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Europe in caves and in deposits of glacial times. The character of the skull would seem to lend color to such an assertion. However and wherever these strange people may have arisen, they are unlike any other race on the face of the earth. Did they acquire their blackness through long ages in a tropical area? Australian children are not black at birth according to Dr. Basedow, of Adelaide, full blackness not being reached until about seven years of age, the hair also being straw-colored up to the seventh year. In all of which we are still left to our own vague speculations—a mystery is about the origin of every race and people. Quite as interesting is the question of culture in its broadest sense—the development of an elaborate social organization, clan division, the totem and mother right, the heliei, quite general, that the father has no relation whatsoever to the birth of a child, have these been acquired since reaching the Australian land or are they germinal in a more remote time and region? The curious “boomerang" is apparently altogether Australian, but the throwing-stick has a similar form among the Alaskan peoples with no intervening development. Are such features survivals of a much wider use of a weapon, indicating a common center of origin, or do they represent the growth of a similar idea in widely separated regions? One fact bears out the common center of origin for one feature at least—the native dog or “dingo” was undoubtedly acquired by these people before coming to Australia, for no large mammal, other than the strange archaic marsupials like the kangaroo, are known to be indigenous to Australia. The dog, moreover, is one of the most ancient and characteristic acquirements of nearly every primitive people.
III At Thursday Island we reached our nearest point to New Guinea and the Papuans across Torres Strait and could picture ancient voyagers setting out from these parts eastward at a remote and unknown time-dark-skinned peoples that found the archipelagos of the western Pacific, what are now the Bismark, Solomon, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Loyalty and others of the Melanesian groups as far as the high volcanic islands of Fiji. These all have the underlying primitive stratum of a black population. Oceania is virtually a series of "stepping stones” by which men have passed time and time again from one island cluster to another until the farthest have been peopled. Micronesia and Polynesia to the
northward and eastward appear to have received their lighter-colored populations from some early Malay or coastwise Asiatic stock of voyagers, while New Zealand, far to the south with an aboriginal dark people, was invaded in recent historic times (about 1375) by adventurous Polynesians from Tonga who became the present Maoris population.
Steaming south through the Albany Pass within sight of the Cape York Peninsula, with its conical white-ant hills and the lonely ranch house of Jardine, we kept inside the Great Barrier Reef that stretches for a thousand miles along this eastern coast of Australia. One of the strangest things about this strange Australian land is its history of long isolation from other great land masses. In the distant geological past (in Permian time) it undoubtedly formed a part of the ancient Gondwanaland that included a great southern transverse continent, embracing eastern Brazil on the west and stretched across the present equatorial Atlantic, Africa, Peninsular India and the Indian Ocean to Australia and Melanesia on the east. South of Australia it appears to have been connected with an ancient Antarctic continent. In later times portions of this land foundered, leaving a rough outline of existing conditions. Even in Cretaceous times, however, Australia was still in connection with the Asiatic land mass through Malaysia and it was at this time that it received its earliest primitive mammalian types—the Monotremes and Marsupials—which have survived by virtue of the fact that the higher placental types—the modern mammals—never reached this southeastern extremity of the ancient continent since it was cut off from the rest by the foundering of its connection before the evolution of the placentals was accomplished. It is the land of parrots and kingfishers and of struthios birds like the emu and cassowary and it is interesting to speculate on the later spread of these types to other parts of the world—to Africa and South America for example. The survival of the strange lung fishes (Dipnoi) in African, South American and Australian rivers today is more readily accounted for since the type was evolved at the time of the great Gondwanaland extension, but even in comparatively late geologic time (Cenozoic) there was that vast extent of crustal thrusting which resulted in the formation of such high mountains as the Alpine-Himalayan system. the Malay Arc and other ranges that may possibly have affected transient land connections.
The existence of the Great Barrier Reef undoubtedly indicates a former wider extension of the Australian land to the east, for the coral polyp, which is the builder of reefs, cannot flourish at depths greater than one hundred feet. The barrier, therefore, must have begun as a fringing reef close to shore and have gradually separated away from the strand by that slow and widespread process of sinking which seems to have affected the greater part of the Pacific Ocean floor. The rate of coral growth is just a trifle more than the rate of subsidence, evidently, since the polyp keeps on flourishing at the top of the ancient reef which is settling downward. In like manner throughout the whole Pacific area there is evidence of a lost land of wide extent in the barrier reefs and atolls about volcanic islands, many of which have disappeared, leaving only a lagoon in the center of an atoll. Furthermore, there is another problem, that of the distribution of certain animals over this island area. Some species of lizards have reached the Fiji and the Friendly Islands. Fresh-water crabs and crayfishes have spread far out among the archipelagos and certain peculiar land-bird species are likewise found apparently indigenous to some of the islands. Even among the farthest away group, like Hawaii, the types of animal life appear as a spreading out from some area in southwestern Oceania. Their affinities are clearly with an old Australasian region. New Zealand, with its absence of indigenous mammalian life of any sort, its recently extinct gigantic moa birds, its peculiar kiwis (Apteryx), its archaic tuatera (the survival of a peculiar Mesozoic reptile), may be a remnant of some long lost land. It is in nowise related to Australia, being separated from it by twelve hundred miles of the deep Tasman Sea.
These phases of geography and life were long past before the first men drifted into the scene and found things much as they are today, yet this early spread of the human species is of great antiquity, and so remote from all that concerns the present generation of men that like the old lands it lies in the twilight of a strange and ancient world.
THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREIGN TRADE TO
By G. B. ROORBACH
Professor of Foreign Trade, Harvard Graduate School of Business
Administration The economic history of New England may be divided into two periods—the period of Commercial New England and the period of Industrial New England. The date of separation of these periods is not a well defined line, but it a belt of years on either side of 1840. Before the decades centering about that year, foreign trade was the center and circumference of New England's business life; after that date manufacturing became the dominant feature of the economic life of the region. In both periods, foreign trade was of great importance, but the rôle it played after 1840 was distinctly different than in the early days. In the commercial period, foreign trade, including shipping, was New England's business. Industry was encouraged and developed it is true, but it was as an aid, and in response, to commerce, and was of secondary consideration. In the industrial period, following 1830-1850, foreign trade was no longer the chief business of New England, but became the support of manufacturing industries which now commanded the center of the stage, absorbing the capital, brains and interests of New England's energetic people. But while foreign trade in this latter period has been secondary to industry, it nevertheless has remained of fundamental importance and is of peculiar and increasing significance to the industrial New England of today.
Foreign Trade in Early New England History. The early history of economic New England is based upon the sea. With meager resources on land, but with plenty of good harbors on her coast, pine forests for shipbuilding covering her hills, good fishing off shore, a geographic situation near to Europe, and a developing world trade to invite her resourceful citizens over seas, it is not strange that New Englanders devoted themselves to the pursuits of commerce, and that New England ships and New England merchants early became well known throughout the seven seas.
Perhaps few realize how important a commercial center of world trade New England was in the first fifty years of our country's history. In the early days of the Republic, maritime life and
world trading formed the foundation of New England's business. New England ships were common carriers for trade other than the trade of New England or even the trade of the United States; New England traders were international merchants seeking trade in all the ports of the world. Boston was "the mart town of the West Indies."1 "Salem became the American, and for a time, the world emporium for pepper."
"2 Tropical woods from the West Indies, sugar from Mauritius and the West Indies, jute and cotton cloth from India, hemp from Manilla, tea from China,—these and other products made “Salem and Boston entrepots of world commerce" and New England ship owners carriers of world trade.
Following the Revolution, New England merchants and sea captains, whose trade before the war had been largely confined to the West Indies, developed trade with China and the East Indies. For fifty years, Americans were leaders in Far Eastern trade, and the merchants of Salem, Boston, Providence, Newburyport, New Bedford and New Haven were the chief agents in the trade, not only for America, but for the whole commercial world. China teas and silks and East Indian spices were the prizes sought in the Far East for sale not only in the American colonies but in Europe and other parts of the world.
The Early Importance of Importing. It is interesting and significant that it was for importing that the early trade of New England developed. Not seeking markets for New England's products did the merchants go to the East, but to obtain the products of the East for use at home and distribution abroad. For many years
the New England merchants were hard put to it to obtain material for export with which to obtain the imported products for re-sale at home and abroad. The problem was first satisfactorily solved by the development of the fur trade of the Pacific. First to the Pacific Northwest the Boston traders sent their ships, exchanging trivial trinkets for rich furs which found ready exchange for teas and silks in Canton. Later, also, boats were dispatched to the South seas to catch fur seals; thence to China to exchange these furs for tea and silks. Sandal wood from Hawaii was sought for the China trade as well as products from the West Indies, South America, the Mediterranean, England, and the Baltic. Hence, commodities from all the world flowed into New England ports, not merely to supply New
Quoted in Morrison, "Maritime History of Massachusetts,” page 17. "Morrison, page 91.