Imagens das páginas

runt in acquisition? Hierunalem AntiocJue el Laodicemac Tortosa: tiolinum atUem el Gihellum, Oraaream et Amur per m ceperunt."

This honorable testimony is conlinneil by all historians, and chiefly by Morisotte, whose words I will presently give. It is well known, besides, that duriug the whole of these expeditions they ceased not to support with their fleets the efforts of the Crusaders, and that in tho ninth Crusade, in 1243, they transported to Egypt the King, St. Louis, with thirty-two galleys and seven vessels, and had an important part in the taking of Da mietta.

Here are tho words of llorisotte: Captis Plugnicia et Syrios littoribus, urbibusque quocumque Suraceni fugere, qtutenmque erupere, ibi pronto Oenuentis cum validis ctamibus fuere, nee qui Genueneibua resiateret post Saracenm inveniebatur, n Pitani, Venetique hoates defument. Morisoti's. Hist., bk. 2, c. 23, p. 514.

According to all these facts, it is evident that the Genoese had, more than nil others, facilities for seeing and for bringing to their beautiful shores the lemon and orange trees.

Those sailors who manned tho war vessels were the same persons who, after giving some months to tillage, quitted their families to man merchant vessels to go into Palestine, sometimes as traders, sometimes as pilgrims, or disguised as Mussulmen with the caravans into the interior of Persia, and even to India.

Such people, at once farmers, warriors, traders, and adventurers, could not neglect a bruuah of industry so suited to the climate of the country they inhabited, and which was congenial to the taste for agriculture and for commerce forming the base of their characters. Above all, this conjecture accords to well with facts which we have stated, that we can hazard it without fear of paradox.

They were, besides, the only European people to whom the naturalization of this tree could be profitable, they being for a long time the only ones engaged in the commerce of the Agra mi. Tbis trade was carried on chiefly by the gardeners of Nervi and San Remo.

Nerrl has been celebrated for its seedsmen, who provided for a long time, and still supply, these trees to the orangeries of Europe; and to them we are principally indebted for the varieties multiplied by seed, and for the novelties which have gratified the curiosity and taste of amateurs.

The trade in the fruits was monopolized by the inhabitants of St. Remo, who have for many years supplied the citrons used at the Passover by the Jews of Italy, France, and Germany. From their country have come the perfumes and essences, as well as the citric acid, used in the arts. From thence are obtained the lemons for the table, the different fruits for the confectioner, and the sweet oranges have been also for centuries an almost exclusive product of their beautiful valleys.

One may read, in proof of this, what is said by Olivier de Serres, Ferraris, Jndoco Hondio, Merula, Matiolt, Gallo, Alberti, Volcamerius, Commelinus, Giustinianl, Abram Hortelius, Autoine Mangini, and an infinity of others. Writers of all times have deposed in favor of the almost exclusive trade by the Genoese in the agrumi. We have seen what Silvaticus has said, who

wrote about the middle of the thirteenth century. His testimony is confirmed by writers of tho" fourteenth century. The first is Brasilus, and the second is Blondus Flavius. The Geographical and Statistical Description of Italy, by Blondus, is', perhaps, the most antique work of this kind known in Europe since the revival of letters. (It dates from 1450.) This anthor, who was of Forli, and unacquainted with the part of Italy this side of Tuscany, had recourse to his friends for completing his description. He procured that of Liguria, of Brasilus. This learned Genoese, known by several memoirs relating to the history of his country, wrote then an epistle entitled lietcriptio ora Ligustica,a work valuable for the exactitude, precision, and erudition with which it is written, and which Blondns copied almost literally.

In this description (which was also printed) he lauds Rupallo and St. Remo for the culture oi agrumi and palm trees, with which those valleys were covered.

Giustiniani succeeded very closely these two authors. He wrote, iu 1500, a history of Genoa, preceded by a description of that beautiful coast known as IUiicr a di Genom.

In this he notices the territory of St. Remo, on account of the vast number of these trees, from which the fruit was sent into all Europe.

This testimony is repeated in the works of Alberti, of Matioli, and of Gallo. The first wrote, in J528, a voyage to Italy, made five years be fore. The second published, in 1544, his dissertation upon the works of Dioscorides, and the third gave, in 1560, a treatise upon agriculture, highly esteemed—entitled le dicd Giornate. These all say clearly that Liguria had been of old celebrated for its trade in agrumi. Many other writers attest to the same. See Hondio, iu his Soca Italia hxlicriue Deacriptio, p. 73, and Gualdo Priorato, in his description of Genoa, published at Cologne in 1668, pp. 20, 70, &c.

It would be useless to quote the words of Ferraris, of Volcamerius, and a host of others, where the same truth is repeated. I shall only observe that the number of these trees hud become so prodigious in the territory of St. Remo, and the exportation of these fruits so considerable, that in 1585 the municipal council of that city thought it a duty to subject this commerce to special police laws. A magistrate was desig nated to direct it, and express rules were formed for sustaining it.

One sees by these rules that the yearly export of lemons alone amounted to several millions of fruits, and that St. Remo supplied nearly all France, Germany, and many other parts of Europe. I reserve for my fifth chapter this curious paper, which gives an idea of these fruits and their trade.

The extent and antiquity of this trade form, doubtless, a strong presumption for attributing to this people (ot St. Remo) the acclimatization of this tree, the presumption acquiring still more force, when we consider their commercial position at the time when this event must have taken place; but I think 1 shall be able to present data still more decisive for establishing this opinion.

The sweet orange tree was not yet in Europe at the end of the fourteenth century; at the beginning of the sixteenth it was already very

much spread there; it should then have appeared early in the fifteenth century. It was precisely at this epoch that a taste for botany revived in Italy; and at this time the trade and agriculture of Genoa were at the climax of their prosperity. But during all this interval we find no trace of this culture, except solely in Liguria. This fact is attested by two important documents, which I am about to make known.

The first is an account of expenses by. the treasurer of Savona, dated 1471. The second is a bill of sale, made in 1472, at Savona, by a master of a ship of St. Rcmo, of his vessel laden with oranges.

Let us examine these two papers.

The city of Savona had, in 1471, au ambassador at Milan. Wishing to make him a present, she sent to him citron and lemon comfits, and, afterwards, citruli. This double expedition, of which we find the account in the books of administration of Savona, dated 1471, is spoken of in a way to prove that the citruli were sweet oranges.

It is sufficient to know that the lemons and citrons, sent to Milan, were comfits, and that the citruli, on the contrary, were in their natural state.

This plainly shows that the eitruli were edible, whilst citrons and lemons were not used in commerce, except after a modification by the confectioner, which brought out their aroma, and corrected their bitterness. (I owe the knowledge,^ of this gift, just spoken of, to M. de Belloro, omf of the most learned persons of Savona, who kindly made investigations upon this subject in the archives.of that city. Here is the passage, copied by myself, from the book of administration, bearing this mark—"1468, H." under the date of " May 27, 1471, p. 327:" "De mandate 8. D. antianorum pro citrulis, mitiss Mediolanum pro Lazaro Feo. et dictis pro Jacobo de Dego, Gabellotto, Oabelle fornaeum anni pratsentis, grosses decemnovem, cum dimidio lihras tres, solidos octo, et denarios tres." Below—" Die prima junii, pro fructibus missis mediolanum, videlicet limonibus confectis, et cilris, f. 7,11." The difference in price, and even the expressions indicate that the citruli were fruits in their natural state.) This fact is still more strengthened by a contract of sale of cotemporancous date, found in the archives of the same city. This contract contained a sale made by a master of a St. Bemo vessel, to another of the same place, of a barque then at Savona, loaded with 15,000 citrangvli, or cetroni.

(We find in the archives of the notaries of Savona, a bill of sale received by the notary Pierre Corsaro, dated February 12, 1372, by which Dominique Asconzio, family Antoine, of St. Remo, sells to Jean Baptiste Mulo, family Etienne, of same place, one Umbo, cum citrangulis, sive celronis, quindecim tnille, now on board said vessel, for the consideration of two pounds per thousand—Genoese money—the whole for the sum of fifty pounds. The Umbo is a name for a kind of vessel used at that time, which was valued, as we see, at twenty pounds. This price seems very small, but on comparing the value of the money of that day with that of the present, It will be found to be a very considerable sum. I am indebted for these facts to the son-in

law of M. Belloro—M. Ncrvi—Secretary of the Mayoralty of Savona, where his talents and knowledge are well known.)

The number, 15,000, of these fruits, is sufficient ground for concludine, First, that the culture of orange trees at St. Remo bad reached a high point of prosperity; secondly, that these could not have been bigarades, but were sweet orauges; for what would they do with so many bigarades?

The confectioners were supplied by citrons and lemons. The bigarade also might be oonfected, but one could use for this purpose only the skin, which is thin; and it being impossible to put them into commerce for any other use, it would be extraordinary to find so large an exportation.

It is, therefore, natural to suppose that the 15,000 citranguli, or cetroni, were sweet oranges, of which the consumption is more considerable, and of which the sale would consequeutly be more easy and more profitable.

These conjectures seem to me reasonable enough for our deducing that Liguria, at the middle of the fifteenth century, baa carried this sort of culture and commerce much further than all the rest of Europe, which could scarcely have occurred in so short an interval had not the Ligurians been the first to know and to cultivate the sweet orange tree.

A.HT. VII.—Of the Varictics and Hybrids of the

CitrusHistory of the Origin and Transmigrations—T/teir Multiplication. The introduction of the sweet orange tree into Europe certainly preceded that of the most of the varieties and hybrids forming now the family of the Hesperides.

Doubtless a few of these races were formed in the original countries where Nature had placed the species. In the ancient woods of India and China, the mingling of the pollen of many differing individuals would havo given birth to the varieties with which those peoples afterwards embellished their gardens, and which, step by step, passed into the bordering provinces, and are at last spread over Europe. But a great number were formed only in the orchards of Syria and Egypt, after the naturalization of the species, which were mixed, the one with the other, by culture. Some varieties have originated only in the gardens of Europe.

The oldest variety known in the Occident is certainly the Adam's apple. It was cultivated in Palestine in the twelfth century, and Jacques de Vitry, who calls it by this name (pomum adami), gives us a description so exact as to leave not a doubt of its identity with that we now possess. It is thought that it came from the Indies, where it appears very old, and is regarded as a subvariety of the pompelmous (auraniium decumanum). We cannot attribute the same origin to varieties cultivated at about the same time in Egypt. It would appear that those were formed in that country. Abd-Allatif, who describes them, says they were unknown in Irak and Bagdad, countries which served as passage for the lemon and bigarade (citrons ronds), and adds, that these species combine with each other, producing an infinite number of varieties. (See Abd-allaTif. Description of Egypt, bk. 2, p. 3, translated

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by M. de Sacy.) This last observation, remarkable in a writer ignorant of the sexual system of plants, is a sure indication that these new races were formed in Egypt. It is certainly difficult to connect these varieties with those known to us. Some varieties, perhaps, have passed from Egypt into Spain, and thence into the rest of Europe, but they have surely disappeared in great part, with time and want of culture, and have no connection with ours, or only vague resemblances, classing them in the same rank upon the chain of varieties, yet not permitting us to regard them as identical.

I have always been astonished by the difficulty experienced in all the genera, when attempting toconnect to our varieties those of the ancients; but since I have become persuaded of the true nature of these races, and of the laws ruling their existence and propagation, my astonishment has ceased, and I am convinced of the impossibility of attaining to this end.

A varicty has a precarious existence, due to an accidental combination, and which cannot be perpetuated, except by art. Thus it disappears whenever the action of art is suspended by the effect of some crisis, re-appearing often under forms very analogous, but never identical; forms never complete, having always differences impossible to reconcile.

Becanse of this, one occupies himself without success, seeking in our orchards the varieties of the olive, the apple, the pear, &c, of which Pliny and Latin writers upon agriculture give us descriptions. These varieties perpetuated themselves then only by culture. This art suffered in Europe by the invasion of the Barbarians, causing these varieties to disappear, and on the return of culture new forms appeared, resembling the old, yet which can never correspond exactly to them.

Perhaps for the same reason we seek in vain, in modern Egypt, the persea of Theophrastus, and the baumier of the ancients. These two vegetablesregarded by some asjtwo species, the one lost entirely, and the other disappeared from that country—were, perhaps, but two varictics; and from want of care they have submitted to their natural fate. Yet they exist still in their type, and one could obtain them anew, if one could attain to naturalizing this type in an agricultural country, and on a grand scale.

Curious passages of several writers relative to the balm tree, all collected by M. de Sacy in his translation of the Description of Egypt by AbdAllatif, furnish me with proof of this fact.

I will commence by transcribing these passages, and afterwards give my reflections:

1. Abd-Allatif, in speaking of the balm tree, expresses himself in the following manner: "The tree which furnishes the balsam bears no fruit; they take cuttings of the tree, which,planted in the month of Schobat, take root and grow." Abd-Allatiif, p. 22.

2. "The wild male balm tree has a fructification, but yields no balsam. It is found in Nedjd (interior of Arabia, Trans.); in Tehama (on the coast, T.); in the deserts of Arabia, the maritime countries of Yemen, and in Persia; it is known under the name of baseftam." Abd-AU, p. 22.

8. Prosper Alpin speaks of it thus: "Omnes.... uno ore affirmant propc Meecham et Medinam, in

montibus, planus, cuXtis tUque ineultis locis, innumeras balsami planlas sponte natas speetari, plurimasque etiam in arenosis sterilibusque locis, qum tanien vel nihil vel minimum sucei productbant. Multa tamen semina ferunt." Pro&t. Alt. of Bals. dial. chap. 12, p. 14. De Sacy, p. 03.

4. A Spanish Arab author, speaking of Mecca, says: "Some persons say that the bum-ham (balm tree) has not flower and fruit with their parts. The truth is, however, quite the contrary. At least, if there are districts where such is the case, there are others in which it is not true. The same may be said of the sorbier (service tree, Trans.) the papyrus, &c." AboclAbbas Nkbati. Man. Ar. of the Imp. Lib. No. 1,071. Desacy, p. 94.

'"). The author of the Garaib abuliaib says: "One finds in Egypt, in Matareeyah (anc. Hdir opolis, Trans.) balm pits, from whence water is taken to sprinkle the bushes of balm, which furnish a precious oil. It is to the pits that this quality is due, for there the Messiah was washed. There is not in all the world another place where the balm tree will grow. Almelic-Alcamel asked permission of his father Adel to sow the seed elsewhere. Having obtained it, he planted, but his bushea did not succeed, and one could draw no oil from them. Almelic-Alcamel demanded, and obtained still of his father, permission to conduct to his plant the water of Matareeyah, but he had no belter success." Ar. MSS. of the Imp. Lib. 791. De Sacy, p. 90.

6. Mandeville reports the following; Hos arboresscu arbusta balsami fecit quondam quidam de ealiphis jEgypti de loco Eugaddi, inter marc Mortuum et Jerico, ubi domino volente excreoerat, eradicari, et in agro pradicto (Cayr) plantari. Est tamen hoc mirandum, quod ubicumque alibi, sue prope sivc remote plantantur, quamvis forte vireant et exurgant,tamenne>nfructijicant. Mand. Chap. 8, p, 31. In Haktuy's collection," 1,589. M. de Sacy, p. 87.

From these passages result the following facts i The balm, or balsam tree (amyris opobaSamum, L.) In a wild state fruits, and reproduces itself by seed, and gives none, or very little, of this sap called balm. (Nos. 2 and 3.)

In a state of culture it does not fruit, but gives, upon incision, a large quantity of balm. (No. 1.) But it does not suffice to take wild trees in the woods and cultivate them in order to obtain this change. The difference is due to the nature of the individual, which has one of the different properties. Even when a tree is found uniting the two properties, its descendants preserve not the property of their father. They fruit, but do not yield balm. (No. 5.) The tree which fruits is multiplied by seed; that which bears no fruit is multiplied by cuttings. The first (1 and 2) is never in gardens, because we pull it up as soon as it appears; the second is ordinarily only in cultivated places, as it requires the hand of man for multiplying itself; yet we sometimes find it among the wild ones; then it is taken to the garden and cultivated. (No. 6.)

Because of these accidents, which contradict common experience, fables have been created on the subject, and one attributes the power of yielding balm to the quality of the soil, another to miraculous causes. (No. 5.)

All this, which is but a repetition of passages reported by M. de Sacy, proves in an unanswerable manner, firet, that there exists a balm-tree type wiich has flower and fruit, and reproduces itself from seed. Secondly, by fecundation varieties are formed, which most often have the ordinary trait of monsters, sterility. Thirdly, that this monstrous variety, following the example of other vegetable mules, is indemnified for this sterility by a singular property which, in this kind, is letting flow in greater abundance a humor probably destined to nourish fructification. Fourthly, that in nature this variety has existence only during the life of the individual, consequently it cannot perpetuate itself save by art.

Fifthly. That according to all these facts, this variety could have been lost in Egypt, and might have re-appeared iu the vicinity of Mecca; and in this place could have shown traits of the ancient variety, modified and changed by accessory accidents, thus causing it to differ from the descriptions of the ancients.

We can apply very nearly the same reasoning to the persea of 1 heophrastus. M. de Sacy has proved very conclusively that this tree is the lobakh of the Arabians. He has also proved that it is closely connected with the sidra {rhamnu* »pina crisli. Desf.) or ttabka of the Egyptians.

Why might it not be a variety of that species, whose fruit is larger and more agreeable *

Species never lose themselves in the regions where they are acclimated.

Nature has provided for their multiplication by numerous means which make up the deficiencies of art, and elude the destructive spirit of man. If the persea had been a species, it would have, of itself, multiplied itself by its seeds, and the revolutions of Egypt would have only facilitated its propagation. It must, then, have been but a variety due to fecundation, and consequently could be perpetuated only by the cutting or the graft. In this event the character of its fruit would differ from those of its type as much as the butter-pear differs from the wild pear.

Thus all research to find a plant with fruit, answering exactly to that described by Theophratus, is useless; we must content ourselves with a slight similarity, chiefly with regard to the fruit, and admit that the variety of Thcophratus may have disappeared, but that the species to which it belonged still exists.

One might think it extraordinary that these disappearances have not taken place among varieties of many other plants—the bannna, for instance. But I would observe that it (the banana) has received from nature a prodigious facility for reproducing itself by cuttings and suckers; consequently has the power of self-preservation: whilst our fruit-trees require extraordinary care, such as grafting, or careful slipping, which pre-suppose a degree of civilization, and a certain completeness in the culture.

Besides, there are species, which, more often than others, form varieties, and among such varieties there are some which are regularly formed In the ordinary state of blossoming, and others which are the result of an extraordinary combination, taking place very rarely.

t From the complication of all these circurn . 1 stances result the differenefs seen in these phenomena.

This digression may seem out of place, yet is ! useful in throwing light upon the principles of : the theory advanced by mo in the first chapter 1 of this work.

In examiuing the descriptions of Abd-Allatif, we easily recognize the monstrous citron'(" Gros Citron." Abd-All., bk 1, p. 91,)—the citron of sweet-fruit—(" citron doux which is not at all acid," lb.) the lemon-cedrat. ("ffffe lemons, named by some, composite; among them are found fruit as large as a water-melon." Abd-All., p. 31.) Ebn-Djemi, quoted by Ebn-Beitar, says: "The composite lemon is a lemon graft upon a citron tree. We add, (continues Ebn-Beitar,) that the skin of this fruit has more of sharpness and bitterness than that of the citron, but less than that of the lemon; it also has a sweet taste, not in either of those fruits. Because of this, it possesses a nutritive quality not found in citron or lemon, and holds a middle place between those two acid fruits." This explanation is precise enough for us to recognize in this variety the lemonccdrat or poneire. We also see in his balm lemon, which is but an inch long and "In the shape of an elongated egg," a race resembling the lime of Naples.

This lemon is certainly the same as the mid lemons found by Bellon, near Cairo, "which have fruit never larger than a pigeon's egg." (Bel. c. 36, p. 236.)

Burmanni, |in speaking of a kind of limonia which he found near Ceylou, connects it to the wild lemons of Bellon; but it is evident that the mahu limonia of Ceylon, is a UmoneUicr (Limonia, L.); and Bellon's lemons are true lemontrees of small fruit, such as the lime of Naples, and the balm-lemon spoken of by Abd-Allatif.

The monsters inclosing another lemon in their interior are but yearly accidents, which might have occurred in the time of Abd-Allatif, as now. (" Some citrons have inside another citron with yellow skin." p. 31.)

In the mokhattan, or sealed lemon, we see a variety very singular and difficult to recognize. Abd-Allatif says: "There is another sort of lemon called mokhattan, that is to say sealed, which is of a deeper and more bright red than the orange; they are perfectly rouud. aud a little flattened above and below, as if forced in by pressing there a seal." This peculiar variety resembles none known to us. It appears to be a himie or hybrid of the red-orange and lemon.

According to this writer, it owes the epithet mokhattan to the flattened appearance of its extremities.

The conical citron, of which he speaks, is apparently but n modification of shape, which might conuect it with varieties cultivated by us; but ouc cannot determine that, by this single circumstance. (" There arc also citrons having an absolutely conical form, beginning in a base, and ending in a point; but which, otherwise, in color, odor, taste of pulp and acidity, differ in no way from the citron," Abd-All.) We have several varieties that affect this form ; (the lemon perctta is the opposite) and among others, the citron of Florence.

Ebn-Ayyas, in his large History of Egypt, points out also a quantity of these acid fruits, (fuimidhat) but gives no description ' by which thpy cun be made known to us.

He names only the citron, the lemon, the orange, the cabbad, the bammadh Schoairi, and the red French lemon which was, it is said, taken to Egypt in the year 300 ol the Hegira.

The red French lemon is, perhaps, a variety of the citron. The Franks (a name given by Arabians tj> all people of Western Europe,) long hud known the citron; it is not impossible that they had procured a variety in Sicily or Sardinia, which, carried to Egypt, had gotten the name of French, or the name may have come from some Frenchman having cultivated it first in Egypt. (See notes of M, de Sacy upon the first book ol Abd-Allatif, p. 117.)

I shall not enter upon the examination of the hammadh sehouiri and red lemon. It is very difficult, from the little said of them, to imagine to what variety they ought to be assigned; and 1 would merely s:ty, with regard to the cabbad, that if it is the same which Vansleb calls kebbad, in his new book about Egypt, it should be classed with the Adam's apple, seeing that this author describes it as a tree bearing oranges of enormous size, und the Adam's apple, or citrus decumanus, has precisely analogous properties.

It is more easy to recognize the races reported by Ebn-el-Awam in his Treatise on Agriculture, where he speaks of the agrumi of Seville.

This Spanish-Arab distinguishes four species, calling them citrvnier.orunger, laysamou, or yasaniou, or zambou, an,l limonier, which names the translator rendered in Spanish, as cidro uaranjo, limon, and limero, Uarnado, (loronjo o arbode), taniboa or bontamboun, and which is but the Adam's apple.

(" The atrundj, the nareudj, the yasamou, called tamArtM, and the lamoun janne, are as one species, and ate cultivated in nearly the same manner." Ern-ei.-awam, p. 314; and elsewhere, "of the planting the bastaniboun, which is the zamboa," p. 333)

Search for the etymology of these names presents difficulties. It would be useless to seek in Arabic or Persian language the origin ol y<immou, Inysamou, or zambou. Their physiognomy shows that they belong to neither of those tongues, but seems to prove that they will be found only in the languages ol China or of Tartary. The Portuguese have adopted the word snmhnu, modifying it to zittnboa. The word toronjo, used by the Spaniards lor rendering that of laysamou, has much affinity with narendj, of w hich it may be a corruption. The word bosUimboun seems to be composed of the Arabic word Inmstan (garden), and tite Persian word boun (utility, ornament). In adopting this etymology bmtamhoun might signify ornament of the garden, which would perfectly apply to orange trees,and perhaps particularly to that variety having fruit of extraordinary size.

Ebu-el-A warn describes afterwards the different varieties of each species, and we at once recognize the ordinary cttron in that which he calls citron aiqre. (Our bigarade the Arabs have sometimes called citron rond, sometimes citron aiqre, and finally narendj. Ebn-Bcitar says of it: "The varendj is :, well known tree, the leaf is

smooth and of a deep green, the fruit is round, and has an acid juice like the citron. The tree, also, closely resembles the citron tree; its flower is white and extremely sweet in odor." Ar. MSS. of Ebn-bkitab.) We also recognize the oranged poneire, in that which he calls sweet fruit.

The two first varieties of the yasamou are related to our citrus decumana, or Adam's apple; and the third, called toronjn chinesea, appears to be our Chinese citron, (C. M. C. fructu inonstruoso aurantianto. Gal. Syn.)

I know not how to determine what is the orange doree, which he distinguishes from the ordinary orange, and less still, that called fUur celeste; but 1 clearly recognize a species of lime of Naples in the " lemon of smooth skin, the size ol a pigeon's egg." and a sort of large poncire iu the lemon avirolado.

The authority of Ebn-el-Awam, appears to prove that these varieties boro, in great part, in Syria and Egypt, passed soon into Spain, but not iuto France and Italy until long afterwards.

One of the causes rendering difficult the recognition of ancient varieties, is the vagueness of descriptions. In those times of ignorance the language of botany was yet unfounded, consequently a person attempting to describe a plant did not select the traits most constant and certain, but each described the parts and peculiarities which most forcibly struck him, according to his manner of seeiug, and wilh terms and expressions which often only confused ideas.

The Aral's, for example, have sometimes designated the orange by the name of round citron, and this expression applies equally to a genuine citron which affects this form. But nothing has been more vague than the attempt to express the color of the orange, as it resembles in no degree any known color. It has been indicated by that which was thought to approach it nearest—thus one calls it jaune (yellow), another speaks of it as doree (golden), another as rouge (red), and, finally, some have well adopted the name of orange color.

But to picture the idea by describing the fiuit, they have made use of very indefinite expressions, causing great uncertainty in these descriptions.

The same inconvenience arises when we try to know the orange rouge.

It would appear a suitable nime, yet, being sometimes used for indicating ordinary oranges, we find ourselves in uncertainty when wishiug to interpret the authors with exactness.

Some have Attempted to picture the color of this fruit by the term vinense (wiue-like). The Ligurians have named it the orange of bloody juice (arnneio mmguigno).

One finds himsell equally embarrassed when trying to express the color of the flowers of the citron and lemon trees. They are shaded with a mixed lint, called by one red, by another violet, and which is, really, of both these colors. I Perhaps il was but this peculiar color that I Ebn-el-Awam wished to designate by the exI pression ficur celeste.

In that case the variety he speaks of is, probably, a hybrid of the orange and lemou, like the one in the Jardin des Pinnies at Paris, called violet orange tree.

I throw out these conjectures merely to show

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