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"cario pro ministris ibidem non mittuntur coram "Rege." 1 The text of the record is as follows :— Statement "Derb.—Excellentissimo Principi et Domino suo ReBarons "verendo Domino Edwardo, Dei Gratia, Regi Angliae (li Ed- "illustri,2 Domino Hiberniae, et Duci Aquitaniae, sui kTthc3^ ** " num^es e^ devoti Barones de Scaccario suo fidele history of "semper obsequium cum omni reverentia et honore. chequer in" Vestrae Celsitudinis mandatum die Lunae in Crastino relation to " Purificationis beatae Hariae proximo praeterita per andvEifor " quendam Johannem de Cutone in Scaccario vestro from the "nobis exhibitum recepimus in haec verba:— Conquest "g(lwar(lus, Gratia, Rex Angliae, Dominus Hiwards. "berniae, et Dux Aquitaniae, Baronibus suis de Scac"cario suo salutem. Cum in Magna Charta de liber"tatibus Angliae continetur quod nullus liber homo "capiatur vel imprisonetur aut disseisiatur de libero "tenemento suo vel libertatibus vel liberis3 consue"tudinibus suis, aut utlagetur, aut exulet, aut aliquo "modo destruatur,1 et quod super eum non ibimus nec "super eum mittemus nisi per legale judicium parium "suorum vel per legem terrae, et nos nuper (ad pro.se"cutionem Thomae de Goushulle militis, Thomae de "Radeclyve, Nicholai filii Thomae de Goushulle, Wil"lelmi le Riche de Barleburghe, Henrici le Riche de

1 This marginal description, which is obviously of very great importance, appears also on the King's Remembrancer's Roll, but is omitted from the Liber Jlubeus, the entry in which, however, is thus headed:—"Tenor cujusdam Re"cordi annotati in Memorandis de "anno undecimo domini Edwardi "nuper Regis Anglian tertii, vide"licet inter C'ommunia de Termino "Sancti Hillarii, privilegia hujus "Scacearii conceruentis sequitur "in haec verba."

The word illustri is omitted

both from the King's Remembrancer's Roll and from the Liber Rubens.

'The word liberis is omitted from the King's Remembrancer's Roll and the Liber liubeus, but on the other hand, the words libertatibus vel are omitted from the L. T. R. Roll. The text above has been made to agree with the corresponding passage in Alayna Charta (9 H. 3) c. 29.

* Lib. Hub., destringatur, indistinctly written on an erasure.

"eadem, Johannis filii Willelmi Alriche de eadem, "Salle Broun, et Johannis le Riche de Cressewelle, nobis "suggerentium quod Johannes de Leycestre Camera"rius de Scaccario praedicto ipsos Thomam, Thomam, "Nicholaum, Willelmum, Henricum, Johannem filium "Willelmi, Salle, et Johannem le Riche, qui liberi "homines sunt et secundum communem legem terras "deduci debent, maliciose praegravare et ipsos a lege "communi callide machinans destituere, ipsos per "breve nostrum de Scaccario praedicto coram vobis "retornabile ad respondendum prajfato Johanni de "Leycestre quare vi et arm is portas et ostia1 domorum "ipsius Johannis de Leycestre apud Cloune in Comi"tatu Derby noctanter fregerunt, et duos equos, duos "boves, quinque vaccas, centum et quadraginta oves, et "alia bona et catalla ejosdem Johannis de Leycestre "ad valentiam centum librarum ceperunt, abduxerunt, '- et asportaverunt, ad grave damnum ipsius Johannis "de Leycestre, et contra pacem nostram, implacitari, et "ipsos per processum inde in eodem Scaccario habitmn "diversimode pnegravari et inquietari procuravit, in "ipsorum dispendium non modicum et contra legem "et consuetudinem regni nostri et contra tenorem "Magna Chartee praedictae) vobis mandaverimus quod, "si coram vobis talis esset processus, tunc placito inde "coram vobis in eodem Scaccario ulterius tenendo "supersederetis omnino, et quod praefato Johanni de "Leycestre diceretis ex parte nostra quod breve nos"truin de transgressione ad communem legem versus "eos sibi impetraret, si sibi videret expedire, ac iidem "Thomas, Thomas, Nicholaus, Willelmus, Henricus, "Johannes filius Willelmi, Salle, et Johannes le Riche "nobis supplicaverint ut, cum vos in placito praedicto "contra tenorem mandatt nostri prfedicti non absque "errore processeritis, et quandam Inquisitionem super

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"praemissis, per quam idem Thomas et alii praedicti de "transgressione prasdicta convicti et viginti librfe prae"t'ato Johanni de Leycestre pro damnis suis adjudicate l; fuerunt in eodem Scaccario, ceperitis, velimus eis de "eiTore illo de remedio congruo providere, Nos errorem, "si quis fuerit in hac parte, modo debito corrigi, et par"tibus preedictis plenam et celerem justitiam voleutes "exhiberi, vobis mandamus, sicut alias mandavimus, "quod, si judicium inde redditum sit, tunc recordum et "proces8um loquelae pnedicta; una cum brevi originali "et brevi nostro de supersedendo in placito illo vobis "directo et omnibus aliis recordum et processum prae"dicta tangentibus nobis sub sigillo Scaccarii pnedicti "distincte et aperte mittatis et hoc breve, ita quod "ea habeamus a die Sancti Hillarii in xv dies ubi"cunque tunc fuerimus in Anglia, ut, his inspectis, "ulterius in hac parte fieri faciamus quod de jure et "secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri fue"rit faciendum, et, si causa rationabilis1 subfuerit "quare id facere non debeatis, tunc nos inde in Can"cellaria nostra sub sigillo ejusdem Scaccarii reddatis "certiores. Teste me ipso apud Botheuille primo die "Decembris anno regni nostri decimo.

"Super quo scire velit vestra Dominatio Teverenda "quod ante dictam quindenam Sancti Hillarii nec "Thomas de Goushulle, de quo fit mentio in eodem "mandato vestro, nec aliquis alius pro eo, aut pro "aliis seu aliquo eorum qui nominantur ibidem petiit "ad dictum Scaccarium vestrum recordum et proces"sum praedicta mitti coram vobis. Volentes nihilo"minus vestrae Celsitudinis mandatis in omnibus obe"dire reverenter, ut decet, significamus quod secundum "leges speciales, consuetudines, et statuta Scaccarii, quae inoleverunt tempore Regis Willelmi Conquaestoris "regni Angliae progenitoris vestri, temporibus succes

1 Tho word ralionabilis is neither in the King's KcmembrancerV Roll

nor in the Liber Ruben*.

"sorum ejus usitata, et in scriptis in Scaccario redacta, "penes et secundum quae causae et negotia tractantur, "et judicia redduntur ibidem, et etiam consequen"ter temporibus Regum dominorum Henrici proavi, "Edwardi avi, et Edwardi patris vestrorum, et tem"pore vestro similiter, usitata, ministri de Scaccario "de injuriis et trangressionibus eis illatis ibidem "placitarunt et placitari consueverunt absque impeti"tione, et, si processubus inde habitis errorem inter"venisse suggestum foret Pra^eminentice regia?, ad "correctionem et emendationem eorum solebat per "Celsitudinem regiam demandari Baronibus de Scac"cario quod ipsi, associatis sibi aliis fMelibus Regis, "et vocatis partibus coram eis, recordisque et proces"subus illis coram eis recitatis, ibidem, si error in"tervenerat, facerent eadem recorda et processus in "eodem Scaccario emendari. Ex ista siquidem causa "(ne vestrae displiceat Regiae Majestati) recordum et "processum unde fit mentio in mandatis vestris pree"dictis non misimus coram vobis. Valeat Pominatio "vestra per tempora diuturna. Scriptum apud Ebo"racum xvj die Februarii.

"Et memorandum quod breve praescriptum et aliud "breve de quo fit mentio superius sunt inter Com"munia de hoc anno xj°, et cetera contenta in dicta "certificatione annotantur modo specialioii in Rubeo "libro1 de Scaccario et in Recordis et processubus "habitis coram Baronibus ad placita ibidem.2

1 It is to be observed that this statement as to entry in the Liber Rubeus occurs both in the King's Remembrancer's and in the Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer's Rolls, and is strictly contemporaneous with the rest of the record in both.

In the Liber Rubeus the following sentence (which does not appear on the King's Remem

brancer's Roll, nor of course on the Treasurer's Remembrancer's Roll,) is added :—" Consimile recordum "annotatur in Memorandis hujus "Scaccarii, videlicet inter Recorda "de dicto Termino Sancti HilUrii '* pra;dicto [sic] annoque xj° ex "parte Reiuemoratoris Thesau. "rarii."

Proceed- One of the first points to remark here (as in the case Efchequw of the Countess of Kent v. the Abbot of Ramsey) is distin- the distinction drawn between proceedings at common from pro- law proceedings in the Exchequer. The complaint ceedings at made by the plaintiffs in error was that, while, as free Law, men, they ought to be dealt with according to common law, John de Leycestre, one of the Chan 1 plains of the Exchequer, with a crafty design to deprive them of the benefit of the common law, had caused them to be impleaded in the Exchequer by means of an Exchequer writ. At their suit a writ issued directing the Barons to stay proceedings and to bid Leycestre purchase a writ of trespass at common law if he saw fit. Nevertheless the Barons proceeded, as the plaintiffs in error alleged, erroneously, and then they obtained a writ of error.

The King's iphis writ 0f Error was to be returned in the King's

Bench had . .

no jurisdic- Bench, but with a saving clause that, if there were

Erroras any reasonable cause why this should not be done, the to the Barons should certify it in Chancery.

Exchequer.

The Barons adopted the latter course. They stated that there were special customs and ordinances (statuta) of the Exchequer which had been fixed there in the time of William the Conqueror, which had been in use during the reigns of his successor, which had been reduced to writing, and in accordance with which proceedings were had and judgments were given. Those customs and ordinances had been in use in the successive reigns of Henry III., Edward I., Edward II., and Edward III. According to them the officers of the Exchequer pleaded and were impleaded therein. When there was a suggestion of error, it was the custom for the King to give in charge to the Barons to associate with themselves others of the King's lieges, and to correct in the Exchequer the error if any there were. For that reason the Barons did not send the record and

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