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two conjectures, which it will nut bo impossible I to reconcile; but my sixth experiment would J appear to show results having H wider base, ami in contradiction to the received system. Iu this I experiment (spokun of in tin early part of this work) 1 have obtained a change in the nature of the ovary of an orange flower by means of the forced and multiplied action of the pollen of- a lemon. This result seemed to indicate that the masculine element did something more than giving motion to the embryo, and the vitality necessary to its development. It would teach also that these principles acted together by their mingling or combination in forming the fruit which resulted from the experiment in question. J dare not enter upon the discussion of this delicate problem. 1 limit myself for the present to tin account of observations made by myself in this matter, and I desire that physiologists belter qualified would examine them, following the experiments which I have but begun, with the patience, care, and exactness that they seem to demand.
ART. VI.—Of the Agrumi of Itulio—Observationt upon tliese Plnnts—Thcir deseription and synonyms.
The description which we arc about to write is doubtless sufficient for cultivators, but will be considered imperfect for botanists.
The Citrus of Europe is, perhaps, the single, isolated genus of which all the species arc known to us; but, for some time, it has been confounded with analogous genera belonging, without doubt, to the same family with ours, yet, in my opinion, forming special branches of it; it it is therefore necessary to take cognizance of all those individuals.
India produces a great number of plants bearing close analogy to our Agrumi, chiefly in respect to the form and acidity of their fruit. Their characteristics vary to infinity, extending gradually to species which belong, without doubt, to very different genera. Yet the likeness which they have preserved to our agrumi, appoars to have formed, chiefly among the natives, a point of comparison, and they have added, nearly everywhere, to their particular and distinctive names the generic names of lema-n or mregam. Thus they call at Amboyna (one of the Moluccas) the btiaaus taurinus of Kumphius, lemon gala; as at Malabar, one knows under the names of isjeroa-katou-naregam, of katou-naregam, and of matnaregam, three plants called by Europeans tenon, and classed by Linnaeus in the genus limonia. All these 3pccies, however, form genera approaching our European species, and which might, perhaps, be united in the same family under the common name of Agrumi.
In general they resemble ours in the activity of unmterrupted vegetation, which shows at all times flowers and fruit in the midst of foliage always green; in a sharp aroma spread over all the parts of the plant; in the whiteness of the flower, which is odorous, and in the nature of the fruit, which is always a round berry (a berry among botanists is "a succulent, pulpy pericarp, containing naked seeds. The orange and lemon are berries with a thick coat." Lincoln's Bot.), hav
ing a yellowish, aromatic skin, and containing a certain number of sections, and a juice sometimes sweet,sometimes bitter, and nearly always acidulated. But these plauLs usually grow only to the size of shrubs; their branches arc crooked, knotty, and often nmtilated; their leaves arc frequently divided into two by the wings of the petiole, and are, at times, discolored; their thorns, sometimes double, often lacking, are frequently longer oil the old branches than on the young, and arrange themselves, nearly always, in some peculiar way. Their flowers, now ot four, now of five petals, are sometimes axillary and solitary, and very often terminals; and, in place of bouquets, like our orange blossoms, they show themselves in bunches like the olive. We know very little of their fructifying parts. Kumphius rarely describes them. The fruit is a berry, but this berry is now round, now oblong, at times ungulate; it is often covered by tubercles of a fixed form, and disposed with a certain regularity. Its color, though at times green, usually resembles that of the lemon or orange; and its pulp, enclosed in numerous sections, is now swecl and vinous—now disagreeable and glutinous.
Finally, their traits, taken as a whole, announce decidedly that they do not belong, for the most part, to the genus Uiirun.
There are among ihem, doubtless, several not far removed from, and having traits of, our hybrids, but there are also many presenting traits which place them nearer to some species of eratcra, to the limonia, and other plants of India.
One may see in the Citrus trtfoliata, in the linion angulatut, and in the litnoneUusmeulurensis, much to connect them with the Irilacus thaurinvs of Kumphius, which, from its likeness to the lemon, is called at Amboyna lemon g<el<t.
These appear to be links by which nature passes gradually from one genus to another, and forming what a great botanist has aptly called families par eneluiinemenl.
We have not thought it possible to dispense with giving an idea of all these species. Beginning with those which seem to belong to our agrumi, and which might be varieties of them, we pass on to those decidedly removed by their traits, and shall finally say a word concerning species which touch them in analogous genera. We will designate them by the general name of agrumi.
Acnuuen nobiliH Chincim-.
CitruH nobllis. (Lour. Ft. Coc. Np., tt.) A ('amxgan)t, B. Tsemcan: Cltnw incrmis, rnmis lasrrmlontibuv, petiolis strlctlf, fructu tubereu]oHo, sub-compresso, (t. 2, p.
The Citrus no/rilis, rare in China, but abundant in Cochin China, is a tree of medium size, distinguishing itself particularly by the upward growth of its branches, which are thornless. Its leaves, scattering, lanceolated, quite sound and lustrous, are of a dark green, and have a strong odor. They have linear petioles. The flowers, arranged in terminal bunches, are white, having five petals and a very pleasant perfume. The fruit is a round berry, a little compressed; it usually has nine sections, red inside as well as out. The skin is thick, juicy, sweet, and covered by unequal tubercles (warts.)
This is twice as large as the Chinese orange, and is the most agreeablo of all.
Citrus Margartta: Chn Uu a Chun hi: Citrn- ramiaa-erndentlbus, aculcatis, pptiolis lineuribun: bard- r» ItM-ularibus, oblongH. (Lour. Kl. Coch. t, 2, p. 1611.)
The Citrus morgaritn resembles a little the i Citrus japoniai, but it differs in many trails, I which make it another species. It is "a shrub whose branches arc straight and thorny; its leaves, lanceolate and scattered, are based upon linear petioles; its odoriferous tlowers having five white petals are joined in small numbers upon peduncles scattered along the branches.
Its fruit (small, oblong, and of a red-yellow) contains but five sections under a very thin skin; the pulp is sweet and agreeable.
It comes from China, above all from the neighborhood of Canton, and is never found in CochinChina.
The Citrus of Thumberg, on the contrary, has a winged petiole, and the fruit has thick skin, containing nine cells.
Acrumen Ambolnlcmn caule anguloso. folio maxlmo, petlolo alato, flore magno, frneln splu-rico. comprcsso, foveolis notato, corticc croceo, medulla adlm-rente. succo viscoso et aeidulo.
Agrume rouge d'Amboine.
Aurantia actda, vulgo Iamuocu Iiau. Hum. Cirrus fusra." (Lour. Fl. Coe, Sp. ti.—a ( 'ay Baong; Chi xac II chi ken.
The red agrume of Amboyna, as well as other varieties of this island, and of Japan, offers characteristics which merit notice. We will copy what Rumphius says of it in his herbarium of Amboyna.
The sour-fruited orange is a tree growing at Amboyna to a very great height. Its stem is angulous and as if furrowed; its winged leaf is nearly as large as that of the pumpelmoes, and has a very strong odor; the thorn is long and sharp; the flower, large and white, tmving five petals.
The fruit, round and a little flattened, is marked by many small spots, and docs not take its color entirely until its full maturity. The skin adheres to the pulp, and the sections adhere among themselves as in the lemons. The pulp is full of a gelatinous and acidulated juice. This species resembles the Citrus fuseti of Louroiro, of which it is perhaps but a variety.
Acrumen Sinenae fructu ex viridi nigrirunu. medulla snbdulcl. Agrume de la Chine. Agrume Chinese.
Aurantinm Slnensc: Lemon manis Tsjina. ,K,m,ph. Herb. Amb., part 3, cup. 41.)
The aurantium ninense which Rumphius saw in the islands of Amboyna and Handa, appears not to differ from our orange.
It forms a fine tree, which grows larger than the sour orange; its straight branches give to it a head, rounded and high; the leaf, long, smooth, with a twisted petiole, has a lateral thorn. The fruit, large and round, has a skin of a blackish green color, which does not adhere at all to the pulp; its juice is a little vinous and sweetish.
Rumphius observes that there is also a species of it whose fruit is smaller and much sweeter; and three others, of which the first makes a very large tree, and bears a large, sweet fruit; the second produces a fruit covered by tubercles, and of which the pulp is scarcely sweetish; and
lhr third, ;i low shrub, given a small fruit, whose skin is very lhin and agreeable. TbC lirst, that be calls uuruuUtnu arrucosum, lemon manislsMar, appears to belong to our oranges. The second, called at Ltauda kmou pttnlaivn, seems to approach the U nton n ntrirosu; of which we shall speak farther on.
The third, which he calls auranUum puuiiluut unul a reuse mulnk, lemon suassi, and lemon colk, seems related to the Citrus jujtouiea of Thumberg. NO. V.
Aerumeu Amboiulcum enule fruticoso, folio |tetiolu linear!, flore uxillari. Agrume d'Amboine. Agrume d'AmboIna.
Malum eitrinm: Lemon Sunsu: Limo mamnnwus. ete. tltumph.)
The lemon sussu offers many varieties differing a little in size and form of fruit, and these all appear to bo related to the citron, but they differ from it in the Ilowers, which arc axillary, and which grow beside the thorn, often singly,sometimes to the number of two or three, biit never on a common peduncle. Its fruit is oblong, and forms a kind of cone; the uneven skin yellowish and insipid, encloses a whitish and acidulated pith.
Rumphius says that the citron tree, or limo mummosus, is not indigenous at Amboyna or at Randa; that he has never seen it grow to the size of a tree, but rather to a bush, and that it grows no taller in India.
lie also remarks that wild lemons are found in Java, where they arc thought to be indigenous, and which are called lemon Jam; also, that all these Indian oranges have peculiar traits, making them differ from European Citrus.
This remark is strengthened by his descriptions, always telling us of new beings thai we cannot associate with our Citrus.
Acrumen Ambolnie.um folio maculaU}. petiole, alato, flore raremoso et termlnali. fractai flavo tuinutissimo. medulla acidissima. Amhoinis Anrarius dicto.
Agrume d'Amboine a feullles panachees.
Agrume a folie maehiate.
Limonellus Aurarlus: Lemon Maa^.
The Hmonellut aurarius has the physiognomy of a lemon mixed with orange, but it has, also, peculiar traits.
Its stem is tall, its leaf, deeply colored and variegated, is upon a petiole, whose wings are very nearly as large as the leaf.
The fruit, the size of a musket-ball, is round, mnmelone (nippled), yellowish, and is formed of a skin so thin that it seems rather a pellicle than a skin, and which has not the lemon aroma; the pulp is full of an acid juice.
The flowers are very small and terminal,growing at the end of the boughs, in bunches, like the olive.
I know nothing of the number, position, or peculiarities of the sexual system. Rumphius, to whom we are indebted for this description, says nothing of them.
This fruit is called at Amboyna uumritu, because goldsmiths use its juice for cleansing their work.
Aenunen Iudicum folio maximo alato, flore minimo. qnartripetalo albo, tuberculin obslto, medulla granulosa acidissima.
Agrume verdatre d'Amboine a fruit tnberculeux.
Ltmonveutricosu;-. Malaice lemon I'itrrut. aliis lA'mon j Papua, K'U Limo empup, ex forma eri.spnrum criuimn I Popoenpium, aliis Lemon tay Ayam. Ternaten>-ibus. (Humph. Herb. Amh.. c. 37.)
The greenish agrume, culled by Rumphius limon rentricosu*, has characteristics peculiarly its own, making it to differ essentially from our agrumi. Its leaf seems ns though cut in the middle, it has so largo a wing. Its flower, extremely small, has but four petals, and grows only at the very end of the bough, in form of a bunch of
fhe fruit is nearly green, just a little shaded; with yellow; its skin, which is odorous, is cov- j ered at regular intervals by small buttons, all of t one shape and size. Its pulp is granulous, green, | and very sour. There is nothing said of its sexual system. We may connect to this species the limon tuberosus, the lemon curatmis,lhe lemon agrestis or paperfa, the limo ferns or tirangi, that liumphius found at Amboyna, and which have very nearly the same characteristics.
Aerumen .Japonieum enule m,irulato. 11'Mv ;t\illnri. fru,-tu minutissimo, pulpa dulci et eduli.
Agnunc nain du Japon.
Agrume nano del Citapone.
('urns Japonica. (Windeln. in Kpee. riant.)
Citrus petioliH alatis, foliis acntis, eanlo frutieo.-m. >TImmb.Jap.. a«.)
Kin kan. (K,empf. Atrnen., 801.;
The dwarf agrume of Japan has been considered by Windelnow as a species of Citrus, but the description of it by Thumberg in his Flora Japonica, presents traits making it to differ from European oranges.
The most marked and at the same time most singular points of difference, are the angulous stem and axillary flowers. These trails would seem to place it near the lemons of Amboyna which so closely resemble the limoniu and the bilacus. Thumberg also says that the Citrus jajmiiea, which, in the parts of fructification, offers the same traits as the European Citrus, differs notwithstanding, in its shrub-like form which it always takes, in the smallness of its fruit, and in many other ways. He adds that it can scarcely be ranked in the class of oranges, its flowers being axillary, solitary, or binate, and never in bouquets; that it is like the lemon in axillary thorns, yet differs from it by the winged petiole, and by the fruit, which has the shape and color of au orange.
The Citrus jajwnica is, perhaps, the same as the aurantium pumilum madurense, or the lemon suassi, and lemon rolle, that Rumphius calls specics limonnm fruetu fluidomnium minima eortiee tenia nee amaro. r r * It has also some likeness to the Citrus maryarita of Loureiro.
It would bo necessary, however, to examine Ihrm in Nature, in order to see all their affinities.
V A METIER NO. IX.
Aerurnen Indicum madnTen?, eaule pumilo et anzulato, fruetu minimo, eortiee tenuLsMuto, medulla acida.
Agrume orange de Madure a tige angulensc.
Agrumo arauciato (li Madura.
l.imonelluK Madurensis: Lemon Madura. (Rumph.)
Citrus Madurensis; a k n kuit B k n: knit xu; Cilrns inermiK ramis diffuHis, an^ulatiH, petiolix liuearibus, fruetn flobos< > levi. (Lour. Fl. Coeh. t. 2, p. 4H7.)
The agrume of Madura is an extraordinary bush, appearing to hold to the Citrus and the bilacus. Perhaps it is one of the links attaching
these two genera, or it may be a product of their mingling. The stem is not more than two feet high; the branches, having no thorn, arc angulous, crowded, and striped; the simple and solitary leaf is but au inch iu length. Its fruit is a slightly flattened spheroid, always green, and the size of a bullet. It is covered by a thin skin, like a pellicle.
This trait it has iu common with many other species, especially the limonellus aurarius. Enclosed within this skin are numerous sections, containing an aromatie, sourish pulp, and oneseed, always small.and always solitary.
Rumphius says nothing of its orgaus of reproduction.
Loureiro; who gives a description of it under the name of Citrus madurensis, or Citrus inermis, ramis dijf'usis, angulatis, peliolU linearibus, fruetu globoto tori, says its flowers are white, flve-petalled, small, and odorous, and united in small number upon one peduncle or footstalk. He says nothing of the number or position of its stamens; but as he places this in the genus Citrus, we may presume that it is also of the class Polyadelphia, order Icosandria.
Aerumen Indleum eaulc splnoeo, pnmilo. ramis in aeuleo, detdnentibus, folio alato. florc axtllari. nolitario. alho et odoroHO, fruetu minimo aeutissime papillato, eortiee flavo temiissimo, odorc juetmdo, carne alba snceosa et grate acida.
LimoncUua: Lemon Nipis. (Itumph.)
The agrume nipis appears to represent both the orange and the lemon, yet differs by many traits wholly its own.
Its stem is very small, its branches end in a sharp point like a thorn, its leaf is winged. The flowers, axillary and solitary, are entirely white and odorous. Tho fruit, yellowish like a lemon, has the size and shape of an apricot, but is terminated by a nipple very much elongated, and singularly pointed; its skin,which is very thin,has a pleasant odor, and covers a while pulp full of acid juice.
John Burman, in his Thesaurus Zeylauicus, regards the limon nipis as the same plant as the limonia mains syleestris zeylanica fruetu pnmilo, of Ceylon. He writes as synonymous the mains aurantia fruetu limonis pusillo acidissimo, of Sloane, and the catu-isuru wtregam of Malabar, of llcede; which is the limonia aridissima of Linmeus.
Nicholas Burman, iu the Flora iiulica (which he arranged according to the system of Linmrus), in connecting to the citron lemon the limonia mains syleestris zeylanica, of the Tltesaurus zeylanicvs of Rurman, regards it also as one with the lemons of Amboyna, of Rumphius, (limonellus rum rarictatibus. Rumpii.)
It is easy to sec by examining the descriptions aud figures of these plants that they differ too much among themselves to be considered a single species. They really have some analogy con necting them, but even these likenesses cannot make them rank in the same genus.
Aerumen Atnboiuieum fruetn aniruln-o. spina biuu stimtlari.
Citrus angulata: Citrus potions nudis. folits ovatis ucutis, fructtbus anjuloain. t,WUdenow.)
Ltmunellub an^ulo;-u?, malaicc.
The angulous agrutne is still farther removed from theEuropean Citrus, and appears to connect this genus with the limonia by the bilacus taurinus or Ilumphius.
Its stem is not larger than one's arm; its branches are crooked and knotty; the leaf, resting upon a simple petiole, grows between two thorns, which form a sharp angle at the point where the bud appears, and the next leaf grows solitary by the side of tie bud, with no trace of a thorn; this arrangement, in the old branches, alternates in such a way as to make a leaf without thorn succeed a leaf with two thorns, even to the last shoot, while the young and new branches bear solitary leaves, the double thorn developing only in old age, as already spoken of. The flowers arc solitary and white, resembling those of the linion nipis, but arc smaller, and have five petals. We know nothing of its fertilizing organs.
The fruit is very small, and sometimes four, at times five-angled, and flattened upon the sides; of a greemsh color while young, but occasionally growing yellow at maturity. A very thin skin encloses sections full of a glutinous juice, with odor like the limon nipis, but not edible. It contains four or Ave seeds.
Rumphius adds that this bush, found lately in the marshy woods of Mangee (India), near the sea, is almost, unknown to the natives, and that it grows in the salt water which covers the soil at high tide.
It is easy to see the connection between the limoncllusanyulosus and the bilacus taurinus.
VARIETIES— NO. XXL
Acrumcu Jnpouicum foliia ternatis, fruclu tutrico, jmlpa ^lutiuopa. A^rume du Japon a feuillcs teraee?-. Ajjrume Giaponico. Citrus follla terntuif. (Linn.) Citrus trtfolU: Orangcr a fcmllcs ternces. (Dcsfuni.)
The Citrus trifoliata was the first to take a place among our Agrumi. Linmcus regarded it as a species of the Citrus, and named it m his i>y«te«i« Pluntarum, citrus foliis ternatis.
Three anthors have given us its description. Kaempfer first, then Thumberg, and finally Loureiro.
Kaempfer paints it as a fruit whose branches are twisted, and leaves ternate(like clover). The flowers, resembling those of the medlar tree, are axillary, solitary, and formed of five oval petals, terminated by a sort of guard like a long fingernail, and enclosing twenty or twenty-five stamens, with free filaments surrounding a short and globulous pistil, which changes into a fruit looking like an orange, yet containing, within seven sections, a glutinous and disagreeable pulp.
Thumberg'8 description accords with that by Kaempfer, but he says nothing of the number and position of stamens. It appears, however, that he supposed them to be the same as in the Citrus tnfoliata of Kaempfer, seeing that he ranges this that he describes in the class Polyadelpbia, order Icosandria.
Loureiro reports as Citrus trifoliate, a plant resembling that of Kaempfer and Thumberg m many traits, yet of which the liower is totally different, and he, in consequence, makes it a separate genus, which he classes in the Pcnlandria
Mouogyuia, under the name of liiphasia auraniMa.
This discoid, which does not escape his observation, leads him to think either that botanists preceding him- have not closely observed, or that their Citrus trifoliata is a plant of dif ferent species from that which he is describing. I should think, with regard to the first opinion, that if Kaempfer's description were less detailed, one might supppose this anthor had not carefully observed this liower, to which, in his time, very little importance was attached ; but the description is so precise, and agrees so well with the accompanying drawing, that we must believe his Citrus trifoliata, a different species from the tripluusm aurantiola of Loureiro.
This belongs, doubtless, iu the artificial system of Linntvus, to a different class, but in the natural system it ought to be connected to the same family, and should make a link of the great chain forming the family of Agrumi.
It is to be desired that individuals of all these species should be brought to Europe, for it is only by a thorough and careful examination of their characteristics that one can judge of their proper places in the natural system.
It is pretended that the Citrus trifoliata has already been cultivated in the orangery of the Botanical Garden at Paris, but one must believe it has also perished there, for I have sought for it in vain. They have shown mo only a liinonia trifoliata, which, as it has never blossomed, cannot be thoroughly known. 'Wemust then wait until enlightened botanists can observe them in their native countries with more attention.
Aivf. I.—/Studies vjmn tfw citron tree—Indigenous in Media—Naturalized in Palestine, Greece, and Italy—Bate of its transmigration.
Centuries roll on before man gathers upon one soil the many plants scattered over the surlace of the globe. He can for a long time content himself with the productions which Nature may have given abundantly in his own country; but, as civilization extends his needs, his knowledge and connections, he lays all climates under contribution to enrich his native soil, of which he multiplies the resources aud means by a laborious industry.
It is thus that we see the fruits of Asia growing beside those of Europe and of Africa, and new trees, taken from distaut regions, succeed to plants less useful. The citron, lemon, aud orange trees are the last among exotic productions which have contributed to the embellishment of our gardens. Placed by Nature in various climates, they have become known to Europeans at different epochs, and as the result of very dissimilar events.
It seems that the citron first appeared. Indigenous in Media, it was soon propagated in many parts of Persia, where the Hebrews and the Greeks could easily learn of it. It is not possible, however, to fix the precise date when these two nations began its cultivation, nor by what steps this culture penetrated to the European countries. As soon as the Hebrews were established ih tho Land of Promise, they began to have intercourse with the Assyrians and Persians, and it is reasonable to suppose that they would be the first to know of this beautiful plant, and to uaturalizo it in the fertile valleys of Palestine.
It is, however, astonishing that in ull the liible ouc meets not a single passage where this tree is mentioued.' 1 have thought, sometimes, with a crowd of \ iuterprcters and commentators upon this book, J that the tree hadar, whose fruit the Hebrews \ carried at their Feast of Tabernacles, was no ) other thau the citron tree.
That which gives probability to this opinion is the custom always maintained among the Jews, of presentiug themselves in the synagogue on the day of tabernacles with a citron in hand. This usage, existing still to-day among them, and to which they attach great importance, dates, without doubt, from an epoch very remote, since there is mention of it in the Jewish antiquities of Joscphus; and Samaritan medals have been found expressing on one side the U>»lavc of the Jews, and upon the reverse of which oue sees citrons fastened to a palm tree. , All these data, however, do not prove that the j tree hadar is the citron—it is necessary to ex] amine the words in Leviticus and those of Joscphus to discover what gave rise to this opinion. "You shall take," said Moses to his people," You shall take, on the first day, fruits of the tree ha>lar, of palm branches, boughs of the thickest trees, and willows that cross the length of rapid waters, and rejoice before the Lord "your God." (Levit., c, 23, 40.)
If this custom had uot been consecrated siuce so many centuries in the religious rites of the Jews, no person could have supposed that Moses wished to speak of the citron under the name of hadar. This word, very far from being the proper name of a thing, signifies, according to the Seventy, only the fruit of the finest tree, and, according to our Latin version, fruetmt lir/ni tpecioti. t Now, according to the acceptation given to this word, hadar, the command of Moses enjoined .' upon the people only a choice of the fruit of the i finest tree, without determining the species to be V preferred. They were masters of the choice, and there is little doubt that as soon as they knew the citron they would substitute it for the tree of which they had made use until then.
The precept was generic—it would always refer to the most beautiful tree of which they had knowledge; aud the citron was, without doubt, for a long time, and is, perhaps, still the finest tree known.
The words of Joscphus conic to the help of my argument. This historian does not say that the law directed the Hebrews to carry in the Feast of Tabernacles fruits of the citron tree; he oulv says that the law prescribed to offer burntoll'erings, and to render to God thanksgivings, by carrying in their hands myrtle and willow, with palm boughs to which Persian apples had been lastencd. (Pontmes dc Perse.)
This expression shows that the apples had been attached to the palm tree by a sort of voluntary usase, and not in consequence of the precept. | The citron tree, then, was still unknown in
Palestine in the time of Moses. At that period , the Asiatics were not sufficiently civilized to \ think of transporting the plants of one country to another; neither their wants nor their habits j of luxury had, as yet, made close ties bctweeu J nations. But it is surprising that the Jews did not know of this tree after the Babylonish captivity; aud we are still more astonished to find that they knew nothing of it at the commencement of the Christian era.
The Seventy, who translated the Scriptures iuto Greek two hundred and sixty-six years after the return of the Hebrews to Palestine, rendered the word hadar by the same paraphrase used in the Latin version—" the fruit of the finest tree." Aud the gospel, which contains so many allusions to the palm, the fig, and many other trees, says not a word of the citron.
This tree, however, was already known to the"] Greeks aud Romans. Theophrastus gives a very [ truthful and exact description of it. This philos-3 opher wrote after the death of Alexander, whose conquests had greatly extended the knowledge of the Greeks concerning the region of Asia, situated this side the Iudus, where this plant was iudigenous. These are his words on the matter:
"All the country situated east and south of us < produces peculiar plants and animals. Thus oue sees in Media and Persia, among many other productions, the tree called Persian or Median apple. This tree has a leaf as large as and resembling the pourpicr; it has thorns like those of the pear tree and hawthorn, but which arc more slender, pointed, aud stubborn. Its fruit is not edible, but it has an exquisite odor, as also have the leaves, which are used as a protectiou from j moths in clothing. A decoction of the pulp of this fruit is thought to be an antidote to poison, and will also sweeten the breath. J
"They sow the seeds in the spriug in furrows carefully prepared, and water it for four or five days after.
"When the small plant has gotten a httle strength, it is transplanted, always in the spring, into a moist and mellow soil, not too light.
"The citron bears fruit continuously; while some fruit is falling with ripeness other fruit is but just starting, and still other approaching maturity. Fruit is given only by the flowers which have in the middle a sort of straight spindle; those which do not have this fall off, producing nothing. They seed it also, as the palm, in perforated earthen vases. This tree, as we have said, is common in Persia and in Media."
Virgil is the first among Latin writers to speak of the citron, not, however, calling it by this name, but, like Theophrastus, giving it the appellation of Median apple.
He says it is a large tree resembling the laurel, whose leaves arc odoriferous and never fall, whose tlowcr sets easily, and whoso precious fruit, though its juice is sour and bitter, serves among the Medes as a cure for poison, and is also used to correct a fetid breath, and as a relief to asthmatic old men.
Pliny begins to give it several names; he calls', it mains medial, malm aasyria, and citrus. He says its leaf, which carries a thorn at its side, and is of an excellent odor, is used by the Modesto perfume clothes; that "its brauehes are always covered wjlh fruit; some green, others scarcely