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Jus Commercii, Jus Connubii, Jus Hæreditatis ; but also, Jus Suffragii, and Jus Honorum ; and this, not to singular Persons alone, but likewise to whole Families : yea, to Cities, and sometimes to Nations. Add to this their Custom of Plantation of Colonies, whereby the Roman Plant was removed into the Soil of other Nations; and, putting both Constitutions together, you will say, that it was not the Romans that spread upon the World, but it was the World that spread upon the Romans; and that was the sure Way of Greatness. I have marvelled sometimes at Spain, how they clasp and contain fo large Dominions with so few Natural Spaniards : but sure the whole Compass of Spain is a very great Body of a Tree; far above Rome and Sparta at the first. And besides, though they have not had that usage to Naturalize liberally, yet they have that which is next to it; that is, To employ, almost indifferently, all Nations in their Militia of ordinary Soldiers : yea, and sometimes in their Highest Commands. Nay, it seemeth at this inftant, they are sensible of this want of Natives ; as by the Pragmatical Sanction now published, appeareth.

It is certain, that sedentary and within-door Arts, and delicate Manufactures (that require rather the Finger than the Arm) have in their Nature a Contrariety to a Military Disposition. And generally all Warlike People are a little idle, and love Danger better than Travail : neither must they be too much broken of it, if they shall be preserved in vigour. Therefore it was great Advantage in

the ancient States of Sparta, Athens, Rome, and others, that they had the use of Slaves, which commonly did rid those Manufactures. But that is abolished, in greatest part, by the Christian Law. That which cometh nearest to it is, to leave those Arts chiefly to Strangers (which for that purpose are the more easily to be received), and to contain, the principal Bulk of the vulgar Natives within those three kinds; Tillers of the Ground, Free Servants, and Handy-crafts-Men of Strong, and Manly Arts, as Smiths, Masons, Carpenters, &c. not reckoning Professed Soldiers.

But, above all, for Empire and Greatness it importeth most, that a Nation do profess Arms as their principal Honour, Study, and Occupation. For the Things which we formerly have spoken of, are but Habilitations towards Arms: and what is Habilitation without Intention and Aat? Romulus, after his death (as they report or feign) sent a Present to the Romans, that above all they should intend 14 Arms, and then they should prove the greatest Empire of the World.15 The Fabrick of the State of Sparta was wholly (though not wisely) framed and composed to that Scope and End. The Persians and Macedonians had it for a flash. The Gauls, Germans, Goths, Saxons, Normans, and others, had it for a Time. The Turks have it at this day, though in great Declination. Of Chriftian Europe they that have it are, in effect, only the Spaniards. But it is so plain, That every Man profiteth in that he most intendeth, that it needeth not to be stood upon, it is enough to point at it; that no Nation which doth not directly profess Arms, may look to have Greatness fall into their Mouths. And, on the other side, it is a most certain Oracle of Time, that those States that continue long in that Profeffion (as the Romans and Turks principally have done) do wonders : and those that have professed Arms but for an Age have notwithstanding commonly attained that Greatness in that Age which maintained them long after, when their Profession and Exercise of Arms had grown to decay.

14 Intend is here used in one of its Latin senses for to take heed or look diligently to.

15 See Livy, i. 16; Plut. Vit. Rom., 28.

Incident to this point is for a State to have those Laws or Customs which may reach forth unto them just Occasions (as may be pretended) of War. For there is that Justice imprinted in the Nature of Men, that they enter not upon Wars (whereof so many Calamities do ensue), but upon some at the least Specious Grounds and Quarrels. The Turk hath at hand, for Cause of War, the Propagation of his Law or Sect, a Quarrel that he may always Command. The Romans though they esteemed the Extending the Limits of their Empire to be great Honour to their Generals when it was done; yet they never rested upon that alone to begin a War. First therefore let Nations that pretend to Greatness have this, that they be sensible of Wrongs, either upon Borderers, Merchants, or Politick Ministers; and that they fit not too long upon a Provocation. Secondly, let them be prest 16 and ready to give Aids and Succours to their Confederates; as it ever was with the Romans : insomuch, as if the Confederate had Leagues defensive with divers other States, and, upon Invasion offered, did implore their Aids severally, yet the Romans would ever be the foremost, and leave it to none Other to have the Honour. As for the Wars, which were anciently made on the behalf of a kind of Party, or tacit Conformity of Estate, I do not see how they may be well justified: as when the Romans made a War for the Liberty of Græcia, or when the Lacedemonians and Athenians made Wars to set up or pull down Democracies and Oligarchies : or when Wars were made by Foreigners, under the pretence of Justice or Protection, to deliver the Subjects of others from Tyranny and Oppreffion, and the like. Let it fuffice, that no Estate expect to be Great that is not awake upon any just Occasion of Arming.

16 Mr. Montagu, not understanding this archaism, altered it to

No Body can be healthful without Exercise, neither Natural Body nor Politick: and, certainly to a Kingdom or Estate a Just and Honourable War is the true Exercise. A Civil War, indeed, is like the Heat of a Fever ; but a Foreign War is like the Heat of Exercise, and serveth to keep the Body in Health ; for in a Slothful Peace, both Courages will effeminate and Manners Corrupt; but howsoever it be for Happiness, without all prefjed, which is quite contrary to Bacon's meaning: preft here fignifies prompt. A similar error occurs in Shakespeare's Coriolanus, Act ii. fc. 2. where blejhas been substituted for preft.

" Which the rather We shall be blest to do, if he remember A kinder virtue of the people.

Question for Greatness, it maketh to be ftill for the most part in Arms: and the Strength of a Veteran Army (though it be a chargeable Business) always on Foot, is that which commonly giveth the Law, or, at least, the Reputation amongst all neighbour States, as may well be seen in Spain; which hath had, in one Part or other, a Veteran Army almost continually, now by the Space of Six-score Years.

To be Master of the Sea is an Abridgment of a Monarchy. Cicero, writing to Atticus of Pompey's Preparation against Cæsar, faith, Concilium Pompeii planè Themistocleum eft: putat enim, qui Mari potitur, eum Rerum potiri ;17 and, without doubt, Pompey had tired out Cafar, if upon vain Confidence he had not left that Way. We see the great Effects of Battles by Sea. The Battle of Aetium decided the Empire of the World. The Battle of Lepanto arrested the Greatness of the Turk. There be many Examples, where SeaFights have been Final to the War; but this is when Princes or States have set up their Rest, upon the Battles.

But thus much is certain, that he that commands the Sea is at great liberty, and may take as much and as little of the War as he will. Whereas those that be strongest by Land are many times nevertheless in great Straits. . Surely, at this Day, with us of Europe, the Vantage of Strength at Sea (which is one of the Principal Dowries of this Kingdom of Great Britain) is great; both because, most of the Kingdoms of

17 Cic. Ep. ad Att. i. 8.

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