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I. A Fragment of an Essay of




HE Poets make Fame a Monster : they

describe her in part finely and elegantly, and in part gravely and sententiously:

they fay, Look how many Feathers she hath, so many Eyes she hath underneath, so many Tongues, so many Voices, the pricks up so

many Ears.

This is a flourish; there follow excellent Parables; as that she gathereth Strength in going; that she goeth upon the Ground, and yet hideth her Head in the Clouds; that in the day-time the sitteth in a Watch-tower, and Aieth most by night; that the mingleth Things done with Things not done ; and that she is a Terror to great Cities; but that which pafleth all the rest is, they do recount that the Earth, mother of the Giants that made war against Jupiter, and were by him destroyed, thereupon in anger brought forth Fame, for certain it is that Rebels figured by the Giants and feditious Fames, and Libels, are but Brothers and Sisters, masculine and feminine: but now if a Man can tame this Monster, and bring her to feed at the hand and govern her, and with her fly other ravening Fowl and kill them, it is somewhat worth: but we are infected with the Style of the Poets. To speak now in a fad and serious Manner, there is not in all the Politics a Place less handled, and more worthy to be handled than this of Fame: we will therefore speak of these points : what are false Fames; and what are true Fames; and how they may be best discerned; how Fames may be sown and raised; how they may be spread and multiplied, and how they may be checked and laid dead; and other things concerning the nature of Fame. Fame is of that Force as there is scarcely any great Action wherein it hath not a great Part, especially in the War. Mucianus undid Vitellius by a Fame that he scattered, that Vitellius had in Purpose to remove the Legions of Syria into Germany, and the Legions of Germany into Syria; whereupon the Legions of Syria were infinitely inflamed.2 Julius Cæfar took Pompey unprovided; and laid asleep his Industry and Preparations by a Fame that he cunningly gave out, how Cæsar's own Soldiers loved him not; and, being wearied with the Wars and laden with the Spoils of Gaul, would forsake him as soon as he came into Italy.3 Livia settled all things for the succession of her Son Tiberius by continual giving out that her Husband Augustus was upon Recovery and Amendment;4 and it is a usual thing with the Bashaws, 2 Tacit. Hift. ii. 80.

| Published by Dr. Rawley in his Resuscitatio.

3 Cæf. de Bell. Civ. i. 6. 4 Tacit. Ann. i. 5.

to conceal the Death of the Great Turk from the Janizaries and Men of War, to save the Sacking of Conftantinople and other Towns, as their manner is. Themistocles made Xerxes, King of Persia, poft apace out of Græcia, by giving out that the Grecians had a Purpose to break his Bridge of Ships which he had made athwart Hellespont. There be a thousand such like Examples, and the more they are, the less they need to be repeated, because a man meeteth with them every where : therefore let all wise Governors have as great a Watch and Care over Fames as they have of the Actions and Designs themselves.

[The Rest of this Elay was not finished.]

11. Of a King.


KING is a Mortal God on Earth, unto whom the living God hath lent his own Name as a great Honour; heavy for him, must wear it every day; but if he think it too light he knoweth not of what Metal it is made.

but withal told him he should die like a Man, left he should be proud and flatter himself that God hath with his Name imparted unto him his Nature also.

2. Of all kind of Men God is the least beholden unto them; for he doth most for them and they do ordinarily least for hiin. 3. A King that would not feel his Crown too

5 See Herod, viii. 108, 109.

4. He must make Religion the Rule of Government, and not to balance the Scale ; for he that cafteth in Religion only to make the Scales even, his own weight is contained in those Characters, “Mene, mene, tekel, upharsin, He is found too light, his Kingdom shall be taken from him.”

5. And that King, that holds not Religion the best Reason of State, is void of all Piety and Justice, the Supporters of a King.

6. He must be able to give Counsel himself, but not rely thereupon; for though happy Events juftify their Counsels, yet it is better that the evil Event of good Advice be rather imputed to a Subject than a Sovereign.

7. He is the Fountain of Honour, which should not run with a waste Pipe, left the Courtiers sell the Water, and then, as Papists say of their holy Wells, it loses the Virtue.

8. He is the Life of the Law, not only as he is lex loquens himself, but because he animateth the dead Letter, making it active towards all his Subjects præmio et pæna.

9. A wise King must do less in altering his Laws than he may; for new Government is ever dangerous. It being true in the Body Politic as in the Corporal, that omnis fubita immutatio eft periculofa ; and though it be for the better, yet it is not without a fearful Apprehension; for he that changeth the Fundamental Laws of a Kingdom,

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