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PREFACE.

It

appears from Peck's Collection of divers curious Historical Pieces, &c. (appended to his 'Memoirs, &c. of Oliver Cromwell,) p. 14. that a Latin play on this subject had been written. "Epilogus Caesaris interfecti, quomodo in scenam prodiit ea res, acta in ecclesia Christi, Oxon. Qui Epilogus a Magistro Ricardo Eedes et scriptus et in proscenio ibidem dictus fuit A. D. 1582.” Dr. Eedes is enumerated among the best tragic writers of that time.

Stephen Gosson in his School of Abuse, 1579, mentions a play entitled The History of Cæsar and Pompey.

William Alexander, afterwards Earl of Sterline, wrote a tragedy on the story and with the title of Julius Cæsar. It

may be presumed that Shakspeare's play was posterior to bis; for lord Sterline, when he composed his Julius Cæsar, was a very young author. The death of Cæsar, which is not exhibited but related to the audience, forms the catastrophe of his piece. In the two plays many parallel passages are found, which might, perhaps, have proceeded only from the two authors drawing from the same source.

However, there are some reasons for thinking the coincidence more than accidental.

A

passage in The Tempest (Act IV. sc. 1.) seems to have been copied from one in Darius, another play of Lord Sterline's, printed at Edinburgh in 1603. His Julius Caesar

appeared in 1607, at a time when he was little acquainted with English writers; for both these pieces abound with scotticisms, which, in the subsequent folio edition, 1637, he corrected. But neither The Tempest nor the Julius Cæsar of our author was printed till 1623.

At all events it appears more probable that Shakspeare was indebted to Lord Sterline, than that Lord Sterline borrowed from Shakspeare.

The real length of time in Julius Cæsar is as follows: About the middle of February A. U. C. 709, (43 B. C.) a frantic festival, sacred to Pan, and called Lupercalia , was held in honour of Cæsar, when the regal crown was offered to him by Antony.

On the 15th of March in the same year, he was slain. Nov. 27, A. U. C. 709, (43 B. C.) the triumvirs met at a small island, formed by the river Rhenus, near Bononia, und there adjusted their cruel proscription. – A. U. C. 710, (42 B. C.) Brutus and Cassius

The last of the Romans“ as they were called, were defeated near Philippi in Macedonia.

JULIUS CÆSAR.

(1607.)

PERSONS REPRESENTED.

Julius CÆSAR,

A Soothsayer. OCTAVIUS CÆSAR, Triumvirs' after Cinna, a Poet. MARCUS ANTONIUS, the Death of Ju- Another Poet. M. Æmil. LEPIDUS, lius Cæsar. Lucilius, TITiniUS, MESSALA, young CICERO, PUBLIUS, POPILIUS LENA; Cato, and VOLUMNIUS; Friends to Senators.

Brutus and Cassius. MARCUS BRUTUS,

VARRO, Clitus, Claudius, Strato, Cassius,

LUCIUS, DARDANIUS; Servants to Casca,

Brutus. TREBONIUS,

Conspirators a

PINDARUS, Servant to Cassius. LIGARIUS,

gainst Julius DECIUS 2 BRUTUS,

Cæsar.

CALPHURNIA, Wife to Cæsar. METELLUS CIMBER,

Portia, Wife to Brutus. Cinna, Flavius and MARULLUS, Tribunes. 3 Senators. Citizens, Guards, AtARTEMIDORUS, a Sophist 4 of Cnidos.5 tendants, &c. SCENE, during a great Part of the Play, at Rome: afterwards at

Sardis;6 and near Philippi.?

1) There were in Rome different Pompey and Crassus had done before classes of triumvirs, or triumviri, i.e. them, who concluded the first triumthree men, three joint commissioners, virate in the year 60 before Christ. three colleagues who held an office 2) This person was not Decius, but together, or were otherwise associat- Decimus Brutus. The poet (as Voled in public business; for instance, taire has done since) confounds the triunviri coloniae deducendae , for set-characters of Marcus and Decimus. tling new colonists and distributing Decimus Brutus was the most cheland among them;tr.carceris, who had rished by Cæsar of all his friends, the charge of the public prison; tr. while Marcus kept aloof, and declined monetales, masters or directors of the so large a share of his favours and mint, and others. Tr. reipublicae con- honours, as the other had constantly stituendae, i. e. for repairing the con- accepted. stitution of the state, was a title as 3) The tribuni plebis, tribunes of the sumed by M. Antony, Lepidus and people, were from the ordinary rank Octavianus after the death of Cæsar, of citizens, but possessed great powin the year 43 before Christ, as Cæsar, er: they could by the word Veto,

1

JULIUS CÆSAR.

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protest against any decrees of the vel from town to town, and display
senate, and proceedings of magis- their skill for money; for this pur-
trates, whether prejudicial to the pose they caused a subject to be pro-
citizens or not; they were sacrosan- posed on which they immediately
cti, i. e. no one dared, under pain of proceeded to dispute. Hence the
death, to lay hands upon them. Their name came to be used by way of
origin was as follows. When the contempt, especially since many of
people were oppressed by debt, and these persons concerned themselves
were maltreated by their creditors, only with useless subtilties.
and received no protection from the 5) Cnidos, a town of Caria (a pro-
senate, in the year 492 b. Ch., they vince of Asia Minor, on the Ægean
removed from Rome to the hill call-sea), in which Venus was especially
ed Mons Sacer, and did not return worshipped.
until the senate granted them magis 6) Sardis, and more frequently plu-
trates for themselves, to be elected ral Sardes, or Sardeis, ium, the chief
from their own body, who should town of Lydia, a country of Asia Mi-
protect them from the oppression of nor, famous on account of king Cree-
the senate. At first there were two sus, and because the Etrurians are
of them, afterwards five, finally ten. | said to have sprung from Lydia.

4) A sophist, i. e. a learned man 7) Philippi, orum, a town of Macewho professed philosophy and rheto- donia, celebrated for the defeat of toric, and instructed others therein Brutus and Cassius by Antony and for hire. These sophists used to tra- | Octavianus.

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АстІ.

SCENE I. Rome. A Street. Enter FLAVIUS, MARULLUS, and a Rabble 1 of Citizens. Flav. Hence; home, you idle creatures, get you home; Is this a holiday? What! know you not, Being mechanical, you ought not walk, Upon a labouring day, without the sign of your profession? — Speak, what trade art thou ?

i Cit. Why, sir, a carpenter.

MAR. Where is thy leather apron and thy rule?
What dost thou with thy best apparel on?
You, sir; what trade are you?

2 Cit. Truly, sir, in respect of a fine workman, I am but, as you would say, a cobbler. 2

MAR. But what trade art thou? Answer me directly.

2 Cit. A trade, sir, that, I hope, I may use with a safe conscience; which is, indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles. 3

MAR. What trade, thou knaye; thou naughty knave, what trade?

2 Cit. Nay, I beseech you, sir, be not out with me: 4 yet,

if you be out, sir, I can mend you. MAR. What meanest thou by that? Mend me, thou 2 Cit. Why, sir, cobble you. Flav. Thou art a cobbler, art thou ?

2 Cit. Truly, sir, all that I live by is, with the awl: I meddle with no tradesman’s matters, but with awl.5 I am,

saucy fellow!

1) A tumultuous crowd, an assem 4) To be out means to fall out, to bly of low people.

scold; and the following be out 2) A quibble: a cobbler meaning means, to have worn out shoes a mender of old shoes, and a clumsy through which the toes appear. workman in general: Stümper. The 5) Where our author uses words quibble may be expressed in some equivocally, he imposes some diffiway by the German words, Flicker culty on his editor with respect to and Schuhflicker.

the mode of exhibiting them in print. 3) Fletcher has the same quibble: Shakspeare, who wrote for the stage, “If thou dost this, there shall be no not for the closet, was contented if more shoe - mending; Every man his quibble satisfied the ear. I have shall have a care of his own soul. with the other modern editors, print

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