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and plaster work were being restored under the direction of the Department of Fine Arts. The courts of these two buildings, with their marble columns and exquisitely-carved capitals, resemble the small courts of the Alhambra. . All the mosques in Morocco are closed to non-Moslems, but by
1 walking around outside the walls of these buildings several times, and stopping for a moment to look in at each gateway, it is possible to get a fair impression of them. There are two mosques in Fez that are particularly fine, El Kairouiine and El Andalous, the former being the largest in Morocco. Another fine sacred edifice is the Zaouia of Sidi Ahmed Et Tidjani, the headquarters of a confraternity; the beautiful tiled facade has been marred by the placing of several electric lights against it.
The tomb of Moulay Idriss II is a very sacred place; the building that contains the shrine and mosque was rebuilt in its present form in 1437. There is a small opening in one of the side walls into which money offerings are dropped and this spot is particularly venerated. We saw a number of these half-pagan Berbers and Blacks kissing the moulding here. This will is ornamented with beautiful tiles and wrought iron grills of very pleasing design.
There is said to be a mosque on every street in Fez, and we could well believe it when, at five o'clock in the morning, the mooddine call to prayer from the minarets. Their long-drawn piercing cries sound very weird through the darkness and a multitude of cock-crows add to the bedlam.
We were invited to visit several private houses in Fez, one of them occupied by a wealthy Arab merchant and the others by French families. These houses are built on the same general plan with an interior tiled court or sometimes a garden; the main reception room has a cedar ceiling beautifully carved and painted.
The trip from Casablanca to Marrakesh is uninteresting until, at the end of four hours, we cross the Oum Er Rebia, one of the largest rivers in Morocco, and enter a range of hills crowned by fantastic limestone formations. The road ascends rapidly until it reaches the top of the pass, then suddenly a magnificent scene opens before us. The country slopes gradually away to the south with the road visible in a straight line for miles; far away a long green. streak marks the Oasis of Marrakesh, and behind it the snow-covered Great Atlas, forms a superb background. We descend on an easy grade; the Koutoubia can be seen now, and the great peaks of the Atlas are pink in the sunset. The road soon enters the palm belt,
and we cross the Oued Tensift on an Almohad bridge nearly 1200 feet long, supported by twenty-seven arches. In a few minutes we enter the greath Southern Capital.
Marrakesh is a huge place; its population is probably greater than that of Fez. It is the northern end of a number of caravan routes that run into the Saraha and seems more like a great desert camp than a city. Most of the houses are poorly built and many of them are in very bad condition. The inhabitants, as a whole, are different from those of other cities; while the Berbers are everywhere, down in the shadow of the Great Atlas, the Blacks of the Souss and the Sahara replace the Arabs of the northern cities. The country to the south is ruled by several powerful chieftains who are to some extent under French in Auence, and these caïds make Marrakesh their capital.
We were able to obtain a fair view of the court of the large Koutoubia Mosque and were surprised to find that the capitals of the columns closely resemble those of a Romanesque church. The wonderful minaret rises to a height of 225 feet and its ground plan is a square of forty-two feet. The masonry is extremely crude.
. While the lower part is plain, the middle and upper sections are relieved by recessed panels, containing ornamented double windows. Above is a broad band of colored tiles now undergoing restoration. The top of the tower consists of a well ornamented square cupola.
There are two other imposing minarets in Marrakesh, one belonging to the Mosque of the Kasba and the other to the Great Mosque. The former was built a few years after the Koutoubia and has a ruined band of turquoise blue and green tiles near the top. The Bab Aguenaou, the main entrance to the Kasba, is a particularly fine gateway and its ornamentation is in the purest style.
This decaying old city in the desert contains the finest gem of Moroccan art,--the tombs of the Saadian sultans. The building which contains them seems to be part of the outside wall of the Mosque of the Kasba. We enter a courtyard through a narrow passage and are led to a shabby doorway in a dilapidated old wall. Inside this are the three dimly-lighted tomb chambers of the sultans who ruled, or rather, misruled, Morocco for a hundred years from the middle of the sixteenth century. The high dome over the main room rests upon a square arcade of large and small arches which is supported by marble columns. The entire plaster covering of the walls and arches is chiselled in the most beautiful designs. On the tiled floor lie six large marble cenotaphs and a number of smaller
ones, all exquisitely carved. But with all its beauty, the ornamentation of this interior displays unmistakable signs of the decline of Moroccan art.
The large square, Djemaa El Fna, is the scene of great activity in the late afternoons,-story-tellers, Shelluh dancing boys, a snake charmer and a boiling water drinker perform here before large and appreciative crowds. The snake charmer here gave a tame performance, but he had a fine hooded cobra that made passes at its master's foot whenever it chanced to come with striking distance.
South of the city is the Palace of the Bahia, built by the Vizier Ba Ahmed Ben Moussa in 1894-1900. It contains a large tiled court from which passages lead to smaller courts with fountains and gardens. There are many fine carved and painted doors and ceilings, but the details show the extent to which Moroccan art had degenerated by the end of the nineteenth century. A portion of the palace is occupied by the Resident General, and the French furniture in the guest rooms which we were shown, destroys the beauty of this part of the palace.
Near Marrakesh is the splendid Aguedal Garden, which covers a space of several square miles. It contains fruit trees of every variety, and several large reservoirs, one of which measures nearly 700 feet on each side. From the roof of an old ammunition storehouse one obtains a splendid view of the snowy peaks of the Great Atlas. The garden was begun in the latter part of the twelfth century and has been improved by nearly every sultan down to the close of the last century. There is another fine old garden, the Menara, not far outside the city walls, which is planted with olive trees. It contains a fine reservoir, by the side of which is a small pavilion.
Mazagan is situated on a peninsula which juts into the Atlantic about sixty miles below Casablanca; the Portuguese built a city here in 1506 and held it until forced to evacuate in 1769 by Sultan Sidi Mohammed. The interesting citadel contains a large cistern that somewhat resembles the crypt of a mediaeval church.
A few miles up the coast is the small city of Azemmour, with extensive remains of Portuguese fortifications. After crossing the Oum Er Rebia we had a fine view of the old town with the river washing the base of the massive ramparts. At the end of an hour the white walls of Casablanca loomed above the plain and we realized, with a pang of regret, that they marked the end of a most enjoyable journey through the Voslem's “Land of the Sunset."
By K. C. MCMURRY
Department of Geography, University of Michigan The problem of the disposition of the Muscle Shoals Project is not simply the problem of a single power plant, nor of a small section in northern Alabama. Rather it is the part of the large problem of power development and utilization in the Southern Appalachians and adjoining sections, and of the industrial and agricultural progress of this large area. Muscle Shoals must be considered as a part only of a large complex of developed and undeveloped resources, which possibly begins with water power as a major item, but which extends to steam power from coal, to a broad variety of mineral and agricultural resources, and which includes problems of transportation both by land and water. It has been the wide diversity and great number of interests which are or may be affected as well as the popular appeal of individuals involved, which have attracted so much public attention.
Muscle Shoals first attracted attention as a serious and well nigh insurmountable barrier to navigation on the Tennessee River. In the distance of thirty-seven miles embraced by Big Muscle, Little Muscle, and Elk River Shoals (see Fig. 1) there is a fall of 134 feet. Under the original conditions upstream navigation was impossible, though downstream traffic was attempted occasionally by rafts and light vessels, always with great risk.' At a time when river navigation was the only feasible mode of outlet for farm and forest products of a large area, this barrier was so serious that efforts were made to mitigate or overcome the difficulty at a very early date. In 1828 a grant was made by Congress of 400,000 acres of public lands to the state of Alabama, the proceeds from the sale of which were to be used for river improvement at this point. Work was begun by the state in 1831 and a canal around the Big Muscle Shoals was completed in 1836. This canal was used but little, for obstructions in the river both above and below limited navigation to short periods when favorable river stages prevailed. No funds were provided for maintenance and it soon fell into despair.
In 1875 improvement of the river was taken over by the Federal
* Data compiled in the Office of the District Engineer, Florence, Alabama, nimeographed pamphlet, p. 5.