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THE DAY SCHOOLS FOR THE DEAF.
The day schools for the deaf evidently have become a permanent part of the public school system of Michigan. They will continue to be such as long as conditions make them helpful to the children afflicted with total or partial deafness. Experience will enable the day schools for the deaf and the State School for the Deaf at Flint to find their proper relations.
It is my opinion that no attempt should be made to teach the oral method to totally deaf children fourteen or more years of age.
Such children should attend the Flint school for at least two years. Such attendance should be for the purpose of permitting every boy and girl to learn some of the trades and arts there so well taught. Moreover,
Teaching pupils of such ages who have attended the oral schools should trades. be sent to Flint for the same reason. In these cases where there is a well equipped manual training school it is possible that one year at Flint would be sufficient. It should, however, be one of the purposes of these schools to so educate that its pupils may be able to take their places as selfsupporting citizens.
On the other hand, younger pupils should be sent to the day schools situated near enough for the children to reach home each night, and so that they will have the benefits of the home. For relations. no public institution can fill the place of the home, no other relation compare with the family relation, no other heart throb with the love and tenderness of the mother heart, and these unfortunates who must live and enjoy within narrow limits should not be deprived of any portion of their inheritance.
Again I am more and more convinced that the lives of the deaf may be broadened and their usefulness and power to enjoy increased by the oral method of teaching. Speech and lip-reading, even if imperfect, gives enjoyment and a sense of individuality to the pupil. It does more; the intense attention necessary to achieve even a small degree of success develops power of concentration, perseverance and self control. These in turn enable the pupil to accomplish more in all lines of study and labor. belief that in all schools for the deaf, at least two years should be given to this method of instruction to the total exclusion of sign work. If after two years of such work the pupil fails to make a reasonable advance in lip-reading and speech, he should be taught the sign language, whether he be in the day schools or in the State School at Flint.
It is time, in my opinion, that the advocates of the two standard methods of teaching the deaf found some common ground, and Day schools that all strife and criticism be buried by a wave of earnestness institutions. and sympathy for these unfortunate children. A long step in this direction was taken last October when at the annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association a special section of the teachers of the deaf was arranged. At this meeting representatives from nearly all the cities having the day schools, and the teacher of the oral method in the Flint school were present. Excellent papers were read and discussed. Pupils from Flint were used to exemplify the work under Miss Billings in the Flint school. A very commendable exhibit of manual training work was also made. Methods, devices,
It is my
Location of schools.
and school work were discussed and much good accomplished along these lines. An organization of the teachers of the deaf was perfected, and hereafter there will be arrangements for a section for them at the annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association. This is a step in the right direction.
Two day schools for the deaf have been discontinued, the one in Jackson and the one in Muskegon. During the past year one was established at Marquette, and the year previous one at Sault Ste. Marie.
Below are the names of the cities now having schools for the deaf and the teachers employed: Bay City, Caroline Shaw, teacher; Calumet, Frances Dewar, teacher; Detroit, Gertrude
Van Adestine, principal, Charlotte Willits, Anna Akins, Lucie Dumon, Margaret Daly, Urda Voight, Elizabeth Blondin, assistants; Grand Rapids, Martha Hill, principal, Henrietta E. Allen, Anna M. Condon, assistants; Ironwood, Tillie Walden, teacher; Iron Mountain, Anna Troudson, teacher; Ishpeming, Jessie Banford, teacher; Kalamazoo, Alice Roby, teacher; Marquette, Marie Paine Templeton, teacher; Manistee, Harriet Sanford, teacher; Menominee, May Howlet, teacher; Saginaw, Etta MacFarlane, teacher; Sault Ste. Marie, Jessie L. Thaw, teacher; Traverse City, Margaret Maybury, teacher.
These teachers, either through good fortune of the State, or because of the enrichment which always accompanies work among the unfortunate, are remarkably successful in their various positions, and while here and there may be seen weaknesses, it would be difficult to imagine a more conscientious, sympathetic and enthusiastic class of teachers. As long as these unfortunate children can have such teachers just so long will the State continue to benefit in its citizenship, having instead of entirely helpless deaf, a class of self helpful, self reliant and happy citizens.
PATRICK HENRY KELLEY.
Patrick Henry Kelly was born at Silver Creek, Cass County, Michigan, October 7, 1867. His early education was acquired in the rural schools of Cass and Berrien counties and later in the high school at Watervliet. After completing the high school course he taught in the rural schools of Berrien and Van Buren counties for a number of years and then spent two years at the Northern Indiana Normal and Business University at Valparaiso, Indiana. After leaving school he re-entered the teaching profession and acted as superintendent of schools at Galien and Hartford. In 1891 and 1892 he attended the State Normal College at Ypsilanti, and then was superintendent of schools at Mt. Pleasant for five years.
Mr. Kelley had always been interested in matters of law, and early determined that he would prepare for this profession at the first opportunity. He began this study while yet in school work, and after leaving Mt. Pleasant he completed his law studies at the University of Michigan, graduating from the law department of that institution in 1900. Upon graduation Mr. Kelley moved to the City of Detroit and entered upon the practice of his profession.
In 1901 Mr. Kelley was appointed as a member of the State Board of Education to fill a vacancy, and the next year was regularly elected by the people and served on the Board until December 31, 1904. In November, 1904, Mr. Kelley was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction and served the State in this capacity for two years. During his administration and under his direction important changes were made in school laws and in many other matters pertaining to the management of the schools. He conducted an investigation of the school treasurers of the State to determine whether they had complied with the statute and had given proper bonds to protect the public money. This was a new field of work for the Department, and it proved valuable in that school boards were required to properly protect public funds.
During Mr. Kelley's administration he published a number of pamphlets and pushed forward the work his predecessor began in the matter of the consolidation and improvement of rural schools. Among the most important pamphlets published were the Pioneer Day Program, in 1906, Suggestions for Manual Training, 1905, A Uniform Course of Study for the High Schools of the State, and a revision of the State Course of Study for Rural Schools.
Another important work undertaken by Mr. Kelley was the revision of the teachers' institute work of the State. It was his idea that it would be preferable to consolidate as many county institutes as possible with the summer sessions of the State normal schools, thus giving the teachers of the counties thus united the benefit of a six weeks' professional course and the advantages of the normal school libraries, conservatory, gymnasium and training school. This plan proved to be so profitable to the teachers that it has been continued ever since as the settled institute policy of the Department.
Nr. Kelley gave a large part of his personal attention to the work of the Department He had been a popular speaker in the State for a number of years, and this no doubt attracted the politicians of the State, for in November, 1906, he was selected by the people as lieutenant governor of the State. I am pleased to testify to the energy and ability of Mr. Kelley, and to thus record a summary of the labors which he performed for the people of Michigan while at the head of its educational system.
L. L. Might
Superintendent of Public Instruction.