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school system. There are several matters which will be mentioned in the following pages of this report to which I desire to call the serious attention of the people of Michigan, and among these are the county normal training class, the rural high school, county school of agriculture and the re-arrangement or re-organization of the school district system of the lower peninsula.

SUMMARY OF STATISTICS FOR 1907.

743,030 523.969 305,531 218,438

.69 17,286 8,526

8,760 $7,087,589.56

$550.70

$386.21 $120.112.81

1. School census..
2. Total enrollment..
3. Enrollment in graded schools..
4. Enrollment in ungraded schools.
5. Percentage of attendance..
6. Total number of teachers...
7. Number employed in graded schools.
8. Number employed in ungraded schools..
9. Total teachers' wages...
10. Average wages for men per year...
11. Average wages for women per year..
12. Non-resident tuition...
13. Average number of months school in graded and city

districts....
14. Average number of months in ungraded districts
15. Primary money apportioned...
16. One mill tax..
17. District taxes..
18. Library money, fines, etc..
19. Loans...
20. Other sources..
21. Cash..
22. Per capita cost per year by school census.
23. Per capita cost per year by enrollment.
24. Expense for several State educational institutions for the

fiscal year ending June 30, 1907: University of Michigan:

(a) Paid from State funds....
(b) Paid from other sources-tuition, productive

funds, etc.... Michigan State Normal College:

(a) Paid from State funds...

(b) Paid from other sources. Central Michigan Normal School:

(a) Paid from State funds..

(b) Paid from other sources. Northern State Normal School:

(a) Paid from State funds...

(b) Paid from other sources. Western State Normal School:

(a) Paid from State funds...
(b) Paid from other sources.

9.4

8.4 $8,803,647.51 $1,058,866.43 $4,223,343.58

$144,622.40 $1,071,897.84

$909,154.75 $6,334,603.14

$16.27 $23.07

$434,819.59

396,070.82

120,342.95 17,364.08

71,565.00 6,570.90

98,538.89 2.782.10

50,000.00 2,959.85 $316,155.22

98,029.26

71,000.00 38,906.99

34,489.78

823.98

Michigan Agricultural College:

(a) Paid from State funds...

(b) Paid from other sources. Michigan College of Mines:

(a) Paid from State funds...

(b) Paid from other sources. School for the Blind:

(a) Paid from State funds..

(b) Paid from other sources. School for the Deaf:

(a) Paid from State funds...

(b) Paid from other sources. Industrial School for Boys:

(a) Paid from State funds...

(b) Paid from other sources. . Industrial School for Girls:

(a) Paid from State funds..

(b) Paid from other sources. State Public School:

(a) Paid from State funds...
(b) Paid from other sources.

89,672 00 18,309.12

86,100.00 8,999.90

74,250.00 4,173.15

48,000.00 6,624.99

Total..

$2,096,548.57

NEEDED LEGISLATION.

state

During the past ten years many changes have been made by the legislature in the School Laws of the State, but most of these are in connection with administrative work or with the minor affairs of the schools. I desire to suggest to the legislature several points of needed legislation which in my judgment are of the greatest importance.

Under the statute the State Superintendent has general supervision of the schools of the State, but this language is so general General and the range of his effective work is so limited that any definite

supervision. supervision has not been possible. Several years ago the Department prepared and published a course of study which gave the recommended minimum amount of work to be done in the high schools of the State. Inspection of the work done in the graded and city schools shows that there is no uniformity in the courses of study and requirements for graduation from our high schools. This results from a lack of general State supervision. There is no one whose duty it is to visit these high schools and inspect the work. The recognition by our State institutions of the work done in the public schools is not satisfactory in all cases to either party, and there should be not only more uniformity in the work of the public schools, but there should be thorough understanding as to the relations existing between the public schools and the State institutions.

The subject of industrial training is one that is being agitated in all parts of our land and must be met. The matter of

Proposed economic administration of the rural schools is one that should legislation. receive the most careful attention of our legislature. I desire, therefore, to recommend without further comment, the following general le

ation which in my judgment if enacted into law and put into operation would materially advance all the educational interests of the State.

1. Legislation authorizing the appointment of a State high school inspector who shall have authority to fix the educational relations between high schools and State institutions.

2. Authority to appoint an inspector of rural schools who shall have general supervision over county normal training classes, teachers' institutes, teachers' examinations, the course of study, school officers' meetings, and in general all that relates to rural schools.

3. In order to advance the cause of industrial education the legislature should authorize an appropriation for State aid to be given in limited amounts to schools that introduce courses in elementary agriculture, manual training and domestic science.

4. A law requiring all school districts to furnish free text books.

5. Authority should be given for the organization of school officers' associations.

6. The legislature should extend to the whole State the statute governing the schools of the upper peninsula.

7. A law should be enacted providing for the equitable distribution of the primary school interest fund.

SCHOOL SYSTEM OF MICHIGAN.

Rural schools.

The school system of this State at the present time, so far as it relates to public education, is organized as follows: Rural schools, graded schools, township schools, city schools, normal schools, Agricultural College, State University

The rural schools are for the most part under the primary district system. The school inspectors are authorized to divide their township into school

districts and number them consecutively, but after the township has once been organized in this way the inspectors cannot thereafter either divide or consolidate districts without the consent of a

majority of the resident taxpayers of the districts interested. As a result of this plan the number of school districts in townships varies from five to twenty. This means that there are from five to twenty single room schools and the taxing area divided accordingly. The number of pupils in these districts varies from one to twenty on the school census. The course of study pursued covers practically the first eight grades, though in a few instances advanced branches are taught. The school board consists of three members.

The graded schools are organized under general law, and any Graded

district having one hundred or more pupils of school age may schools. organize as such. There are 578 graded school districts at pres

ent in the State, and of this number about 450 have a twelve-grade course of study. The remainder of these districts have courses of study varving from nine to eleven grades. The board of education consists of five members.

The township districts are organized by general law for the upper peninsula and by special act for certain parts of the lower peninsula. Nearly

system.

City

Normal

the whole upper peninsula is organized under the general law, and each township constitutes a school district. The board of education has authority to locate schoolhouses and provide a sufficient number of schools and teachers. In nearly all cases in the upper peninsula there are village schools or graded schools organized within the township, but under Township the general township control, and in such schools the superin- unit tendent is superintendent of all the schools of the township. In the township system all children have the privileges of at least an eightgrade course of study, and in most cases a full twelve-grade course. The board of education consists of five members elected at large.

City school districts comprise those organized under the fourth class city act, and all other cities organized by special acts of the legislature. In all these schools a twelve-grade course of schools. study is provided and the work is supervised by a superintendent of schools.

There are four State normal schools whose special function is to train teachers for the work of the public schools. These are under the supervision of the State Board of Education, con- schools. sisting of three members, with the Superintendent of Public Instruction ex officio a member. The relation between the public schools and the normal schools is expressed in the following quotation from the records of the State Board of Education:

“Resolved that the pupils regularly graduated from twelve years of public school systems in which four years are devoted to high school work with not less than two teachers employed in distinctively high school work, and whose term is not less than thirty-six weeks, be accepted in the regular two-year life certificate course without examination."

Students for other courses of the State normal schools are admitted from high schools with less preparation than above indicated, in fact all students who enter the normal school for any course less than the life certificate course are received from all the graded schools of the between State. This means that there is no specially accredited list of puhmal and schools for our State normals and no inspector is sent out by the schools. normal schools to visit high schools and approve or reject their work. The relation, therefore, between the public schools and State normal schools is very close. In another place we shall make a special report upon the work of the normal schools.

The Agricultural College is organized for the special purpose of giving technical instruction in the subject of agriculture and Agricultural has under its direction the experiment stations. Courses are college. also given in mathematics and all the sciences. The Agricultural College is under the direction of the State Board of Agriculture, con„sisting of six members. This institution has an accredited list of high schools which is the same as the University list with the addition of ten or twelve of the larger graded schools. No high school inspector is employed, and all the schools on the list are entitled to the same privileges in the institution.

At the top of our educational system is the University of Michigan, which is the largest State university in the United States. This institution has a wide range in its work and is under the University. control of a board of eight regents elected by the people. The University employs a high school inspector whose duty it is to visit high schools, examine their course of study and make such requirements as are

Relation

State

necessary in order that graduates from the high schools may be admitted to the University without examination. The following is the list of 138 city and graded schools in Michigan that are at present on the accredited list, and graduates from these schools may enter the University without examination and are given credit on one or more courses.

LIST OF HIGH SCHOOLS ON THE ACCREDITED LIST OF THE UNIVERSITY.

Flint
Fremont
Gaylord
Gladstone
Grand Haven

Grand Rapids { Onion

( Central

Adrian
Albion
Allegan
Alma
Ann Arbor
Bangor
Battle Creek
Bay City, E. S.
Bay City, W. S.
Beacon
Belding
Benton Harbor
Bessemer
Big Rapids
Birmingham
Buchanan
Cadillac
Calumet
Caro
Cass City
Cassopolis
Champion
Charlevoix
Charlotte
Cheboygan
Chelsea
Chesaning
Clare
Coldwater
Constantine
C'orunna
Crystal Falls.
Decatur
Delray

Central
Detroit Eastern

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Greenville
Hart
Hancock
Harbor Springs
Hastings
Hillsdale
Holland
Holly
Houghton
Howard City
Howell
Hudson
Ionia
Iron Mountain
Ironwood
Ispheming
Ithaca
Jackson
Kalamazoo
Lake Linden
Lansing
Lapeer
Lowell
Ludington
Manchester
Manistee
Manistique
Marine City
Marquette
Marshall
Mason
Menominee
Midland
Milan
Monroe
Mt. Clemens
Mt. Pleasant
Muskegon
Nashville
Negaunee

Newberry
Niles
Northville
Norway
Olivet
Ontonagon
Otsego
Ovid
Owosso
Oxford
Paw Paw
Petoskey
Plainwell
Plymouth
Pontiac
Port Huron
Portland
Quincy
Reed City
Reading
Republic
Romeo
Saginaw
Saginaw, W. S.
St. Clair
St. Johns
St. Joseph
St. Louis
Saline
Sault Ste. Marie
Schoolcraft
Shelby
South Haven
Sturgis
Tecumseh
Three Rivers
Traverse City
Union City
Vassar
Vicksburg
Wayne
Williamston
Wyandotte
Woodmere
Yale
Ypsilanti

Western

Dexter
Dollar Bay
Dowagiac
Durand
East Jordan
Eaton Rapids
Elk Rapids
Escanaba
Evart
Fenton

It will be seen from this sketch of our school system that there is supposed to be a close articulation between the several schools from the rural school to the University. The courses of study followed in all the public schools are mainly prepared with the view that young people shall go through the public schools and enter higher institutions of learning. At least this side of public education has been strongly emphasized, and while our en

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