Imagens das páginas
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Weight of five ears..
Weight of grain from these five ears..
Proportion of grain to ear...

The following outline of things considered and rules for cuts is found convenient for beginners in corn judging:

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Per cent of grain to ear.

1 point off for each per cent short in weight

of corn.

*Indicated by firmness of kernel on cob. Does not have reference to length of cob. Kernels missing count as mixed kernels. For Dent ('orn ears should have length of 9 inches, circumference of 7 inches, and shell 88% grain.



The question is frequently asked in teachers' associations and educational gatherings, “Why do so many young people drop out of the public school between the sixth and tenth grades?” and the answer has been given by some that it is because the public schools are purely academic, and that the instruction given therein is not adapted to all classes of people, that is to say, that the course of study in the public school being academic is adapted to those who are intellectually keen and who desire to gain a livelihood in future years through the exercise of the intellectual faculties. Statistics show

us that from the first grade to the sixth, inclusive, the number Why pupils of children entering school and those in the sixth grade is not

materially different, that is, that not many drop out before the

the sixth grade, but from the sixth grade to the twelfth, which practically includes the years twelve to eighteen, the number of pupils in the public schools rapidly decreases. This condition exists in all public schools, and the means of closing this gap between twelve and eighteen years has been the source of a large amount of discussion. Experience shows that the introduction of manual training and the domestic arts has increased the number of pupils who remain in school, and it has been argued on this basis that if we can introduce these subjects, or industrial subjects, into the work of the public schools then we shall be able to retain in school the maximum number of children until the course of study is completed.

No doubt this claim is well founded, but when we enter upon the discussion of industrial education we have an exceedingly large problem to meet. In the German system of education “continuation schools” have been introduced, also trade schools, and in the regular public schools the subjects of manual training, domestic science and allied subjects had already been introduced. The continuation school and trade school has followed the introduction of the industrial subjects in the regular grades. The “con

tinuation school,” is an institution designed to meet the needs

of young men and women who are obliged to drop out of the regtion school. ular school course early and enter some active occupation. This

continuation school may be either a night school or a school conducted on certain days for employed boys and girls in order that they may secure the largest possible amount of practical academic instruction. At the same time they may be employed in some active work. In some cities of Germany attendance at such schools is compulsory up to the eighteenth year.

The trade school is what its name implies, a school in which actual vocational work is done, thus fitting the student upon completion of the course to enter directly into some trade. The

magnitude of this phase of education may be more readily understood when we know that there are more than three thousand vocations or trades open to men and women to-day that were unknown fifty years ago. In other words, our industrial development has so multiplied the avenues into which men and women enter in order to secure a livelihood, that the attempt to teach in a trade school such things as will enable young men and women to enter all trades is practically an impossibility. Those who dis


Trade school.

cuss trade schools seem to think that shop work and mechanics constitute the chief trades. This is evidently untrue. If we are to establish a school to train the carpenter or the mechanic, why not include courses in painting, paper hanging, stone cutting, brick laying, designing, and other three thousand trades that may be followed?

If we are to give training at public expense for any trade, the logic of the case will compel us to give training for all trades. This phase of the case would seem to preclude the possibility of introducing into our public schools the idea of trade schools.

If we are to teach any trade, the one most vital to the welfare of our country and of our people is the trade of agriculture, consequently any system of trade schools that does not include this subject will not touch the greatest need of our land.

In these days the ideal university is that institution that can supply the best instruction in any study, yet the work of our colleges and of our universities in special lines aims at the production of managers, superintendents and foremen, and not the production of men for the bench, the sledge, the plane and the saw. There is nothing in the general public school course which leads to craftsmanship, yet the industrial future

Subjects to of our country depends upon the trained craftsman, and again the be taught. question arises in view of the fact of the great burden already resting upon our public schools, "Can we add to that burden a department or an institution which will produce the artisan?” It appears to me that it is a hopeless task, yet I am thoroughly convinced that the introduction of commercial branches, manual training, domestic science, music, art, and elementary agriculture will to a large degree meet the problem above stated of closing up the gap between the ages of twelve and eighteen and give an opportunity to the public schools to discover the latent abilities of the child. Practically all there is in education is to present such objects of knowledge as will enable the learner to discover himself, and the introduction of the subjects just stated will in a large measure afford the opportunity while not aiming at specific instruction or specific skill in any particular line or vocation.


I am convinced that if trade schools are to be a success in this country they must be under public auspices instead of private, and there is no more appropriate public authority than the school authority for their control. It certainly is possible to introduce trade schools to a limited extent in which certain trades may be taught successfully and fit the student for actual vocations. It is true that good citizenship and the morals of our country are quite as dependent upon the mass being trained to skilled work as upon a class being advanced in scientific or professional accomplishments. The greatness of our nation is dependent upon the proper development of the masses. It may be that our schools have caused an over-production of highly educated people, yet to my mind we have none too much specific education nor too many well educated people, but the great need of our citizenship is the extension of wider educational facilities to all classes of people.


To meet the need of vocational training many public corporWork of ations have established trade schools in connection with their

business. The Baldwin Locomotive Works has a special school

of its own. The Westinghouse Company, New York Central Railway Company, and many others have done the same thing. All this is good, but I return to my previous statement that trade schools under the control of the people and for all the people will produce the greatest good to the greatest number. It must be remembered that America is republican and not monarchical, and therefore a system of education which may work well in Germany is not necessarily well adapted to the needs of this country. We may learn wisdom from the experience of Germany, but we cannot hope to engraft upon our public system of education the system in vogue in that empire. The establishment of trade schools means a large increase in the expense for education. The trade school in order to be successful must be conducted as a shop, that is, a building which has the appearance and management of a shop or a factory. To get the highest results we must get away from the school atmosphere. The instruction must be given by practical workmen, not by theoretical instructors. In many of our manual training schools we have women for instructors. The effect of this upon the boy will not produce the vocational instinct. The trade school therefore must be under the control of a real boss or a foreman. The course of study must contain instruction in those trades which have the greatest number of workmen in them, and added to this the trades selected must be such as can be most easily converted or adapted to other lines.

It is not my purpose to state the specific courses that can

be undertaken as the industries of the locality will have a very to-day. large bearing upon the character of the trade school. Trade

schools must be for both men and women, and the following are some of the more important trades from which selections may be made or which may be included in the entirety:

Carpenters, blacksmiths, braziers, book binders, cabinet makers, carvers, cooks, confectioners, dressmakers, artificial flower makers, bakers, barbers, basket makers, dyers, engravers, gardeners, glaziers, horse shoers, leather workers, locksmiths, masons, milliners, paper hangers, painters, photographers, potters, printers, rug makers, sadlers, stone cutters, tin smiths, tailors, trunk makers, watch makers, wagon makers, wheelwrights, iron workers, foundrymen, electrical machinists, general machinists, farmers.

This list is only a beginning in the entire number of vocations which may be followed in these days.

The purpose of education is to make good citizens. The good citizen is the worker and the one who is law abiding. The product of the public schools should be a person who is resourceful and who not only can see an opportunity, but can adapt himself to it so as to secure from life the highest possible results to himself and to his fellows.


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