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the Miss Snaps, which will greatly concern the reader, Page 434
In which our hero makes a speech well worthy to be celebrated; and the behaviour of one of the gang, perhaps more unnatural than any other part of this history,
CHAP. i. A sentiment of the ordinary's, worthy to be written in letters of gold; a very extraordinary instance of folly in Friendly; and a dreadful accident which befel our hero,
CHAP. II. A short hint concerning popular ingratitude. Mr. Wild's arrival in the castle, with other occurrences, to be found in no other
history, 439 CHAP. III. Curious anecdotes relating to the history of Newgate, 440 CHAP. IV.
The dead warrant arrives for Heartfree, on which occasion Wild betrays some human
Showing the wholesome uses drawn from recording the achievements of those wonderful productions of nature called GREAT MEN.
As it is necessary that all great and surprising events, the designs of which are laid, conducted, and brought to perfection by the utmost force of human invention and art, should be produced by great and eminent men, so the lives of such may be justly and roperly styled the quintessence of history. }. these, when delivered to us by sensible writers, we are not only most agreeably entertained, but most usefully instructed ; for besides the attaining hence a consummate knowledge of human nature in general; of its secret springs, various windings, and perplexed mazes; we have here before our eyes lively examples of whatever is amiable or detestable, worthy of admiration or abhorrence, and are consequently taught, in a manner infinitely more effectual than by precept, what we are eagerly to imitate or carefully to avoid. But besides the two obvious advantages of surveying, as it were in a picture, the true beauty of virtue, and deformity of vice, we may moreover learn from Plutarch, Nepos, Suetonius, and other biographers, this useful lesson, not too hastily, nor in the gross, to bestow either our praise or censure; since we shall often find such a mixture of good and evil in the same character, that it may require a very accurate judgment in a very elaborate inquiry to determine on which side the balance turns: for though we sometimes meet with an Aristides or a Brutus, a Lysander or a Nero, yet far the greater number are of the mixed kind; neither totally good nor bad; their greatest virtues being obscured and allayed by their vices, and those again softened and coloured over by their virtues. Of this kind was the illustrious person whose history we now undertake; to whom, too. nature had given the greatest and S5
most shining endowments, she had not given them absolutely pure and without alloy. Though he had much of the admirable in his character, as much perhaps as is usually to be found in a hero, I will not yet venture to affirm that he was entirely free from all defects, or that the sharp eyes of censure could not spy out some little blemishes lurking amongst his many great perfections. We would not therefore bounderstood to affect giving the reader a perfect or consummate pattern of human excellence; but rather, by faithfully recording some little imperfections, which shadowed over the lustre of those great qualities which we shall here record, to teach the lesson we have above mentioned; to induce our reader with us to lament the frailty of human nature, and to convince him that no mortal, after a thorough scrutiny, can be a proper object of our adoration. . But before we enter on this great work, we must endeavour to remove some errors of opinion which mankind have, by the disingenuity of writers, contracted: . these, from their fear of contradicting the obsolete and absurd doctrines of a set of simple sellows, called, in derision, sages or philosophers, have endeavoured, as much as possible, to confound the ideas of greatness and goodness; whereas no two things can possibly be more distinct from each other: o: greatness consists in bringing all manner of mischief on mankind, and goodness in removing it from them. It secums therefore very unlikely that the same person should possess them both ; and yet nothing is more usual with writers, who find many instances of greatness in their favourite hero, than to make him a compliment of goodness into the bargain; and this, without considering that by such means they destroy the great perfection called uniformity of character. In the histories of Alexander and Caesar, we are frequently, and indeed impertinently, reminded of their benevolence and generosity, of their clemency and kindness. When y
the former had with fire and sword overrun a vast empire, had destroyed the lives of animmense number of innocent wretches, had scattered ruin and desolation like a whirlwind, we are told, as an example of his clemency, that he did not cut the throat of an old woman, and ravish her daughters, but was content with only undoing them. And when the mighty Caesar, with wonderful greatness of mind, had destroyed the liberties of his country, and with all the means of fraud and force had placed himself at the head of his equals, had corrupted and enslaved the greatest people whom the sun ever saw ; we are reminded, as an evidence of his generosity, of his largesses to his followers and tools, by whose means he had accomplished his purpose, and by whose assistance he was to establish it. Now, who doth not see that such sneaking qualities as these are rather to be bewailed as impersections, than admired as ornaments in these great men; rather obscuring their glory, and holding them back in their race to greatness, indeed unworthy the end for which they seem to have come into the world, viz. of perpetrating vast and mighty mischief? We hope our reader will have reason justly to acquit us of any such confounding ideas in the following pages, in which, as we are to record the actions of a great man, so
we have no where mentioned any spark of
goodness, which had discovered itself either faintly in him, or more glaringly in any other person, but as a meanness and imperfection, disqualifying them for undertakings which lead to honour and esteem among Inen. As our hero had as little as perhaps is to be found of that meanness, indeed only enough to make him partaker of the impersection of humanity, instead of the perfection of Diabolism, we have ventured to call him. The Great ; nor do we doubt but our reader, when he hath perused his story, will concur with us in allowing him that title.
Giving an account of as many of our hero's ancesters as can be gathered out of the rubbish of antiquity, which hath been carefully sifted for that purpose.
It is the custom of all biographers, at their entrance into their work, to step a little backwards, (as far, indeed, generally, as they are able,) and to trace up their hero, as the ancients did the river Nile, till an incapacity of proceeding higher puts an end to their search.
What first gave rise to this method, is somewhat difficult to determine. Sometimes I have thought that the hero's ances
tors have been introduced as foils to himself. Again, I have imagined it might be to obviate a suspicion that such extraordinary personages were not produced in the ordnary course of nature, and may have proceeded from the author's fear, that if we were not told who their fathers were they might be in danger, like Prince Pretty Iran, of being supposed to have had none. Lastly, and perhaps more truly, I have conjectured, that the design of the biographer hath been no more than to show his great learning and knowledge of antiquity. A design to which the world hath probably owed many notable discoveries, and indeed most of the labours of our antiquarians. But whatever original this custom had, it is now too well established to be disputed. I shall therefore conform to it in the strictest lilanner. Mr. Jonathan Wild, or Wyld, then, (for he himself did not always agree in one niethod of spelling his name,) was descended from the great Wolfstan Wild, who came over with Hengist, and distinguished himself very eminently at that famous festival, where the Britons were so treacherously murdered by the Saxons; for when the word was given, i. e. Nemet ecur Sares, take out your swords, this gentleman being a little hard of hearing, mistook the sound for .Nemet her Sacs, Take out their purses; instead therefore of applying to the throat, he immediately applied to the pocket of his guest, and contented himself with taking all that he had, without attempting his life. The next ancestor of our hero, who was remarkably eminent, was Wild, surnamed Langfanger, or Longfinger. He flourished in the reign of Henry III. and was strictly attached to Hubert de Burgh, whose friendship he was recommended to by his great excellence in an art, of which Hubert was himself the inventor; he could, without the knowledge of the proprietor, with great ease and dexterity, draw forth a man's purse from any part of his garment where it was deposited, and hence he derived his surname. This gentleman was the first of his family who had the honour to suffer for the good of his country; on whom a wit of that time made the following epitaph:
O shame o' Justice, Wild is hang'd, For thatten he a pocket fang'd, While safe old Hubert, and his gang, Doth pocket o' the nation fang.
Langsanger left a son named Edward, whom he had carefully instructed in the art for which he himself was so famous. This Edward had a grandson, who served as a volunteer under the famous Sir John Falstaff, and by his gallant demeanour, so recommended himself to his captain, that he would have certainly been promoted by
him, had Harry the fifth kept his word with his old companion. After the death of Edward, the family remained in some obscurity down to the reign of Charles the first, when James Wild distinguished himself on both sides the question in the civil wars, passing from one to toother, as heaven seemed to declare itself in ovour of either party. At the end of the war, James not being rewarded according to his merits, as is usually the case of such impartial persons, he associated himself with a brave man of those times, whose name was Hind, and declared open war with both parties. He was successful in several actions, and spoiled many of the enemy; till at length, being overpowered and taken, he was, contrary to the law of arms, put basely and cowardly to death, by a combination between twelve men of the enemy's party, who after some consultation, unanimously agreed on the said murder. This Edward took to wife Rebecca the daughter of the abovementioned John Hind, Esq. by whom he had issue John, Edward, Thomas, and Jonathan, and three daughter, namely Grace, Charity, and Honour. John followed the fortunes of his father, and suffering with him, left no issue. Edward was so remarkable for his compassionate temper, that he spent his life in soliciting the causes of the distressed captives in Newgate, and is reported to have held a strict friendship with an eminent divine, who solicited the spiritual causes of the said captives. He married Editha, daughter and coheiress of Geoffry Snap, Gent. who long enjoyed an office under the high sheriff of London and Middlesex, by which, with great reputation, he acquired a handsome fortune: by her he had no issue. Thomas went very young abroad to one of our American colonies, and hath not been since heard of. As for the daughters, Grace was married to a merchant of Yorkshire, who dealt in horses. Charity took to husband an eminent gentleman, whose name I cannot learn ; but who was famous for so friendly a disposition, that he was bail for a hundred persons in one year. He had likewise a remarkable humour of walking in Westminster-hall with a straw in his shoe. Honour, the youngest, died unmarried. She lived many years in this town, was a great frequenter of plavs, and used to be remarkable for distributing oranges to all who would accept of them. Jonathan married Elizabeth, daughter of Scragg Hollow, of Hockley in the Hole, Fsq. and by her had Jonathan, who is the illustrious subject of these memoirs.
The birth, parentage, and education of JMr. Jonathan Wild the Great.
It is observable that nature seldom produces any one who is afterwards to act a notable part on the stage of life, but she gives some warning of her intention; and as the dramatic poet generally prepares the entry of every considerable character, with a solemn narrative, or at least a great flourish of drums and trumpets; so doth this our wilma Mater by some shrewd hints pre-admonish us of her intention, giving us warning as it were, and crying: Venienti occurrite morbo.
Thus Astyages, who was the grandfather of Cyrus, dreamt that his daughter was brought to bed of a vine, whose branches overspread all Asia; and Hecuba, while big with Paris, dreamt that she was delivered of a firebrand that set all Troy in flames; so did the mo– ther of our Great Man, while she was with child of him, dream that she was enjoyed in the night by the gods Mercury and Priapus. This dream puzzled all the learned astrologers of her time, seeming to imply in it a contradiction; Mercury being the god of ingenuity, and Priapus the terror of those who practised it. What made this dream the more wonderful, and perhaps the true cause of its being remembered, was a very extraordinary circumstance, sufficiently denoting something preternatural in it; for though she had never heard even the name of either of these gods, she repeated these very words in the morning, with only a small mistake of the quantity of the latter, which she chose to call Pri pus; instead of Pri pus; and her husband swore that though he might possibly have named Mercury to her, (for he had heard of such an heathen god,) he never in his life could have any wise put her in mind of that other deity, with whom he had no acquaintance. Another remarkable incident was, that during her whole pregnancy she constantly longed for every thing she saw ; nor could be satisfied with her wish unless she enjoyed it clandestinely; and as nature, by true and accurate observers, is remarked to give us no appetites without furnishing us with the means of gratifying them; so had she at this time a most marvellous glutinous quality attending her fingers, to which, as to birdlime, every thing closely adhered that she handled. To omit other stories, some of which may be perhaps the growth of superstition, we proceed to the birth of our hero, who made his first appearance on this great theatre, the very day when the plague o out in 1665. Some say his mother delivered of him in an house of an orbicular, or round form, in Covent-Garden; but of