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BULLETIN NO. 16.
STATE OF MICHIGAN,
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.
LANSING, January 2, 1907. To Commissioners, Examiners and Teachers:
The commissioners present at the annual meeting at Battle Creek expressed their approval of the plan pursued last year for conducting teachers' examinations. I therefore submit the plan and special subjects for 1907. Attention is called to the change in rule 9 governing two trials for second and first grade certificates. Applicants must write all the third grade subjects for all certificates at one examination.
The special topics given herewith apply to third grade only.
Commissioners should see that these circulars are sent to all teachers, prospective teachers and graduating classes.
ARITHMETIC. June. Percentage with its various applications.
Mensuration: surfaces, solids, square root, cube root.
Mental analysis; commercial forms. August. Fractions, common and decimal; denominate numbers; short methods of mul
tiplying and dividing integers and fractions. Mental analysis.
Business arithmetic including commercial forms and business problems. October. Fundamental processes; factoring and its applications; analysis of difficult
problems in fractions and percentage; proportion; occupations.
Adverbs, comparison, and all forms and uses.
· Infinitives, participles, gerunds. August. Pronouns and their inflections.
Adjectives, comparison, and all forms and uses.
Construction of words.
Verbs and their modifications.
Mathematical geography-circles, zones, latitudes, longitude causes of seasons
day and night, etc.
Europe--divisions, physiography, resources, transportation, cities, commerce ,
education, forms of government, mining.
United States-same as Europe.
Asia--same as Europe.
Canada-same as Europe.
General study of continents, formation and physiography.
June. United States Constitution.
Powers of Congress.
National prohibitions and state prohibitions.
Officers-duties and powers.
UNITED STATES HISTORY.
A study of the Constitution.
The Civil War and reconstruction.
a. Old world conditions.
d. The wars of this period.
a. Biographies of present day statesmen.
e. Other events.
a. French occupancy.
Marquette, La Salle, Peter White.
Ordinance of 1787.
KINDERGARTEN, MUSIC AND DRAWING CERTIFI
The subjects of music, drawing and kindergarten instruction have become recognized parts of the course of study of nearly all our graded and city schools. The first of these to be introduced was the kindergarten, the law authorizing it being passed in 1891. In 1901 the legislature provided the means for recognizing kindergarten, music, and drawing teachers and granting certificates to the same. The statute placed this power in the hands of the State Superintendent, and he is also given power to approve institutions where special courses are given in these subjects. During the year
1907 the State Superintendent has issued 71 kindergarten cerCertificates tificates, 59 music certificates and 49 drawing certificates. These
certificates are based upon the completion of the required course
of study as provided in the statute and upon the approval of the State Superintendent of the institutions where the instruction was secured, and they qualify the holders to teach these subjects for life in the public schools of the State. For the information of superintendents and teachers I give herewith a list of the institutions whose courses of study have been approved by the State Superintendent and whose graduates are recognized in Michigan. The following is the lists:
Oberlin College Kindergarten Training School.
SCHOOL OFFICERS' MEETINGS.
In order that the Department may come into closer touch with the people of the State, and particularly with school officers, the plan of holding in each county annually a school officers' meeting has been inaugurated, and during the fall of 1907 meetings have been held in the following counties: Iosco, Bay, Huron, Saginaw, Allegan, Calhoun, Oakland, and Macomb, and during the following year this plan will be continued until meetings have been held in every county of the State.
It is unsatisfactory to attempt to reach those in charge of
the public schools by means of reports or circulars. Greater organiza- and better results will certainly be secured through a personal
acquaintance and contact. The meetings thus far held have been very largely attended, and in some of the counties practically every school officer was present. The plan pursued thus far has been to take up matters of school law and the business administration of school affairs, giving particular attention to the use and care of school moneys and the duties and limitations of the officers who were elected as representatives of the people. Full and frank discussions have been given in regard to all these matters, and in each county a permanent organization of the officers has been effected. The purpose of this permanent organization is that there shall be at least an annual meeting of all the school officers of the county under the general direction of the Department, but under the specific direction of the county commissioner of schools, who is elected by the people to be the actual head of the school system of the county. It is believed that through this organization all the officers of the county will become acquainted with one another, and a bond of confidence will be established which will very greatly promote the welfare of the schools of the county. Teachers institutes are valuable for teachers, but if we are ever to improve our schools we must begin at the bottom, and here we find the board of education elected by the people with large powers and duties and even larger responsibilities in regard to the public welfare. No school can be efficient where the officers are indifferent or ignorant of their powers and responsibilities, or where the officers elected assume to interfere with matters that do not belong to them. We find both extremes. In some cases school boards are absolutely indifferent and give no attention to school affairs. In other cases they are extremely attentive, and by constant interference with the work of the teacher and the work of the school they hamper the teacher and retard school progress.
There is a proper field of usefulness for the board of education, but it is not found in the schoolroom. Their duties pertain exclusively to school administration, and the rules and regulations which they may make have to do only with the external management of the school. The purposes of these
meetings is therefore not only to promote an acquaintance among Purpose
the officers themselves, but to distinguish carefully the line of of meetings.demarcation between the functions of the Department of Pub
lic Instruction, the school board, and the teaching force. There is great need for economy in all lines of school administration. There