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Nature in American Literature, by Norman Foerster. * Our Vanishing Forests, by Arthur Newton Pack.

The Wonders of the Dunes, by George A. Brennan. 3 Snow and Ice Sports, by Elon Jessup.

Down the Mackenzie, by Fullerton L. Waldo. The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, by Robert F. Griggs. Indian Tribes of Eastern Peru, by William Curtis Farabee. Wild Animal Homesteads, by Enos A. Mills. 3 The Southern Sierras of California, by Charles Francis

Saunders. Old Indian Trails, by Walter McClintock. 2 The Origin of Carpenters' Hall, by Charles J. Cohen. * Through the Heart of the Rockies and Selkirks, by Sir James

Loughead. Practical Hints to Scientific Travellers, by H. A. Brouwer. Beautiful America, by Vernon Quinn. Seeing the Eastern States, by John T. Faris. Seeing the Middle West, by John T. Faris. 'Inca Land, by Hiram Bingham. 5 Lands of the Thunderbolt, by Earl of Ronaldshay. * The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton, by Hugh Robert Mill. 5 The Assault of Mt. Everest, by Brig. General Hon. C. G. Bruce. 5 Below the Snow Line, by D. W. Freshfield. Desert Trails of Atacama, by Isaiah Bowman. 1 The Call of the Mountains, by Le Roy Jeffers. The Virgin Islands of the U. S. A., by Luther K. Zabriskie. The Secrets of Polar Travel, by Robert E. Peary. The Last Voyage of the Karluk, by Robt. E. Bartlett and Ralph

T. Hale. 6 A Vision of Morocco, by V. C. Scott O'Connor. The Times Atlas and Gazeteer of the World, by J. G. Barthol




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Reviewed in Bulletin for January, 1923, XXI, No. 1.
? Reviewed in Bulletin for April, 1923, XXI, No. 2.
* Reviewed in Bulletin for July, 1923, XXI, No. 3.
* Reviewed in Bulletin for October, 1923, XXI, No. 4.

Reviewed in Bulletin for January, 1924, XXII, No. 1. • Reviewed in present Bulletin.


O'Connor, V. C. Scott. A Vision of Morocco. The Far West of Islam.

394 pages, with 45 photographic illustrations, map and index. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, 1924. Price, $6.00.

This is the latest of the few books which have been written about this fascinating country. Mr. O'Connor has had considerable experience in writing of travels in Oriental lands, and from the beginning, the reader is given the true Eastern feeling.

Landing at Casablanca, the author visited Rabat and Fez; he then returned to Meknes and took a most unusual trip to a French outpost in the Middle Atlas. Back in Meknes once more, he witnessed the celebration of the Maloud, and then journeyed to the coast and sailed from Mazagan down to Agadir, stopping at several old Portuguese cities on the way.

Marrakesh was the next city visited and then the author finished his niost interesting journey at Tangier, Tetuan and Sheshawan. The closing chapter vividly describes the agony that Spain is suffering in the Riff.

It is to be regretted that Mr. O'Connor misses two opportunities: he devotes but a few lines to the superb Tower of Hassan, near Rabat, with the ruins of its mosque and the splendid view. The curious cistern in the old Portuguese stronghold, Mazagan, is passed over in the same manner, and the interesting story of the evacuation of the city by the Portuguese in 1769, after a long siege, is not recounted.

Altogether, the work is complete, accurate and full of fine descriptions of old fortifications, mosques, medersas and of peoples.

H. L. Bowman, Isaiah. Director of the American Geographical Society. Desert

Trails of Atacama. Special Publication No. 5. American Geographical Society. Edited by G. M. Wrigley, 348 pages, with index and 117 figures, including plates and maps. New York, 1924. Price, $5.00.

“The adventure and sport of exploration are but a fleeting record compared with contributions to knowledge, for they are incidents on the way and not the goal of exploratory research.” In this sentence, on the opening page of a most informative volume, Director Bowman is in opposition to travellers of the romanticist school as exemplified by Joseph Conrad. (See National Geographic Magazine, March, 1924.) One is, therefore, agreeably surprised to find that a book containing so much of classification and statistics can be put together in a form that is eminently readable.

The region described is included in the American Geographical Society's six-sheet map of Hispanic America (1:6,000,000) and is located in northern Chile, with extension into northwestern Argentina, and southwestern Bolivia. The main chapters are sụbdivided and many historical data have been included. The region has been interpreted on the basis of three field expeditions, in which studies of the nitrate desert, the mining industry, and the cattle ade ve been prominent objectives. The longest chapter is devoted to the fascinating life and the pioneer character of existence on the southern end of the desert, in the towns of Copiapó and Vallenar. The coastal desert of Chile and Peru was the field of action of one of the two greatest wars in the last hundred years of South American history, the outline of the political geography of Atacama explaining in interesting detail the significance of the nitrate fields as a national resource and the continued significance of sea control in the success of local military operations.

J. M. T.

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The death is announced of Lieut.-Col. Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen, the oldest member of the Royal Geographical Society. Geologist, pioneer and explorer, in 1857, he joined the Indian Survey Department and was appointed to Kashmir. He was the first to record the existence of the Baltoro glacier system, the largest yet known outside of Polar Regions, and fixed the position of many gigantic peaks, among them K, unofficially bearing his name and probably second only to Everest in the world's altitudes.

The Third Everest Expedition, which left England on February 29, is again under the leadership of Gen. C. G. Bruce, with Col. Norton second in command. The membership includes Mr. T. H. Somervell, Mr. LeighMallory, Mr. E. N. Odell, Mr. Bentley Beetham, Mr. R. B. Graham, Mr. Hazard, Dr. Hingston, and Mr. A. C. Irvine. Also, but not selected primarily for a climbing party, Capt. Geoffrey Bruce, Maj. Morshead, Mr. E. O. Shebbeare, and Maj. J. Noel. Neither Capt. Finch nor Col. Strutt will accompany the present Expedition.

Prof. A. P. Brigham, Colgate University, has recently concluded a course of three lectures in the London School of Economics, the subject being "The United States, Regional and National."

Sir Ernest Shackleton's ship, the Quest, has been sold to a Norwegian firm, and will be reemployed in the sealing and whaling industry.

Because of restrictions placed by the Egyptian Public Works Department, upon the investigation of the tomb of Tutankhamen, Howard Carter and his staff have abandoned further operations. It seems probable that the Egyptian Government, in renouncing its contract with the estate of Lord Carnarvon, will continue the excavation work under direction of the Inspector General of Antiquities.

The University Museum is in receipt of the consignment of antiquities collected at Thebes and Memphis by the Eckley B. Coxe, Jr., expedition. Chief among the relics is the Merneptah gateway, which supposedly stood before the Judgment Hall of Memphis, in the days of the Pharaoh of the Exodus.

The following officers of the Association of American Geographers for 1924 are announced: President, Curtis F. Marbut, U. S. Bureau of Soils; vice-president, Oliver E. Baker, U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics; treasurer, Vernon C. Finch, University of Wisconsin; secretary, Charles C. Colby, University of Chicago; editor, Almon E. Parkins, George Peabody College for Teachers; councillors, W. L. G. Joerg, American Geographical Society; George R. Mansfield, U. S. Geological Survey; Wellington D. Jones, University of Chicago; Harlan H. Barrows, University of Chicago, and Ellsworth Huntington, Yale University.



HORACE D. ASHTON, F. R. G. S. A journey by camel-caravan through the northern Sahara, unusually well illustrated by motion pictures, was vividly described before the Society, on January 2d, by Mr. Ashton.

Starting from rail-head at Tugurt, the caravan proceeded southward across a portion of the Eastern Erg, coinciding in part with the trans-Saharan route laid out by the French Citroën expedition of 1922. Circling eastward through the land of the Ouled Naïl, and northward again along the borders of Tripoli, the most attractive portions of the desert were visited.

Seldom has there been exhibited a more comprehensive summary of desert life: the vast stretches of sand; the mud-walled oases, with swaying palms and deep, cool wells; the strange creatures of the dunes, vipers, lizards, and beetle. One will not easily forget the curious crowds, and the pretty, dirty children of the market-place; dancing girls undulating in the firelight; the sand-crests, with stalking shadows, and the line of camels silhouetted against a moonlit sky.

The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique now arranges well-guided journeys to various places of the desert, and one could indeed wish to follow in the caravan-track so ably pictured.



A musical education in itself, Mr. De Cou's lecture before the Society on Friday evening, January 18th, skillfully combined appropriate compositions with scenes from the natural beauty of American wonderlands. As a psychological experiment, the success of such "eye and ear entertainment" was never in doubt; and, as Mr. De Cou himself asserts, it is sometimes a relief to look at pictures with the lecturer silent during their showing.

Preceded by a brief explanation and description, each series of views was shown to musical accompaniment. The Indians of Glacier National Park seemed alive in the minor strains and soft melody of Dvorak's Indian Lament; the Fire Music (Die Valkürie) of Wagner—its pent-up, struggling theme blended with scenery of the Yellowstone. The choice of Chopin's Ballade in A flat for the flowering meadows of Ranier; Liebestraum (Nocturne 3) by Liszt, as a musical setting for the Sequoia forests; Rachmaninoff's Prelude in C sharp minor, to express the majestic depths of Colorado's Canyon; and the delicate passages of Scriabine's Nocturne for the Left Hand, in harmony with the lighted coloring of Bryce Canyon, indicate that pictures, beautiful in themselves, may assume new and added attraction under the spell of music.


Rosita FORBES (Mrs. McGrath) From the lectures of Alexander Barnes, Horace Ashton, and others, the Society, during the past year, has been fortunate in learning much about African journeys. Rosita Forbes, speaking on February 6th, described her trans-Saharan expedition to the land of the Senussi and the Kufara wells. On this journey, disguised as an Egyptian woman, and armed with credentials from Mohammedan authorities in Arabia, she was able to penetrate from Jedabia in Northern Africa to the headquarters of the Senussi, a tribe whose political and warlike activities had been needlessly feared by certain European statesmen. Adding not a little to the geographic knowledge of the Sahara, the journey had a certain importance in establishing contact with littleknown tribes, in estimating the population of the region, and in dispelling anxiety regarding the over-rated fighting power of the Senussi.


FLOYD W. SCHMOE The region of Ranier National Park was described before the Society, on February 20th, by Mr. Floyd Schmoe, of the Forestry Service. The Park centers in Mt. Ranier, 11,363 feet, the second elevation of the United States, being overtopped only by less spectacular Mt. Whitney in California. The mountain, which the Indians call “Tacoma,” is officially named "Ranier," the name being given by Vancouver in 1792, in honor of his superior, an undistinguished naval officer whose only connection with our history is the fact that he fought against us in the Revolution.

The first ascent of the mountain (see Atlantic Monthly, Nov., 1876), was made in 1870 by General Hazard Stevens and P. B. Van Trump. The route was by the Cowlitz glacier and the rock outcrop known as "Gibraltar," the stock route of today when starting from Paradise Inn. This, the south side of the mountain, is the portion of the Park usually seen by tourists, although the massif is circled on its western side in approaching from Tacoma.

High-level trails now make it possible for campers to circle the entire mountain and enjoy the magnificent flora and the varying wild-life which the Park affords. The ascent of Mt. Ranier is only to be attempted by those who are physically fit, although there are no serious alpine difficulties other than the chance of bad weather. Mr. Schmoe's pictures are beautiful, many of them from the Curtis collection, and his story is well told.


RICHARD HALLIBURTON If one be reasonably young and active--and who, in these days, is not?there is no better receipt for “keeping out of a rut” than to follow the road, or a portion of the road, described by Mr. Halliburton before the Society, on March 5th.

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