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Addresses and Journal of Proceedings











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The Committee on Publication take pleasure in sending out this Centenary Volume of the Proceedings of the National Educational Association, held in Baltimore July 10th, 11th, and 12th, 1876. The volume, notwithstanding the fact that four or five papers and some reports were not furnished for publication, is larger than any of those previously published. The ability and variety of the papers and addresses were a marked feature of the proceedings. The presence of distinguished foreign gentlemen added to the interest of the Centenary meeting. The address in Japanese by the Hon. Fujimaro Tanaka, was furnished in Japanese characters to the Secretary, and he had determined to have it photo-lithographed for publication in this volume, but the fear that it might be published upside down deterred him.

The unexpected size of the volume has delayed the time of publication somewhat; the sheets however were sent to the bindery before the middle of December, being more than two months earlier than they were sent last year. If those who shall read papers, addresses, and reports at the next meeting will have the matter ready to deliver to the Secretary at the meeting, the next volume could easily be ready for delivery by the the first of December, 1877.

Although no proofs have been sent to authors for want of time, it is believed that this volume, notwithstanding much bad copy, is as free from mistakes as any of the preceding ones. Some of the copy, it is but just to say, was excellent, several papers being sent in print.

The Secretary has advanced all the funds necessary to pay for the publication of this volume, and hence it is hoped that those who enrolled themselves as life-members, who have not yet remitted to the Treasurer or Secretary will soon do so, that the indebtedness of the Association may be cancelled at the earliest possible date.

The price of this volume by mail postpaid has been fixed at $2.00, or in quantities of ten or more, expressage or freight to be paid by the purchaser, at $1.25 each. This volume is cheap at two dollars; it contains fully twice as much matter as an ordinary coarse-print two-dollar book. Only 1000 copies having been printed, early application should be made to the Secretary, W. D. HENKLE, Salem, Ohio, or to the Treasurer, J. ORMOND WILSON, Washington, D. C., by those who wish to procure volumes. December 8, 1876.

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Education in Sweden, by Dr. Mejerberg...........

Appointment of Committees on Necrology and Resolutions......
Resolution of thanks to Doctors Da Motta and Mejerberg....
Amendment of the Constitution.......


The Normal Schools of the United States;-Their Past, Present, and
Future, by Dr. Richard Edwards.........

Invitation to an excursion to Fairhaven

Election of Officers......

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A Notice of the History of the South-Carolina College. By Prof. W. J.


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Adoption of Prof. Raddatz's Resolution on German Orthography........128

Position of Modern Mathematical Theories in our Higher Course of
Mathematics. By Prof. Wm. M. Thornton......

Report on Orthoepy. By Prof. W. C. Sawyer.....

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Centennial Thoughts on Normal Schools. By the President Dr. Ed-

ward Brooks..........

What may Schools do to form right Habits of Thought and Study in
their Pupils. By Prof. C. A. Morey.........

Personal and Acquired Gifts of Teaching. By H. B. Buckham............ 196

A Professional Course of Study for Normal Schools. By John Ogden..203


Characteristics of Froebel's Method, Kindergarten Training with illus-
trations. By Mrs. John Kraus-Boelte.........

Discussion of Mrs. Kraus's Paper.

Election of Officers.....

...... ..........

Esthetics of Education. By Miss Minnie Swayze....


Address by the President, S. R. Thompson...




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First Day's Proceedings.


THE Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the National Educational Association met in the Academy of Music, in Baltimore, Md., at 10 o'clock, a. M., Monday, July 10th, 1876. After the calling of the Association to order by the President, W. F. PHELPS, the Rev. Dr. J. AVERY SHEPHERD opened the exercises with prayer.

The President then introduced His Excellency JOHN LEE CARROLL, Governor of Maryland, who welcomed the Association in the following words:

We have been favored in this country during the past few months with a great number and a great variety of conventions. Of these our city of Baltimore has had her full share, and although some of our meetings have not been as exciting as those to which we might refer, on other questions, yet doubtless they have been replete with interest, and have accomplished fully the purposes for which they have been convened.

We are called upon to-day to welcome to our midst those who have gathered here from every quarter of our country, as the voluntary contributors to the greatest source of strength that we possess as a nation. Without offices to bestow upon expectant candidates, without the intense excitement that stirs to its depths the gathering of political bodies, we have the calm and quiet advocates of education, assembled to renew their allegiance to the cause, and particularly to propose the changes and improvements which experience has shown are required. Here, indeed, is a spectacle that may well call forth the admiration of an intelligent people, and honored is the State or city that is made the theatre of their useful deliberations.

We have a national, a patriotic feeling of pride in our great system of free education, and long ago the sentiments had become deeply impressed on the public mind that one of the first duties of the government is to provide for the instruction of its youth. Hence, in the strong remarks of one of our leading statesmen, "for the purposes of instruction, every man is subject to taxation in proportion to his property, and we look not to the question whether he have or have not children to be benefited by the education for which he pays. We regard it as a wise and liberal system of police by which life and property and peace and safety are secured. We

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