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themselves in vain Enterprises; nor on the other fide, by undervaluing them, they descend to fearful and pusillanimous Counsels.

The Greatness of an Estate, in Bulk and Territory, doth fall under Measure; and the Greatness of Finances and Revenue doth fall under Computation. The Population may appear by Mufters; and the Number and Greatness of Cities and Towns, by Cards and Maps ; but yet there is not any thing amongst civil Affairs more subject to Error than the right Valuation and true Judgement concerning the Power and Forces of an Estate. The Kingdom of Heaven is compared, not to any great Kernel or Nut, but to a Grain of Mustard-feed;3 which is one of the least grains, but hath in it a Property and Spirit hastily to get up and spread. So are there States great in Territory, and yet not apt to enlarge or command; and some that have but a finall Dimension of Stem, and yet apt to be the Foundations of great Monarchies.

Walled Towns, stored Arsenals and Armories, goodly Races of Horse, Chariots of War, Elephants, Ordnance, Artillery, and the like: all this is but a Sheep in a Lion's Skin, except the Breed and Disposition of the People be stout and warlike. Nay, Number itself in Armies importeth not much, where the People is of weak Courage; for (as Virgil faith) It never troubles a Wolf how many the sheep be.* The Army of the Persians, in the Plains of Arbela, was such a vast Sea of People as it did somewhat astonish the Commanders in Alexander's Army, who came to him, therefore, and wished him to set upon them by Night; but he answered, He would not pilfer the Victory : and the Defeat was easy.5 When Tigranes the Armenian, being encamped upon a Hill with four hundred thousand Men, discovered the Army of the Romans, being not above fourteen thousand, marching towards him, he made himself merry with it and said ; ronder Men, are too Many for an Ambasage, and too few for a Fight. But before the Sun set, he found them enow to give him the Chase with infinite Slaughter. Many are the examples of the great odds between Number and Courage: so that a Man may truly make a Judgement, that the principal Point of Greatness, in any State, is to have a Race of Military Men. Neither is Money the Sinews of War (as it is trivially faid)? where the Sinews of Men's Arms in base and effeminate People are failing. For Solon said well to Croesus (when in Oftentation he shewed him his Gold), Sir, if any other come that hath better Iron than you, he will be Master of all this Gold. Therefore let any Prince or State think soberly of his Forces, except his Militia of Natives be of good and valiant Soldiers. And let Princes, on the other side, that have Subjects of martial Difpofition, know

3 Matth. xiii. 31.

* Virg. Ecl. vii. 51. The sense of the passage in Virgil seems to be: After the shepherd has counted the sheep, the wolf is careless about deranging the reckoning.


Comp. Adv. of L. I. vii. 11. See Arrian. Exp. Alex. iii. 19. Plut. Vit. Alex. 31. l. Curt. iv, 13.

6 Plut. Vit. Lucil. 27. ? Cicero (Phil. v. 2), says, “Nervi belli pecunia infinita." Macchiavelli Discorsi, ii. 20, also questions the truth of the dictum. 8 Gen, xlix. 9, 14. 9 He repeats this fimile in the Life of K. Henry VII. Staddles,

their own Strength, unless they be otherwise wanting unto themselves. As for mercenary Forces (which is the Help in this Cafe), all Examples shew that, whatsoever Estate or Prince doth rest upon them, He may spread his Feathers for a time, but he will mew them soon after.

The Blessing of Judah and Isachar will never meet; That the same People or Nation should be both the Lion's Whelp and the Ass between Burthens :8 neither will it be that a People overlaid with Taxes should ever become valiant and martial. It is true, that Taxes, levied by Consent of the Estate, do abate Men's Courage less; as it hath been seen notably in the Excises of the Low Countries; and, in some degree, in the Subsidies of England. For, you must note that we speak now of the Heart, and not of the Purse : so that, although the fame Tribute and Tax, laid by Consent or by Imposing, be all one to the Purse, yet it works diversly upon the Courage. So that you may conclude, That no People over-charged with Tribute is fit for Empire.

Let States that aim at Greatness take heed how their Nobility and Gentlemen do multiply too fast; for that maketh the common Subject grow to be a Peasant and base Swain, driven out of Heart, and, in effect, but the Gentleman's Labourer. Even as you may see in Coppice Woods; If you leave your staddles too thick, you mall never have clean Underwood, but Shrubs and Bushes.9 So in Coun

tries, if the Gentlemen be too many, the Commons will be base; and you will bring it to that, that not the hundred poll will be fit for an Helmet t; especially as to the Infantry, which is the Nerve of an Army: and so there will be great Population and little Strength. This which I speak of hath been no where better seen than by comparing of England and France; whereof England, though far less in Territory and Population, hath been (nevertheless) an Overmatch; in regard the Middle People of England make good Soldiers, which the Peasants of France do not. And herein, the device of King Henry the Seventh (whereof I have spoken largely in the History of his Life), was profound and admirable ; in making Farms and houses of Husbandry of a Standard ; that is, maintained with such a Proportion of Land unto them as may breed a Subject to live in convenient Plenty, and no servile Condition; and to keep the Plough in the Hands of the Owners, and not mere Hirelings. And thus indeed, you shall attain to Virgils Character, which he gives to Ancient Italy.

Terra potens Armis, atque ubere Glebæ.10 Neither is that State (which, for any thing I know, is almost peculiar to England, and hardly to be found any where else, except it be, perhaps, in Poland) to be passed over ; I mean the State of free Servants and Attendants upon Noblemen and Gentlemen, which are no ways inferior unto the are young trees left ftanding in a copse when the underwood is cut. In a statute of the 35 Hen. VIII, they are termed fandils.

Jo Virg. Æn. i. 535.


Yeomanry for Arms. And, therefore, out of all Question, the Splendour, and Magnificence, and great Retinues, and Hospitality of Noblemen and Gentlemen received into Custom, doth much conduce unto Martialii Greatness : whereas, contrariwise, the close and reserved living of Noblemen and Gentlemen causeth a Penury of Military Forces.

By all means, it is to be procured, that the Trunk of Nebuchadnezzar's Tree of Monarchy 12 be great enough to bear the Branches and the Boughs ; that is, that the natural Subjects of the Crown or State bear a sufficient Proportion to the stranger Subječts that they govern. Therefore all States, that are liberal of Naturalization towards Strangers are fit for Empire. For to think that an Handful of People can, with the greatest Courage and Policy in the World, embrace too large Extent of Dominion, it may hold for a time, but it will fail suddenly. The Spartans were a nice 13 People in Point of Naturalization; whereby, while they kept their Compass, they stood firm ; but when they did spread, and their Boughs were becoming too great for their Stem, they became a Windfall upon the sudden. Never any State was, in this Point, so open to receive Strangers into their Body as were the Romans ; therefore it sorted with them accordingly, for they grew to the greatest Monarchy. Their manner was to grant Naturalization (which they called Jus Civitatis), and to grant it in the highest Degree, that is, not only

" Mr. Montagu alters this to Material. 12 Dan, iv. 10. sq. 13 Nice here signifies carefully cautious.

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