Imagens das páginas

Its flower has a smaller corolla than that of the ordinary lemon and citron, and is shaded outside by a brighter red. Its fruit, of the size of an ordinary lemon, is covered -with warts or tubcrcules; it is flattened on the end next the stalk, and pointed at the other end. The rind is thin, of a clear yellow, and full of a delicious aroma. The Inner-skin is thick, white, and very delicate, having a pleasant taste, and may be made into delicious confections. The pulp, enclosed in nine verv thin sections, is greenish and acid. This vanety, which appears to be a hybrid of the lemon, is highly esteemed. It will not endure cold, and is cultivated but little. in Liguria, though freely distributed through Tuscany. I have never seen it multiplied but by grafting.

Aut. II.—Of the Lvntuu Tree.

Citrus medica limon florc polyandrio, ea?pe a^ynio. corolla intUs alba, cxteriuH rubea, folio in mm,ma teneritate violaceo, petiolo articulato, fructu flnvo, obovuto. cortici teuui, medulla ampla, grate acida.

The limonicr (or lemon trcei is u species rich in varieties, and still richer in hybrids. The type is an oblong fruit, of which the rind is glossy and yellowish; thin, and full of a caustic aroma; the inner skin, nearly useless, is white, leathery, and very adherent to the pelicvlc or thin skin which covers the sections. Its pulp is a yellowish white, abundant, and encloses a quantity of acid juice, agreeable and aromatic. It is this which makes the value of the fruit, It being useful in cookery and iu the making of drinks.

This type is most often reproduced from seed, though it is very frequently modified by fertilization, and the result is an innumerable crowd of varieties, which are mingled and confounded with the hybrids of the citron and the orange. In proportion as the skin thickens, the lemon removes itself from its type and approaches the citron. I do not, however, establish upon this fact the principle that all lemons whose fruit has fleshy skin must be hybrids, for this peculiarity may reach a certain point independently of the influence of the citron; and there are lemons whose skin is thicker than the type, and yet they have not the slightest indication of the citron. I These arc vurietics due to accident s of f ecundation. The Lemon tree attaches itself also to the bigarade and sweet orange trees by a very great number of hybrids, which form the numerous class of limes. On this side, however, the line of divis- I ton is more marked, and it is difficult to confound the mixed species with the varieties.

We will commence by a description of the type, choosing afterwards those varieties sufliciently marked to show their difference with their model. Wc will then speak of the hybrids which attach themselves to the citron tree, called poncires, and finally of those attached to the orange tree, called lumies.

To reduce them to their natural order we must place in the centre the type or model, which leans, on the one side, towards the citron, on the other, towards the orange. In passing, we take up, first, all varieties which may be remarkable; afterwards, the hybrids, which, like a chain, tie all these races together.

Turning towards the citron tree 1 find a large number of lemon trees whose fruit 1ms thick,

uneven skiu, nearly always oblong, and differing among themselves only in size. Of these I see but three varieties: First, the lemon, of semidouble flower, whose fruit is regularly indifferent; second, the lemon, of sour juice; and third, the lemon of sweet juice. Their sub-varieties being innumerable, I pass them by in silence. Passing on from the varicties I come to the hybridf of the citron.

I recognize but two races among them, of which each has sub-varieties, distinguished only by the size of fruit, and by insignificant changes of form. The first of these hybrids is the lemon-citron, with oblong, tuberculous Iruit, called poneirc, a fruit ordinaire. The second is the lemon-citron, having egg-shuped, smoothskinned fruit, called poneire, a fruit Jin. The most remarkable variety of this is the Pom me dc Paradis (Paradise-apple).

Starting again from the original type I meet varieties which improve upon the principal spe cies by the delicacy and odor of the skin, and by the abundance and aronia of the juice. They all have fruit nearly round. The first is the limonicr a fruit fin, or lustrato, of Rome. The second is the limonicr liguricn, or bugnettu. The third is the limonier a petit fruit, or balotin, of Spain.

I come finally to the hybrids of the orange, which are so numerous that it is impossible to follow them into all their modifications. I shall, therefore, divide them into two classes, hybrids of the bigarade, and hybrids of the sweet orange. At the head of the first I place the bcrgamot lime, and lime of Naples. 1 put at the head of the second the sweet lime, or the orange-colored lemon of sweet juice. All other races of this nature are but modifications of these.

Thus is shown the entire ramifications of the limonier, or lemon tree. Having closely examined the crowd of varieties spoken of by Ferraris and Volcamerius, and by many other writers, I find them all iu those I have named; therefore I think it useless to make isolated descriptions, as they would be but a repetition, under different names, of the same objects, diversified sometimes by slight accidents unworthy of note.


Cllrus me,lim limon fnu-tu ow,tu, eru-*o, vl gnile acido.

Limonier de Genes.

I.imnne Oenove&c.

I.imod Lit;uri,«; ceria>cus. (Ker.)

Umon vuh^tris,. tTourucf. HiM. Kei. ilerb.) •

Malitn limoniu ucida. ((J. LI. i'in.t

l.imoniu malus. el. Rnuh.)

Limon vulgaris: Wilte linns-n. tCc,mmelyn. Hop. Bear.)

I.iumn vuliruri.-: l/mum vulture. ,Vole.t CftruH mcdica acida: Citrouicr aitpv. (l>csfont. Tab. <l<PEcolc dc Bot.)

The lemon of Genoa is a vigorous tree, which will also extend itself en tfpalicr(ou a trellis), and bears an abundance of fruit. Its trunk, branches, leaf, and flower are like other lemons. It has no thorns, and blossoms continuously from spring till fall. The fruit, usually eggshaped, has a skiu a little thick—sometimes smooth, sometimes uneven—and an abundance of sharp, acid juice. It is very generally cultivated upon the coast of Liguria, from Spezzia to Hyeres. It is the fruit of commerce by reason of its thick skin protecting it in its transit. It is multiplied by graft, but may be raised from seed. These trees (from seed), however, will nearly always have thorns.


Citrus medica Umon fructn nvntn, rorti,e glabro, tenui, medullu neidissimu. Limonier a fruit lin : lustrut. Umonc flno: lustrato.

I.imon acris: Malm limnnia minor acidu. tll. K. Pur. 'I'ouruef. lust. Ref. Herb.)

The lemon of delicate fruit is the favorite among lemons. Its tree resembles the ordinary lemon, but its fruit, which is ovoid and large, has a remarkably smooth, glossy skin, so thin that one can scarcely distinguish the white part. Its pulp is very delicate, enclosing a large quantity of acid, agreeable juice, full of a delicious aroma. It is asserted' that this fruit, coming from Rome, where it is known by the name of lustrato, bears a finer perfume than when cultivated elsewhere. At Liguria there are many varieties of it, called St. Remo, Bugnetta.and Spanish Balotin. The last has a very small fruit, having all the peculiarities of the lustrato. The balotin seems to bo a product of the lustrato and lime of Naples—a lime a trifle smaller, and surpassingly rich in delicacy and fragrance. This balotin is entirely diflerenUfrom that which is cultivated under thin name at the Garden of Plants, Paris.

The former seems to bo a lemon with round fruit, differing from a lustrato only in size of fruit, while tho one at Paris appears to be a lemon-ritron or poncire.


('Urns medica limon medulla, acido earente.
Limonier a fruit doux.
Limone dolce.

Limon dulci medulla. tTnnrnef.)
MahtH limonia major (tutcis. (O.I!. Pin.)
Mains limonis minor dulcis. (lb. ,
I.imon donx. (Miller.)
Umons doux. (Olivier de Serr.I

Limon dulci medulla: Zocte limnen ran Ferrarins. eCommelyn Heap. Belg.)

Limon dulcis vulgaris: Ital.. Limon dolce ordinario. (Vole.) Limon Lusitanus, dulci medulla: Limon da Portugal dolce. (Ib.)

Limon dulci medulla vulgaris: Limon dulci medulla Olysipponensis. (Ferr. Hesp.) Lima dulcis: Ital., Lima dolce: Limetta Htspanica dulcis. (Vole.)

Citrus medica limon: Lime douce. (Dcsfont. 1'Ecolc de Bot.)

The lemon of sweet fruit is known almost everywhere under the name of sweet lime (lima dulcis). Its peculiar juice prevents its being classed as a lemon. Some have given it a place among those neuter fruits whose origin is unknown, but which, when they approach the lemon, are called limes. I shall not combat this opinion, neither can I adopt it; for this lemon bears no trace of the orange, in leaf, flower, or fruit. Its juice has not, it is true, the acidity of the lemon, but it has not the sweetness of the orange, being insipid rather than sweet. This may be owing to an imperfection in the organs that renders them incapable of elaborating the sap, which nourishes it and should produce citric acid. In this case the fruit is a monster, rather than a hybrid, and this monstrosity being peculiar to the plant and common to all its fruit, forms thus a true variety, which I am forced to place in the list of lemons. I shall not enlarge upon this, but if one sees a lemon of which the juice is sweetish and the pulp extremely white, that is the sweet lime. It is divided into many

varieties iu nowise distinguished the one from

the other, save by the size, the shape, and the

delicacy of the fruit. I The most common bears a lemon middling I round, often wrinkled at the point, with a thick ; skin, and a white and sweetish pulp. There is

a fine plant at Versailles which they call swectI lime; it is also found all over Liguria, where ! they cultivate many sub-varieties, of which the | most common bears a fruit with elongated point, i and joined in croups of three or four upon one I stalk.

Citrus limon flore semi-plenu.
Limonier n tleur semi-double.
Umon a flor semi-doppio.
Limonier a tleur double. (Miller Diet.)

The double-flowered lemon is a tree whoso flowers have many petals, but are not entirely sterile. One cannot give a description of its fruit, as it is influenced and changed by plants near it, and strangely modified in form of fruit. It has no seeds, and is very rare.


Citrus medica limon fructu eitrato, oblongo, cortlce rngoso, crassoet eduli. Poncire d'Espagne: Limon cedrat. Limone-cedrato. Ponciics. (Olivier de Serr.) Poncira, quasi poma cerea. (Salmas, ad Solln.) Limon Sponginus. (Ferr.)

Ponr.iros, quasi poma citri. (<i. Bauli. Tueai. Bot.) Limon citratus: Limon cedrato. (Vole.) Limon cltratus : Mala limonia citrata. (Tournef.) Citrus medica Balotina: Cltronier Balotin. (Desfont, Ecole de Bot.)

The lemon-citron with tuberculous fruit is a poncire, having the appearance of a lemon tree, of which the fruits, nearly always oblong, have an uneven skin, thick and edible.

They are, however, less delicate than the lemon-citrons with glossy skin, but are much cultivated in Liguria.

Its varieties are innumerable; among them we can place the linion sirialus amalphitanut, the limon rosolinus, and others, spoken of by Ferraris. Also the limonivm citratum of Volcamerius, and many others.

I think we may also place in this series the variety cultivated' in the Garden of Plants at Paris, under the name of Balotin. It has the same appearance and traits, and if the description of its fruit given me by the gardeners is exact it belongs to the poncires.


Citrus medica limon fructu eitrato, ovato, cortice glabra, crasso, cibatu gratistimo, pulpa fere nulla acidula, vulgo Pomum Paradfsi.

Poncire dl San Remo, or pomme de Paradis

Limone cedrato flno: porno dl Paradiso.

Pomum Paradtsi. (Ferr.)

Limon cltratus: limon cedrato. (Vole.)

The lemon-citron, with smooth skin, is the tree commonly known as poncire. It has the appearance of a lemon tree; its fruit, egg-shaped, has the glossy rind of the lemon, while its inner skin, thick, like that of the citron, is of a dazzling whiteness and an exquisite delicacy. It may be eaten raw with sugar, or as a conserve. In Liguria, where the people are gourmands with this fruit, it is in every garden. There are trees bearing fruit larger than the largest citrons. The favorite variety is called Paradise apple. It is a poncire much larger than a lemon, and with skin Bo thick that it has scarcely auy ]tu 1 j>. 1 shall not give the description of all the varieties spoken of by Ferraris and Volcamerius. They all resemble this one, and arc marked by the same traits.

The poncires arc always seedless. I have never yet found one in them.


Cltrus medlca limon nnrantiatn fructu ovnto. croceo. medulla dulcisslma. Lime sucree.

Llmone aranciato: lima dolcissima. Limon saccharatus Hive dulcissimuH; limon zuechcrin doles, (Vole.)

The sweet lime, or lemon with orange pulp, is a hybrid which has preserved all the traits of the lemon in the leaf and outside of fruit, while the pulp is sweet like the orange.

This variety is nearly the same as the limon aaecharaium coniferum of Volc, and the limon lusitanic augustatis dulei medulla, of the same writer. In Liguria a great number of these hybrids are cultivated, but in passing from one garden to another one cannot but observe that by slight changes they have been modified infinitely.


Citrus medica limon aurantiata fructu parvo. snavissimc odorato, vulgo, Bergamotto. Lime Bergamotte. Limone Bergamotto.

Limon Bergamotta, aliis anrantium Bergamotta. t Vole.) Citrus medlca Bcrgamium: Onutger Bergamotte. (l)rsf.. Tab. d'Ecole de Bot.)

The bergamot is a plant growing to very little height, and preferring the open air to the espalier.

Its branches are long and pliant. The leaves, often a little quilled, are based upon a long petiole, often winged like that of the orange, and resemble those of the bitter orange in form and color. Its flower is white, and has twenty stamens, as in the orange. Its fruit is small—sometimes with a little nipple or mamelone at the point, and often in the shape of a pear. It yellows at maturity, and takes the figure and color of the lemon.

Its skin, glossy and thin, contains in the vesicles with wnich it is filled, an essential oil, of a sweet and sharp odor, which makes the value of this variety; its pulp, sharply sour and bitter, is of no use.

In these characteristics it is easy to recognize a hybrid of the lemon and orange. One finds the first in the fruit; the second, in the leaves and flowers.

But the bergamot improves upon these two species by the sweetness of its perfume, which is delicious, and of which the choicest essences are made. Writers upon agriculture have been in doubt as to the origin of this odor, it not being found in the lemon or orange; and some have advanced the theory that the variety was the product of a lemon graft upon a bergamot pear, with the fruit of which, however, the odor of this agrume has no connection. But we are now convinced that, with the same principles differently combined, Nature diversifies greatly her products, and, consequently, it is very probable that the combination of the odorous principles of the lemon with those of the orange may give a result still more exquisite than either alone. I have noted this phenomenon in the most of the mixtures of the genus Citrus.

The citron of Naples, for instance, has certainly an aroma more exquisite than that of either lemon or orange; and the lime of Florence is a pnncire surpassing in odor the common citrons. The same may be remarked with regard to the Paradise apple, of which the skin surpasses in abundance and delicacy that of even the type of the citrons, or of the citron of the Jews.


Citrus medica limon aurantiata fruetn puMllo, wlohoso. cortice glubro, tenui. odorato. medulla ncida, gratissima. Lime de Napie'f a petit fruit. Litnoncello di Napoli. Limon pusillus calaber. (FenM

Limon pnsillus calaber: ealabrise limone. tCommclvn, Hcsp. Belg.) Limon calaber: limon calnbrcc. (Vole.)

The lime of Naples is a small lemon, which takes after the orange, of which it is a hybrid. It docs not attain a great height, and, unlike the lemon, its slight, yellowish branches will not submit to be trained en espalicr.

Its small and deeply-colored leaves have the winged petiole; the thorn which grows at their axil is so early and so invariable, that it is with great difficulty suitable buds for grafting can be detached. Thejlower is small and entirely white. The fruit—smallest of European lemons—is round, having the pistil at its extremity, and a yellowish, smooth, and very thin skin, which is odorous. Its pulp is abundant; its juice acid and agreeable, because of its delicacy and aroma. This is one of the most highly esteemed lemons.

It has no seeds, but is multiplied by a peculiar kind of grafting, on account of the thorn rendering it difficult to procure a suitable bud.

Volcamerius describes two varieties of it; one very much like this. The first—that he calls ballinns Jlispanicus, ballotin di Spagna, and of which the leaf is narrow and flat; the fruit yellow, round, and small; the pulp green; and juice plentiful, acid, and pleasant—is but a variety of lustrato.

But the second, that he calls limon irriUttor appetentiw; limon aguzxa appeiito, is surely a hybrid of the bigarade, a true lime, in which the traits of the two species are well based and closely united.

The flower is small and white; the fruit, about the size of a walnut, is round, and carries the pistil upon its point. It is covered by a red and very thin skin, smelling of mttsk. The juice is sour, but pleasant.

Art. Ill— Of the Biyaratle Orange.

Citrus anrantium Indicum, flore icosandno, corolla ulba. folio petiolo alato, fruetu globoso. aureo, medulla acri et amara.

Bigaradicr: Bigarade.

Arancio forte : Arancia forte.

Narendj (orange). (Avicen.)

Narcnd} (orange). (Abd-Allatif., in Egyptian and Arabian tradttions.)

Orenges: Poma citriua acldi sen pontici saporia. (Vitriac, in Oriential Hist.)

Arangias. (Dug. Falc, 11K1.)

Acripomum: vulgo Arangin, (Nicols., 1088.1

Arangi: Airange: Orange. (Gloss, of the Roman language by Roquefort.)

Melarancia. (Calvan., 1738.)

Aranza. (Ib.)

Citran1giuM sive Cetroni. (1473.1

Citrulf. (At Savona, 1468.)

Citroni. (Giust. Hist, of Genoa.)

Oranges. (Jouan. of C'ha°. IXtU to Jerusalem. Oranger: Granger corn u, <>r Blgarat. (Oliver do Spit.) Medici. (Merur)

Anrea mains : Mala arnntia. (liauhin.)

Citn,s Narendi. (ForskaD

Citrus aurantium : Arancio forte. (Targ.)

Citrus aurantium : Citrus petiolis alatis.' (Lin.) «

The bigarade presents a ramification of very many true varieties and few sub-varieties. It would seem that this species, more constant in | the reproduction, changes from it only to diversify it in a very marked manner. It will, therefore, be easier to give a description of its derivatives, even to the hybrids.

The type is known under the name of bigarade, aurantium vulgare medulla acri. Its varieties are six in number.

First. The type.

Second. The bigarade of double flower.

Third. The bigarade with willow leaf.

Fourth. The Rich spoil.

Fifth. The little Chinese.

Sixth. The Chinese with myrtle leaf.

The hybrids number seven.

The two first are the result of the mixture of the bigarade with the orange; the third and fourth are the product of the citron impregnated by the bigarade; the fifth and sixth result from the orange modified by the lemon; the seventh is a singular variety, in which is found united the three species, citron, orange, and bigarade. Wo begin by describing the type of the species.


Citrus aurantium Indicum, vulgnrc fructu acido.
Bigaradier: Bigarade.
Arancio forte: Arancia forte.
Aurantium. vulgare medulla acri. (For.)
Aurantium vulgare fructu acido.
Aranzo silvestre. (Vole.)
tiemeene of Zuuro oranje appel. (Com.)
Malus aurantia major. (Baun.)
Aurantla mala. (Cam.)
Oranger sauvagc or sanvageon. (Tonrnef.)
Citrus narendi malech (bitter orange.) (For.)

Anrea mains fructu acido. (plus.) Arancio salvatico : Arancio da prcmero. Citrus aurantium petiolts alatis. (tin. )

The bigaradier is a species which grows to a tree of round and pretty form. The leaf, thin and lanceolated, has the petiole furnished with two wings, which are more pronounced than in the sweet orange. But nothing so much distinguishes it from that as its flower, which is, in the bigarade, more sweet and more abundant in perfume. In fact, it is only for its flower that the tree is cultivated in Paris, in the cold provinces, and in a part of the southern districts, where they distil from the flowers a sweet and delicious perfume. At Grasse, at St. Remo, and at Nice, they cultivate it solely for this.

It is cultivated for its fruit in Tuscany and in Romania, where it is used like lemons for seasoning vegetables and fish. This is the only use to be made of this fruit, as its skin encloses in its vesicles a caustic aroma of insupportable bitterness; and its juice is both bitter and acid.

The gardeners in Paris speak of a number of sub-varieties of the bigarade, which are but little noticed in the south. But these gardeners agree so little in the names that they give to the trees, as well as in their characteristics, or the accidents which mark them, that it is difficult to decide upon their nature. They have generally in view, in their classification, the more or less great abundance of flowers borne by these varieties, and

1 Lave observed that this dill'ereuce in tha flowering is more apparent than real, depending upon the relative nearness of the flower-buds. The blossoming thus seeming to be more or less abundant, according to the intervals between the buds.

The names given are not always suited to the nature of the tree; for instance, they call one the bigarade with grey flower, of which the flower opening very quickly does not show the anthers as yellow as in the ordinary bigarade. They give the name crowned bigarade to another whose fruit t has often a small nipple at its point. They call one Adam's apple, of which the leaf is a littleless lanceolated, and the buds very close together and no thorn. Finally, they name one horned bigarade, a common bigarade which sometimes bears monsters having the shape of a horn. All these varieties differ so little as to be scarcely worth the trouble of describing.

The bigarade is usually the"tree upon which is grafted the other species of agrumi. Sometimes it is grafted upon itself, in order to produce a smaller tree suitable for vases.

In Liguria it is called margaritino'or orange ol St. Marguerite,


Citrus aurantium Indieum flore semi-pleno, fructu Sft'pe, fo-tifero, medulla acida.

Bigaradier a flenr double et semi-double, a fruil souver,t monstreux.

Arancio forte a nor doppiu e semi-dopplo. e s frutto spesso fetiforo.

Aurantium flore duplicc. (Perr., p. 3S7.I

Aurantium flore pleno.

Aranzo eou flor doppio. (Yolo., p. Ml.)

Aranzo di nor e scorza doppio. (Vole.)

Oranger a fleur double. (Millar.)

This variety has improperly been called double flowered. It is very seldom that these flowers are full of pclals; usually they are but semi-double, and yield very often monstrous fruit, enclosing within themselves a second fruit. We have already observed that this phenomenon is very frequent in these monstrous varieties.


Citrus aurautium Indicum salicifolium. Oranger a fcuille de saule, or Ttuuuolsc. Arancio a foglin di salice, or Arancio Turco. Aurantium angnsto salicis folio dictum. (Boer.)

The Turkish orange is but a bigarade, whose leaves, lanceolated and pointed, are very straight and long like those of the willow. Otherwise, it has all the traits of the bigarade, both in flower and fruit; the latter is sharp and bitter, and has the form and color of the bigarade.

This tree is not cultivated in Ligaria, except bv collectors of varieties, and by the seedsmen of Jlervi, who multiply it by graft for their trade in plants. A specimen of these trees may be seen in the Garden of Plants at Paris.


Citrus aurantinm Indicum crispofolium multlflorum fructu parvo, amaro et acido. Bonquctlcr or Riche depouille. Arancio a mazzctto. Aurantium crispo-folio. (Fer., p. 387. , Aurantinm crispo-folio. (Tournef. . Aranzo a foglia rizza. (\ olcJ Oranger a feullles frieees. (Millar.) Citrus aurantium multiflorum. Oranger rtche depouille. (Desfont.)

The orange with curled leaf grows as a shrub; its boughs are short, straight, and bushy; Its buds or shoots are very clo^e together, beariug a quilled ovate leaf which covers the stem on all sides, and gives to the tree the rounded and pointed form of a cone. The (lowers come out of these shoots in great numbers, appearing to cover the bough on all sides, thus forming a very large and beantiful bouquet. The fruit is a trifle larger than the small Chinese orange, which it closely resembles in taste and smell. It is a bigarade of small fruit, cultivated iu Liguria among collectors and seedsmen. There is a specimen of it in the Garden of Plants in Paris, and I have observed one at the Tuilleries which surpasses in size and beauty all I have seen of this race in the south.


< 'Urus aurantium Indicum caulc ,-t fructu pumiln. rortivo , t medulla amura. M,cco ncldo. Orangcr nnin: Petit Chlnois. Nnnino da China: Chitmtto: Na,mlino. Aurantium Sinense pumilum: (Void Aranzo tmnu garbu. Pomin di Damn.

Aurantimu (ioannm liumilnm: Aurumium Sinontw: Mainsaurnntia humilis : ltnom met de Kleiue vrught anderH nuantje. (Com.)

The dwarf orange is a most desirable variety for ornamenting houses and gardens, being a shrub, and dwarfed in all its parts. The stem, the boughs, the leaf, the flower, and the fruit are all small. In vases it attains to the size of a rose bush, and in the open air it grows only to the height of about seven feet.

Its branches have the appearance of nosegays; this is owing to the proximity of the buds, and to the leaf and flower alternating.

They have no thorns, and bear a very odorous flower. The fruit, sour and bitter, is about the size of a small apricot, and is excellent for conserving.

The dwarf orange is cultivated at Morviedro, in the Kingdom of Valencia, where the skin is an article of trade, the cut and dried peel being used as seasoning of food. It is also largely cultivated in Liguria, principally at Savona, from whence in early days the Genoese manufacturers of confits were furnished with this fruit.


Citrus amamimu Indicum caule et fructu pumllo. myrtifolium.

Granger naln a feuilles de myrte.
Nnnino da China a f oglia di mirto.
Aurantium myrteis foliis Sinense. (Ferr.)

The myrtle-leaved dwarf orange is a subvariety unknown in Europe at the middle ot the seventeenth century. Ferraris reports it as a species peculiar to China. Commelyn and Volcamerius make no mention of it. It is now cultivated in Tuscany and Liguria by the amateurs, but solely for completing their collections, and also by seedsmen for their trade in plants.

There is a tree in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and another at Malmaison. This orange has all the traits of the little Chinese orange, the one difference being in the shape of the leaf, which is more pointed in this, and might at first irlanco be taken for the myrtle.


Citrus amantium Indicum medulla dulcacida. coriicc crasso et amaro. Bigaradier a fruit doux.

Arancio forte a mcdolhi dolce: in Liguria Mar°arttino dolce.

Atmu,lium vulgare fructu dulcacido. t Yolc.) Aurantium vulgare : saporo : medio. (Per.) OranLt- participuul do r:,igre ft du doux. vOliv. tU- Ser.. p. 76.1.

fThe sweet-fruited bigarade is a hybrid of the orange and the bigarade, preserving the traits of the latter in its rind, which is thick, uneven, and bitter; while the pulp, enclosed in a skin equally bitter, is, notwithstanding, sweetish.

It is cultivated in Liguria for ornament, and is found only among amateurs. The seedsmen do not multiply it, as it is not much sought after. It is, perhaps, one of the hybrids longest known.


Citrus aurantium Indicum fructu mnirnn. corrice crasso pub-dulci. medulla acida. Bigaradier a ecorcc douce.

Arancio forte a frutto grotto c scorzu manpiabih'.
Aurantium dulci corticf. (Fcr., it. 4Jfci.t
Matua aurantia corticc eduli. tffauh.)

The bigarade of edible skin of Ferraris seems to be a hybrid of the sweet orange. Neither Commelyn, Volcamcriiis, or Millar make mention of this fruit. That of which Clusius speaks has sweet juice. I do not know where the variety with sour juice is cultivated. Perhaps it is a lost variety, which can, however, reproduce itself if one sows the seed of sweet oranges which have grown in the midst of bigarades. This is my reason forgiving it a place In this catalogue.

HYBRIDS—NO. XXV. Citrus aurantium Indicum cltratum fructu magno. cot, tice aureo, crasso, amaricante, medulla acida et amara. Lumic orangee. Lumia aranciata.

Aurantium citrotum. ,Forr., )>. -I*).) Aurantium maximum: Aranc,o della gran sortc. ,Volc, p. 183.)

The oranged-lumie, or the citroned-orange, is a hybrid partaking of the orange, the citron,and the lemon. Its leaf, deep-colored, large, and curled, approaches in form that of the Adam's apple; the flower, shaded with red, belongs to the lemon; the fruit, very large, round, and flattened, is very much like that of the orange. Its skin is uneven and bunchy like that of the citron, the color being a tint between that of the citron and the orange, and detaches itself readily from the sections, which are also very easily separated from each other; the pulp, whitish and acid, resembles that of the lemon.

This description is of one in my possession, and which appears to me to be a sub-variety of Adam's apple. It differs by some accidents from those spoken of by Ferraris and Volcamerius, which also differ from each other; but it is necessary to say that these hybrids preserve themselves intact only when multiplied by the graft; those which come from seed are always changed by the different proportions of their combination; thus one meets very rarely the same varieties. But, by following the principles that we have suggested, it is easy to determine their traits, and by them to place the fruit among the lumies, the limes, or the poncires. Each person can do it for himself, and connect them, without difficulty, to their analagous classes.

HYBRIDS—NO. XXVI. Citrus aurantium Indicum fructu maximo, citiato. vulgo pomum Adami. Lumied'Eapagnc: pomme d'Adam: at Paris, pompoleon Potno d'Adamo: Adamo.

The greater number of botanists have con

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