failure in Teaching;" "What are some of the Duties and Privileges of Parents;" The Association earnestly request the aid of their delegation in Congress in the passage of the measure establishing a National Bureau of Education.

NOTICE. Copies of the proceedings of the late session of the National Teachers' Association, held at Harrisburg, in August last, can be procured by addressing James Cruikshank, L. L. D., of Albany, New York, chairman of the committee of publication. Price 50 cts.

We would advise all teachers to procure a copy, if for no other purpose than to secure the valuable article on "Object Teaching" by Prof. Greene.

NATIONAL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.-The meeting of the NATIONAL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION will be held at Indianapolis, in the State of Indiana, commencing on the 15th of August. Full programmes will be published in due time. All educational journals are requested to copy this notice.

J. P. WICKERSHAM, President.

A CHILD'S faith in his teacher is well illustrated by the following incident: "A little boy, disputing with his sister on some subject," exclaimed, "It is true, for teacher says so; and if she says so, it is so, if ain't so."

A Teacher Killed by his Pupil.

The following tragic circumstance happened in St. Omër, Decatur Co., Ind. Mr. Franklin Pierce, Principal, had occasion to reprove William Favors, a pupil in the Primary Department, on Friday morning, the 2d of February. William cursed his teacher and in the afternoon, with two of his brothers, brought rocks, and clubs, secreting them in their desks, swearing vengeance on the teacher, should he attempt to correct any of them. Mr. Pierce had an interview with the father of the boys, who was very insolent. Mr. Pierce said the boy must apologize to the school or the parent must punish him or he (Pierce) would. Mr. Favors took his children from the school, but they returned on Wednesday the 7th inst. Mr. Pierce with two switches went to the room where William was and told him he must acknowledge that he had done wrong. William denied bringing rocks and clubs to school, but it being proved by the whole school, Mr. Pierce said he would correct him for lying also; he struck him over the shoulders, and William snatching the switch struck his teacher with his fist. While the two were struggling, Harvey Favors, seizing a stick of wood, twenty-five inches long and weighing fourteen pounds, struck Mr. Pierce upon the side of the head; he fell but was caught up; some citizens arriving he was advised to go to his boarding place. He walked two hundred yards and seemed perfectly conscious. Notwithstanding he received medical attention, he died in five hours. The right side of his skull was found to be broken. The murderer on arriving home told his mother he "had settled it." He is now in jail awaiting his trial. The teacher was a young man of exemplary character, beloved by his pupils and friends. The funeral was a sorrowful occasion to all, particularly to the parents of the deceased, who were present from a neighboring town. A resolution was passed by the citizens expelling the Favors family from the school forever. Parents should take warning from this sad tragedy, and learn to appreciate the worth of home government.

Motto of Lord Bacon, "Inveniam viam aut faciam." I will find a way or make one.

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