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nothing can excuse or palliate. After the last sheet of Flamsteed's corrected and enlarged Catalogue was printed off, in December, 1712, his intention waB, that the press should proceed with the Observations from which it had been derived, and which were made with the mural arc: but ■ whatever instances,' he says, 'I made to Sir Isaac Newton to have the copy I had trusted to his hands, I could not prevail with him to return it.' At last he wrote to Sir Isaac, in April, 1716, pressing him to return the night notes, also the 175 manuscript sheets of Observations made with the mural arc, which were trusted to his hands in March, 1708, with so much of the Catalogue as was delivered to him sealed up, at his own request, — to which, however, Sir Isaac did not condescend to make any reply. As Newton had now kept them eight years, though frequently requested to return them, Flamsteed at length determined to proceed against him for their recovery; and in the following month he sent his attorney to wait on Sir Isaac, but he would not be seen. That Flamsteed should have taken this last resource is the less surprising, after the several unsuccessful applications for the restoration of his property, which were wholly unheeded. But the reason for this became apparent so soon as the fact was known that the 175 manuscript sheets of Observations, which were to be kept by Newton, as a sacred deposit, had been handed over to Halley. 'Newton,' says Flamsteed (Letter 216) 'has put my 175 sheets into Halley's keeping: this is the height of trick, ingratitude, and baseness; but I never expected any better from him since he gave my Catalogue into Halley's hands. I can bear it. God forgive all his falseness.' Thus it appears that the sealed Catalogue placed in Sir Isaac Newton's custody, had also been given to Halley, and, with all its imperfections (distinctly staled to Newton as a reason against publishing it,) together with Halley's mutilations, had actually been printed, notwithstanding the remonstrances of Flamsteed, who thus finding that all faith with him had been broken, that his Catalogue had been thus surreptitiously and clandestinely printed, and that his Observations also had been sent to the press in a garbled and improper manner, determined to break off all communication with him.'

Strange that the brow of Newton, at this late day, should be stripped of false laurels ! — but such it should seem, must be the inevitable result.

LITERARY RECORD.

'southern Litebaby Journal.'— We ought, before this, to have mentioned a monthly magazine, bearing the above title, issued at Charleston, by the editor and proprietor, Daniel K. Whitaker, Esq. It presents sectional and superior claims to the patronage of the South, which should not pass unregarded by that intellectual and populous portion of the republic. Among the original articles in the number for February, we remark an excellent one on the 'Italian Poets of the Eighteenth Century" — a review of Giuseppe Parini, from the pen of Mrs. E. F. Ellet — whose recent loss to us of the North has been the great gain of the South, and of whose merits as a writer our readers are not ignorant. The first chapter of the 'Death of Grierson' opens with spirit, and is, or we mistake its promise, the arant courier of a stirring tale. The continuation, however, of a story, where the interval is so long as a month, is an objectionable feature with most readers. There are just views and shrewdness in the paper on 'Foreign Travel,' and 'Medical Jurisprudence' worthily fills the prominent place assigned to it. The literary notices seem to be marked by strict considerations of justice, and good judgment. Ostentatious, unmingled severity, bom of private ill will, or a mere captious spirit, is very properly eschewed. The editor, from his armchair, sends forth a graphic sketch of the lamented Colton, author of ' Lacon,' with whom he enjoyed for ten years an intimate acquaintance. We annex a brief extract:

1 In a conversation we had with Mr. Colton, just before he left this country, he

Eromised that in eighteen months we should see from his pen a work that would eclipse is ' Lacon.' His design was most probably thwarted by circumstances, and the 'fine Roman hand,1 displayed in his 'Lacon,' can now furnish us with no more records to enlighten, to gladden, or to grieve the mind! Strange power of genius, which can thus infuse regret into the hearts of thousands who may never have known its possessor! Mr. Colton partook largely of this unsafe gift— all who knew, admired him ; no one felt with, or for him. His manners and appearance were singular; and his conversational powers extraordinary — they seemed equal to all subjects; and we think excelled those of his pen. His egotism was excessive, and partly attributable, no doubt, to the low association he had manifestly been addicted to in England — since nothing tends so much to repress the propensity (inseparable from the consciousness of superior powers, and difficult to restrain) as good society.

'We have said that Mr. Colton's appearance was singular: his eyes corresponded more with the description given by Madame de Stael, of those of Napoleon, than any we ever remember to have seen. Of gray— extremely penetrating— they were themselves impenetrable.

'The aptness and appositeness of his illustrations were truly surprising. Nature and art were alike put in easy requisition by the man of genius and the scholar; and, altogether, we thought him the moat triumphant man in conversation we had ever met with.'

The Stbcctdbe or The Eye. — We have been both gratified and instructed in the perusal of this little book. It is a clear and, as far as passible, untechnical description of the structure of the eye — its outer case — the layers or coats beneath it—the magnifiers— the means by which the picture of objects at different distances is formed only on the expansion of the optic nerve — the colored circle round the pupil, called the iris — the muscles which give motion to the eye-ball — and, lastly, the apparatus for furnishing and carrying away the tears. The author is Mr. William Clay Wallace, Occulist to the New-York Institution for the Blind, and for many years Surgeon's Assistant at the Glasgow Eye Infirmary. We annex the opening paragraph, which conveys a plain illustration of the great principle of those 'windows of the soul,' about which so much has been said by novelists and poets, but the structure of which is rarely understood:

'There are few who have not been pleased with the representations of a camera obscura. The light reflected from objects, after passing through a magnifying glass into a small chamber, with darkened walls and roof, and falling upon a sheet of paper at a certain distance from the glass, forms a beautiful picture upon the paper. The representation of the scene before the glass is so true to nature, that artists often avail themselves of this method of making a correct landscape. The eye is just such an instrument, consisting of several magnifiers, placed in a dark chamber for a similar purpose. The light reflected from objects before it, passes through the magnifiers and forms a picture at the back of the eye, where the rays thus collected strike upon the fibres of the optic nerve, and vision is the consequence."

Bueckenbidge's Addbess. — The Address delivered in July, 1835, before theEucleinn and Philomathean Societies of the University of the city of New-York, has but recently been published. We have perused it with pleasure. The plan of the writer, ' to exhibit some of the features which peculiarly characterize our country, and to point out the duty of American youth, resulting from such a view,' is well carried out, and the positions and views of the Address sustained and illustrated in the several divisions of its subject, with much ability. America is shown to be eminently characterized as the depository of liberty i her appropriate influence, especially in view of this sacred deposit, is considered; the evils which threaten us from within, are exposed; the duties of American youth, to themselves and to their country, are set forth; and an elevated and disinterested public spirit inculcated. The tendency of the Address is in all respects salutary, while its manner, void of florid sentences and elaborately-rounded periods, is well suited to the plain exposition of its sound views, and the enforcement of its valuable precepts.

'Yale Magazine.' — The first number of a neatly-executed magazine, thus entitled, and conducted by the students of Yale College, lies before us. Taking into consideration the disadvantages of a 'first appearance,' the contents of the work reflect no dishonor upon the institution from whence it emanates. There are two or three superior original papers. Such are 'Revolutions and their Tendencies,' and 'The Sciot Girl.' There is now and then a slight tinge of the sophomore spirit, but this is not strange. The whole is creditable, both in spirit and execution, to the young gentlemen concerned in its production. Three numbers, containing about forty pages, are proposed to be issued, should sufficient encouragement be offered, during each college term.

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New Books. — The following works were received at a late period of the month. Having merely skirred them, we are enabled for the present to do little more than indicate their character:

1 HeBbert Wendall.' — We are informed, that in this work the author makes his dfbut in the literary world. The style is fluent, and the incidents, which are connected with our revolutionary history, possess interest. They strike us, nevertheless, as sometimes overdrawn, and in the details as bearing too strong a resemblance to the old school romances. A more strict adherence to the rruisemblable in the delineation of charactera in real life would certainly have added to the interest of the work. On the whole, however, 'Herbert Wendall' is an effort creditable to the hitherto untried powers of the author.

The following, from the first volume, contains but too much truth. The hero is assigning his motives for engaging in the service of his country:

'' I have motives of pride— that my country should be free, and myself a freeman. I have motives of interest— that the treasure which our fathers bequeathed to us should descend to posterity increased in value, not impaired by the hand of tyranny."

1And for these privileges you are content to labor and toil — perchance to die?'

'I am.'

''What will be your reward T

'The success of the cause.'

'Let me answer the question,' said the bandit. 'The prime of your life, the vigor of manhood, will be spent in these exertions — anon will come the feebleness and helplessness of age. Your cause may be successful, your country may be free, and a generation grow up, enjoying the blessings of liberty purchased by your labors. They will be rich and increased in goods. But you — the hand of poverty will bear heavily upon you; sickness and want will prey upon your frame. As a last resort, you will appeal to the generosity of that country to whose interests the best portion of your life was dedicated. You will be treated with neglect—with coldness—perchance with ridicule. As you feebly totter to the bar of your country's justice, and falteringly ask a mere pittance for the few remaining years of your life —a pittance which may save you from starvation — your tale of distress will be told to unmoved countenances and averted eyes. How deep, how unmitigated will be the anguish of that unexpected hour!''' Your picture is a false one," 1'He who lives half a century, will have abundant experience of its truth.''

Lafayette. — Messrs. Lbavitt, Lord And Company have just issued, in two beautiful volumes, 'Recollections of the Private Life of General Lafayette: by M. Jules Clo<jcet, M. D.' We lament the poverty of time and space which compels us to pass so lightly over this valuable donation to the public. The work is written in the form of letters, many of which, addressed to Isaiah Towksend, Esq., of Albany, were by him translated, and published in a popular evening journal of this city — the Star. The volumes — which were translated in France, and are now published simultaneously in Paris and New-York — contain, one must need suppose, every thing which could interest the admirers of the great and good man whose private life they depict The work is an admirable one, in every sense — copious and various in topics calculated to gratify every American. There are no less than forty excellent engravings on wood, and several foe simile letters of Lafayette and his family, and other distinguished personages.

Thb Female Student. — This volume consists of a series of lectures, delivered by Mrs. Phelps, late Vice-Principal of the Troy Female Seminary, before the pupils of that institution, during the two years' absence of Mrs. Willakd in Europe. They embrace a wide range, in which it is intended to exhibit the nature and objects of female education, with outlines of the various sciences connected with it Teachers of experience, as we gather from the author, are of opinion that the lectures will prove a valuable assistant in education, by affording a kind of synopsis for weekly reviewing lessons, in eaamr-b

the various departments of study, as well as a suitable reading-book for young ladies, in the school and in the family.

'.practical Phrenology.'—We are not sufficiently acquainted with the details of the science here treated of, to judge of the merits of the book. It is the work of Mr. Silas Jones — a gentleman whose reputation as a lecturer upon Phrenology is perhaps as great as that of any illustrator of the science in the United States. The method he has chosen is that of analysis and synthesis. The individual is first viewed as a whole, then in reference to the several physical systems, as it regards proportion; then in relation to the organs of the head; and lastly, by a critical inspection of the organs ;. then commences the synthesis, and inference of mental and moral manifestations. Published in Boston, by Russell, Shattcck And Williams.

1 The Book Of Gems.' — Such is the appropriate title of the most beautiful volume we have ever seen, from any press in Christendom. Three hundred exquisitely-printed pages are devoted to many of the finest passages in fifty of the old English poets, from Chaucer down to Prior. These extracts have been made from the earliest copies of the several writers. They are presented as they were originally produced, and the peculiar orthography of each is retained. There are fifty-three engravings, by the first artists of Great Britain, with most of which the best engravings of the English annuals would but ill compare. There are in addition thirty-five fac simile autographs of the ancient masters of the lyre. Wiley And Long's, 161 Broadway.

A View or The World. Messrs. John L. Piper And Company have recently published, in a handsome volume of some six hundred and fifty pages,'A View of the World,' as distinguished by manners, customs, and characteristics of all nations. By Rev. J. L. Blake, A. M. The work is illustrated by eighty colored wood-cuts, including a lithographic title-page, with a vignette representing Mercury, guided by Minerva, bearing Science around the world. The design of the volume is, to serve as an accompaniment to the 'American Universal Geography,' by the same author, and to furnish the great mass of youth in our country with the descriptive portions of that science.

Valuable Catalogue. Mb. George P. Putnam has compiled for Messrs. Wilev And Long, and Leavitt, Lord And Company, a copious catalogue of hooks in the various departments of literature, including both foreign and American editions, methodically arranged. The whole is included under distinct divisions — as, works of fact; speculative and scientific works j works of the imagination; and works on education. This range embraces history, biography, voyages and travels, geography, theology, divinity, medical science, general science, the arts, novels and tales, poetry, etc. This catalogue has been prepared with great care and labor, and will be found to supply an important desideratum to booksellers and book-purchasers.

THE KNICKERBOCKER.

Vot. VII. APRIL, 1836. No.4.

PROGRESS OF MODERN LIBERTY.

Among the many greater changes which time hath wrought upon the world, the variations of language, and even the gradual modifications in the meaning of single words, are not without importance. An inquiry into the undoubted connection between the manners and the languages of nations, would be a subject of interesting and fruitful investigation, not only to the philologist, but also to the philosopher. And perhaps it might be discovered, that the precise idea intended by certain terms, would be no mean criterion of the progress of society, and the state of national advancement. The word tyrant, even in its native tongue, subsequently varied from its primary signification, when

'The tyrant of the Chersonese
Was freedom's best and bra rest friend/

Terms which were invented as the symbols of some of those characteristics of human nature which would seem to be unalterable, do not always convey the same associations with which they were originally invested. Glory now means something more truly noble and elevated than it expressed, even in those days when it formed the common impulse of marshalled empires. It includes a wider and a widening range of exertion and attainment, and excludes no class without its scope. It is no longer the monopoly of heroes. Once, like the Cimmerian shadows revealed to the vision of Ulysses, it was too often but a voiceless apparition, until it had tasted of the blood of the victim; now, it might be unrecognised in the thunders of battle and conquest, while its 'still, small voice,' would be heard in the mild accents of benevolence and religion.

Liberty, in these latter days, means something more than was celebrated in the Eleutherian festivals, or exemplified in the political institutions of the States of Greece, and the Commonwealth of Rome. Among the ancients, it was either an impulse or an abstraction. It ranked, in their mythology, with those minor influences not deemed altogether worthy of claiming worship, under the personification of visible divinities, but which were deferentially recognised by the establishment of solemn celebrations, and the erection of temples under the tutelary care of some particular deity. The love of liberty, as a national impulse, was strongly characteristic of many of the states of antiquity, and was generally nothing more than a modification of natural liberty, varied according to the genius and condition of each particular people. The Athenians were eminently distinguished for its cultivation as a popular passion. It served as a tie to bind them to

Vol. vii. 41

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