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indignation excited, even in London, by the conduct | And, though on Bosworth, Stoke, and Flodden Mount,
of the Prince. Four ministers perished in the battle, No longer we their valiant deeds recount;
Heycocke, Tilsbury, Harper, and Fogge.
Old Isis murmurs in his tuneful flood,
(33.) Lord Derby had been charged with participat-Of one, that late along his margin woo'd,
ing in the enormities committed by Prince Rupert at
Bolton; and that town was, in consequence, appointed
as the place of his decapitation. The Earl's speech on
the scaffold commences with a denial of having be-
haved with cruelty on the occasion alluded to: and,
indeed, the surrendering this Captain Bootle to the
just indignation of his followers, appears the only
action distinctly brought home to him. Bootle had
been faithless to his mistress (the Countess of Derby,
whom he had served at Lathom) when in her greatest
need, and had broken an oath of loyalty voluntarily
taken; and where is the man who, in the rage of battle,
would seek to spare such a miscreant as this?

(34) By the lady Mary, is probably meant the Lady Henrietta Maria, or Henrietta Mary, as she is styled on the monument in York Minster. (Gents. York, p. 106) This lady married, 27th Feb. 1654, William, Earl of Strafford, son to the great Earl of that name. (Whittaker's Life of Radcliffe, p. 35, p. 295; Lady Russell's Letters, p. 153, 205, 209) She died early in life; and without offspring. Lady Catherine married the Marquis of Dorchester. (Orford's R. and N. Authors, vol. 2, p. 35; Wood's Fasti, vol. 2, p. 22; Collins's Peerage, vol. 2, p. 79) Collins and Seacombe agree in saying that Edward and William, sons of Lord Derby, died infants. A reference to p. 374, vol. 1, of King James the 2d's Memoirs, will show they are mistaken with regard to the former of these. (35.) I am unable to entertain the reader with pedigrees of Lady Derby's Captain's, "et nati natorum, et qui nacentur ab illis.” Of Henry Ogle, the fullest account may be found in Gregson's Lancashire. I suspect Capt. Chissenhall, who fell at Marston the very year of this siege, neither paid £800 composition money, as Lloyd affirms, nor wrote the book against popery attributed to him. Sir Edward Chipenhall sate as member for Wigan 1688, and for Preston 1690; and it is not impossible he did both these things. Capt. Edward Rawsthorne commanded in the second siege (Seacombe, p. 103) when Capt. Molyneux Radcliffe (of the Ordsall family) performed prodigies of valour; and, after heading twelve sallies, perished gloriously, whilst storming a fort.

(36.) The sacre, or saker, a piece of ordnance, so called from the rare female falcon of that name, found in the levant (Gentlemen's Recreation, p. 50.) the root of both appellations is the Latin adjective in its least usual sense. The sacre carried a ball of 5 pound weight, the diameter of the bore 3 9 16ths inches, the length of the gun 8 or 9 feet. Sling pieces were small cannon used to shoot stones. (Grose's Military Antiquities, vol. 1, p. 402.) Murtherer, was a larger species of sling piece, and used in later years solely on shipboard. (Todd's Johnson) "Wad, a chamber, or charge, made of brass or iron, put in at the breech," was disused soon after the rebellion, 1540-60.

(37.) (May be cancelled.)

(33.) Demi-cannon "carried a ball of 32 pound weight." The Culverin or Colubrine (Camden's remains, p. 238) "was 54 inches diameter of the bore, and from 9 to 12 feet long, carrying a ball of 18 pound: it is a good battering gun; but it is too heavy for a field-piece." The Perier (Pedrero, or Patteràra) is engraved in Grose's Military Antiquities, vol. 1. On the subject of the noisy, and atniost harmless, machines, dragged after the armies of our ancestors, Grey's Note to Hudibras, part 1, canto 2, v. 355 may be consulted with advantage.

"Invasion," in the errata, should be "inversion."
"Thrust a farm," p. 147, should be "thrust a form.”

And now, gentle reader, thou hast reached the termination of Notes, appended, with singular propriety, to" the brief Journal of the Siege of Lathom House." Thy patience, and my abuse of it, have, alike, been extreme; yet, in parting, allow me (after the fashion of mine ancient friend Izaak Walton) to relieve the dulness my writing, and not my subject, has cast over thine oppressed eyes. Here be verses; take them, and read

Fair Lathom is no more! Her goodly towers,
Fashion'd for rugged war, or gaudy state,
Her massy walls, her green and secret bowers,
Downshaken by the Roundhead's ceaseless hate!
Yet the bold spirit lives; and yet the race
Of Stanley fill their unforgotten place:

And with no vulgar skill inspiring lays,
Drawn from far distant lands, and other days.
The lands he whilome sang, the days he lov'd,
That boy advent'rous seeks, where time hath prov'd
How swift of man's exulting works the doom,
And prostrate lies great Cæsar's trophied tomb,
And fallen his palace, and the boasted fane
Rear'd to his God, is sought-and sought in vain
Where the dull peasant sows what others reap;
And strangers (once Rome's vassals) pause to weep
Her sunken name, and willing Helot state,
Of freedom, as of valour, desolate:
From scenes like these, back to thy native shire,
With brow more thoughtful, eye of temper'd fire,
Wand'rer return! and, may thine onward life,
With all the glories of thy sires be rife!
The loyalty for which they fearless bled,
"The Stanley hand, Vere's heart, and Cecil's bead,"
Oh! may Saturnian times return with thee,
And what time-honour'd Lathom was, may Kuows-
ley be!

Poetry.

THOUGHT.

What is that faculty in man called Thought,
That sun within the system of his frame,
Which, when extinguished, he becomes as nought,
A world of darkness, only man in name,-
Lighting his actions to their destined aim,
Round which his feelings roll, directing all

In harmony, tho' changing still the same?
It is a ray divine, a portion small
From God, making gross matter intellectual.
And this is man, part earthly, part divine;
Spirit inhabiting mortality,

Till the frail structure does its charge resign,
Falls to decay, and sets the prisoner free.
The sun his light imparts continually,
Still is his glory undiminished;

So God's eternal essence, given to me
And millions, is as great as when he bade
The dust to live, and like unto himself a being made.
Liverpool, June 23, 1821.

SONG.

TUNE.-O Nannie! wilt thou gang wi' me?”

O Tummus, wilt o' go wi' me,
Nor sigh to leave thy Owdam kin?
Have Meary's smoils no charm for thee,
Or must thy heart another win?
O, I han wark't at Rochdaw teawn
For mony a day and lonely neet,
And mony a lad hath kneelt him deawn;
Ay, kneelt him deawn at Meary's feet.
But theaw, O Tummus, wus the lad
That gradely in these eyes appear'd ;
Thy form, when Meary's heart wur sad,
Dispell'd her grief, her bosom cheer'd.
And neaw, my boy, wilt flit wi' me?
The Rochdaw bells are aw agate;
The morning shoins wi' summer's glee,
And aw seems merry at eawr fate.

Z.

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SIR,The following lines upon which I lately stumbled, but I do not exactly recollect where, are applicable to those fair damsels who make coquetry their chief study and employment, that I should wish to claim a portion of your interesting publication for their insertion. I have in my eye one or two females of this description who are in the habit of perusing the Kaleidoscope, and to whose serious consideration I am anxious to direct this just delineation of a coquette; and, in doing so, I am actuated much more by the hope of benefiting some of my fair townswomen, than the desire of holding them up to ridicule and contempt. Yours, &c.

I do confess thou'rt smooth and fair,
And I might have gone near to love thee,
Had I not found the slightest prayer
That lips could speak, had power to move thee;
But I can let thee now alone,
As worthy to be loved by none.
I do confess thou'rt sweet, yet find
Thee such an unthrift of thy sweets,
Thy favours are but like the wind,
That kisseth every thing it meets :
And since thou canst love more than one,
Thou'rt worthy to be loved by none,
The morning rose, that untouch'd stands,
Arm'd with its briars, how sweetly smells!
But pluck'd and strained through ruder hands,
Its scent no longer with it dwells;
But scent and beauty both are gone,
And leaves fall from it one by one.
Such fate, ere long, will thee betide,
When thou hast fondled been awhile!
Like sear flowers to be thrown aside;
And I shall sigh, while some will smile,
To see thy love to every one
Hath brought thee to be loved by none.

The Philanthropist.

BURNING OF WIDOWS IN INDIA.

E

The interesting document we are about to pre sent to our readers affords one instance, amongst very many others, of the utility and convenience of our minor publication, the Kaleidoscope; as the important debate on the Indian superstitious buman sacrifices would have been lost to our readers, at least in its present enlarged form, had we not possessed the advantage of the literary supplementary work, through the medium of which we are enabled to enter so much more at large upon the subject, thau it is possible to do in a newspaper, wherein the public naturally look for a diversity of miscellaneous information.

The debate, from which we now proceed to detail the most material and interesting points, is, fortenately for the plan of our work, entirely divested of party politics; as both sides of the House laudably

India.-Edit. Kal.

concur in their reprobation of these immolations, | them to be little else than murders) took felt for the benefits which were conferred on which have generally been represented to be voluntary place contrary to the Hindoo law itself. By them, led them to believe that those by on the part of the victims; but which appear in too that law, females under sixteen years of age whom they were now governed must, in many instauces to bear more resemblance to mur- were not allowed to ascend the funeral pile; some former period, have moved in a more ders, originating in the most sordid motives. It is yet, it would appear from the papers for exalted state of existence, as they could not to be fervently hoped, that, whether the immolation which he was about to move, that girls of otherwise account for the virtue, wisdom, of the widows of India partakes more of a suicidal twelve, thirteen, and fourteen years of age and talents which they displayed. The or murderous character, every measure within the had been sacrificed; and, in one instance, Honourable Gentleman then moved "for power of the British Legislature will be successfully a child of eight years old became a victim copies or extracts of all communications exerted, if not to eradicate the lamentable supersti- to the barbarous custom. By the Hindoo received from India relative to the burning tion, or the infamous dictation, in which the cruel law, those widows were also exempted, of females on the funeral piles of their depractice originates, at least to interdict the repetition who, in the event of their death, should ceased husbands.” Mr. BATHURST observed, that the House of such disgusting exhibitions throughout British leave children behind them under three years of age, unless some security was given would understand this question much better that the infants would be taken care of. It by a perusal of the papers which had been was also specifically set down, that the sa- moved for, than from any partial statement Mr. FoWELL BUXTON, in moving for crifice should be perfectly voluntary; that that might now be made. Viewing the copies and extracts of all communications no drugs should be administered for the pur- question as he did, it was not easy to perfrom India respecting the burning of fe- pose of causing intoxication; but these ceive how Parliament could interfere in any males, disclaimed all intention of casting provisions of the Hindoo law were not com- way whatever. The honourable member reproach upon anybody; for he was aware plied with. No later than yesterday, he had (Mr. Buxton) admitted that no fault could that a feeling of delicacy upon the super- a conversation on this subject with a most be found either with the Government abroad stition of the natives, alone restrained the respectable gentleman, the Reverend Mr. or at home, in regard to their administration British authorities from interfering to pre- Thompson, one of the East India Company's of the internal affairs of India. If this were vent these dreadful spectacles. Still the chaplains, who stated, that as he was sailing the case, they ought to pause before they question was not, in fact, one of religious on a river in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, attempted any active interference with the toleration; but, whether murder and suicide he observed a crowd on the bank, and found religious prejudices of the natives. If the ought tacitly to be permitted under the that the people had assembled for the pur-legislature took up this question, the necesBritish jurisdiction. It might be sufficient pose of witnessing the burning of a widow, sary consequence must be the intervention for his purpose to state the extent to which who was then performing her last ablution. of public officers, to prevent breaches of the this shocking practice had been carried in When that part of the ceremony was con- Hindoo law by the natives themselves an one presidency alone; he meant that of cluded, she was led to the pile, but she intervention, be it observed, connected with Fort William. Within the last four years, fainted repeatedly. The people began to points the most delicate that could be conin that presidency, 2,336 females had been grow impatient; and she was at last placed ceived. These persons would have to inseen to ascend and perish upon the funeral on the pile in an insensible state, and lashed quire whether a woman was ready to make piles of their deceased husbands. That was to the dead body of her husband. The un- a voluntary sacrifice of her existence. And the number that had openly perished under fortunate creature, however, recovered her if they found that she acted voluntarily, and the eyes of the magistracy, exclusive of the senses, and struggled to escape. A Brah- therefore did not fall within any of the exnumber which had been consumed in secret, min immediately placed a torch in the hand ceptions of the Hindoo law, then the na or by the connivance of a mercenary police. of one of her children, who set fire to the tural and unfortunate consequence would By the Mohammedan law the practice was pile, and the whole was consumed in a few be, that the ceremony thus practised would discountenanced, and, therefore, in many minutes. He had also been informed of an be described as taking place after the inplaces discontinued; but it was to be re-instance where the family of the individual spection, and under the sanction, of a British gretted that it still prevailed to a great had not money to procure wood enough to officer. It was an extraordinary circumextent in countries under the British juris- form a proper pile. In that case, the child stance, that since the promulgation of cerdiction. Not only had the disciples of Ma- of the parties about to be consumed began tain regulations on this subject, the number homet abolished this practice, but the French, by applying fire to the face of his deceased of persons who had sacrificed themselves Dutch, and Danes had accomplished the father, and then proceeded to place the flame had been doubled. In 1815 the number was same object in their East India settle- beneath the body of his living mother. The 378; in 1816, 442; in 1817, 707; in 1818, ments. Many of the native princes, amongst fire soon took effect, but it was a consider 1,339. In Calcutta alone, the number was, whom were the Rajah of Travancore, and able time before the sufferings of the unhappy in 1815, 153; in 1816, 289; in 1817, 442; the Peishwa, the latter of whom was a woman were terminated. Though he did in 1818, 544. Undoubtedly the increase Hindoo and a Brahmin, had also put an end not think it would be proper to put an end was in some measure attributed to an epide to this revolting custom. He hoped, that, to this practice by force, yet he was of mic diorder which raged in the country, the when the proper time arrived, the British opinion that the natives of India ought to ravages of which had deprived many women Government would exert their utmost efforts be restrained within the laws of their own of their husbands. The Indian Government to extinguish so great an evil, and show that religion. Beyond these they should not be doubted very much the policy of the interthey would not be behindhand with their suffered to depart. All these evils arose ference which had already taken place. If predecessors in the great work of justice from one cause-the ignorance of the na- that were the fact, might it not be supposed, and humanity. He did not wish anything tives; and the only cure for them was their that the sort of sanction which the practise to be done on this subject which would be instruction. Every person, therefore, must would receive, if the Government here inlikely to excite the apprehension of the perceive how imperative it was on the Go- terfered, would tend to strengthen it, and natives of India, or to shock their religious vernment of the country, to extend, as far to render it more common, by drawing the feelings or prejudices; but he certainly was as possible, the benefits of education to the attention of the people more frequently anxious that steps should be taken to prove natives of India. He was happy to observe to it than in former times? He greatly the detestation with which this government what had been done by the Governor-gene-doubted, therefore, whether any interference viewed so abominable a practice. Many of ral with reference to this object. The would be proper. The Honourable Mem. these murders (for, although they were natives began to admit the superiority of ber had spoken of the conduct of other called voluntary sacrifices, he considered European intellect; and the gratitude they powers, and he had particularly instanced

of India.

about to be immolated, whether it was a voluntary act done in comformity with the Hindoo law. No individual was allowed to be burnt in Benares, unless the regulations of the Government were complied with. He was pretty sure that the instance alluded to by the Honourable Member for Bramber what might have taken place under the Mabratta had not occurred in the Company's territories; but Government he could not tell. He doubted very much the correctness of the observation made by when he said that this was not a proper subject for

a

the Mahometans, whom he denominated with the religious prejudices of the natives | was absolutely necessary to inquire of every person our "predecessors," in the Indian Empire. The Mahometans governed with a rod Mr. WILBERFORCE said, the situation of of iron-they were a despotic power; of the people of India always filled his mind and might certainly use means to carry any with the most painful anxiety. There were point, which a free government never would 80,000,000 of their fellow subjects in that resort to. The Honourable Member also country, over whose happiness they ought spoke of the conduct of particular European to watch with the tenderest care. It was, governments which had abolished this prac- however, but justice to say, that no people tice in the East India settlements. He did on the face of the earth were better the Right Honourable Gentleman (Mr. Bathurst not, however, state the case as it really was, governed. He wished to see all super- the consideration of Parliament. It was most exbecause those who were prevented from stitious practices banished from among traordinary, that a member of his Majesty's Govern. pursuing the practice in particular places, them; but he trusted that nothing like vio- ment, who had voted for a bill to prevent cruelty proceeded to some district in the neighbour-lence would be used in affecting that impor-being exercised towards "asses and mules," should hood, to which the jurisdiction of the Go- tant object. He understood that it was think it improper to prevent the infliction of cruelty vernment did not extend, and there the sa- proposed to erect a large building in Cal-(for cruelty it was in all cases) on the females of crifice was effected. Thus it was at Se-cutta for the purpose of educating mission- with their husbands were, in almost all cases, sarriIndia. His opinion was, that the individuals burned rampore. The Danes would not suffer any aries who were to be employed in endea- ficed to the interest of those who were connected widow to be burned there; but the Brahmins vouring to convert the people of India. with them. If it were rendered necessary to take out went to a place in the neighbourhood, where This plan (as we understood the Honoura- license, at an expense of 2 or 3,000 rupees for the the ceremony was performed. These, there- ble Gentleman) had his entire approbation. privilege to burn (A laugh) the evil would be very fore, were no authorities at all. It was a The individual with whom it had originated peared ludicrous, yet the benefit which such a sysmuch diminished. Though this, at first sight, apmere evasion of terms to say, because no was of opinion that if we did not attempt tem would produce could easily be explained. If a scenes of this kind were acted within the im- rudely to shock the prejudices of the natives, large sum were demanded for a license, the relatives mediate jurisdiction of those powers, that there was no people more ready to listen to of widows, who now urged them to burn, would not therefore they had put down the practice. the voice of instruction. With respect to supply a rupee towards the expense, and the widows It was for the House to consider whether it the regulations to which would thus escape death. With respect to the plan the Right of building a college at Calcutta for the education would not be better to trust to the gradual Honourable Gentleman had referred, they of missionaries, be was convinced that it would proamelioration of the Hindoos, by the exten- could not fairly be considered as the cause duce more mischief than a positive law for inflicting sion of education, the foundation of which of increasing the practice which his Ho-punishment on all who aided and abetted at the sahad happily been laid, and on which a moral nourable Friend (Mr. Buxton) wished to crifice of a female. He hoped the practice would ultimately be done away, but it would require a superstructure might be reared, rather than That circumstance was mainly very considerable time. remove. If the British Government to sanction any legislative measure for the attributable to the epidemic disorder which had equal power over all the Hindoo states, it might purpose of putting down this practice. The raged in the country. By the books of the soon be removed: but while some Hindoo Govern. question had been discussed by the public Hindoos, those sacrifices ought to be volun-ments existed over which they had no power, and press of India, with a warmth and freedom tary; but this, he believed, was very rarely the by which the practice was tolerated, it could not be which he believed were quite new in that case. He recollected being told of an indi- Mr. CANNING said, that, whatever shades of difpart of the world. It was evident from those vidual, who, having heard that a widow was ference might exist with respect to some parts productions, that the minds of individuals, about to immolate herself, proceeded to the the present subject, there were two points on which there, were not prepared for a cool and ami- place. He was informed that it was a Voously was, that it would be in the highest degree gra. cable discussion of the subject. The persons luntary act. But seeing the woman tied, tifying to every feeling of humanity if this abommost interested were divided in opinion with he asked the presiding Brahmin, "Why havenable practice were eradicated; the second, that it was respect to the Hindoo law on the subject; you bound this voluntary sufferer ?" extremely desirable that the attempt made to attain and authorities had been quoted on each Oh," answered the latter, with great side of the question. While they were dis- simplicity, "if she was not tied, she would cussing the matter between themselves in run away." He was desirous to do every this way, would it, he asked, be prudent for thing to promote the moral improvement of the legislature to interfere? In conse- the natives of India; and he could positively quence of these disputes, circulars were dis- affirm, that there never was, perhaps, a set tributed by the government, stating what the of people in any part of the world more law was. The effect of this must evidently anxious to receive instruction, or more be, to make the natives say to those who grateful to those by whom it was imparted. would dissuade them from the practice, That circumstance alone ought to induce You have been telling us, that you felt Government to make every exertion in fagreat doubt with respect to the law, but vour of those efforts which were directed to here we have the actual authority of Go- the amelioration of the people of India; vernment. They have quoted the precise and from which, as his Right Honourable authority under which we have always acted. Friend had observed, the most beneficial If we avoid certain exceptions, we have the consequences might naturally be expected. sanction of Government for contending that the practice is legal, and an officer of the Government will even stand by, and see the execution performed." These regulations had produced the most serious mischief-a circumstance not at all contemplated, when they were issued. He did not object to the production of the papers, but he hoped the Honourable Member would not call on the legislature to sanction any active interference

his Honourable Friend extended? Because, if it did
Mr. HUME wished to know how far the motion of
not comprise the regulations of 1792, 1793, and
1794, it would be defective. He had lived at Be-
nares, where the Brahmins had their college, and
which indeed might be considered the cradle of all
their absurdities; and there, he believed, the regula-
tions had produced a good effect. The Honourable
Member for Bramber had spoken of a woman having
been forcibly tied to a log. Now, his belief was,
that under the regulations of Governor Donkin, it

eradicated.

every Gentleman appeared to agree. The first obvi

this object should not be any thing like a coercive interference on the part of the British Government. tween these two extremes; and in going over that The only matter for consideration lay therefore be ground, he begged Gentlemen to bear in mind, that, of all the exercises of buman authority and of human discretion, the most difficult and defective, and at the same time divested of the licate was that of an interference, at once ef harshness of power. The problem which the East India Company had to solve was, thus, one of great difficulty and delicacy; and though he was glad that this subject was brought under the considerstion of the House for discussion, he could not agree cessary effect of discussion here must be greatly to facilitate or to abridge the task imposed on the Indian Government. He rather thought that the effect of any hostile discussion (none such, undoubt. edly, had occurred on this occasion) or of any serious would not tend much to stimulate that Government, interference or dictation on the part of Parliament, which, in fact, wanted no such stimulus to engage in this work. It would, perhaps, rather alarm the natives of India; and, in consequence, occasion some relaxation on the part of Government with respect to the course which they might have thought proper to pursue, for the purpose of removing apprehension from the minds of the people of India. He did put mean to say, that ultimately the effect of discussion might not be good; because the hands of Govern

with those who thought that the immediate and ne

of the children of the Rajpoots, for instance, which | The novelty of the art proved considerably atwas made a capital offence. There was, among tractive; but the want of talent, necessary to render another tribe,a singular and horrible custom,—that it respectable, soon withdrew from public estimaof a man who fancied himself injured by some person tion, and the art was debased as being merely a carin power, collecting wood, making a pile of it, and ricature of Nature. But in 1802, Madame Tusplacing at the top two living animals-a cow and an saud arrived in this country; and the public began old woman, whom he saw consumed with fire; being to estimate modelled figures. Her collection was himself impressed with the belief that all the tortures patronized by some of the first personages in the which they suffered would be experienced by his Metropolis. The difficulty of conveyance precluded enemy. Another case was that of the Brahmius, the the possibility of copying historical subjects, and sacredness of whose persons throughout all India confined her to the correct representations of single was proverbial, and who had, in consequence, long figures, which could not produce so striking an committed crimes with perfect impunity. In both effect as a proper combination of figures, naturally these instances, however, the British Government grouped; but within the last twelve months she has bad thought proper to interpose; and did so effec- discovered a method which enables her to improve tually. But this was not all: not only had they her collection to the extent of her wishes; and as interfered with respect to the native priests, but on a specimen of her success, she has prepared for the one occasion they had taken liberties with their inspection of the public an historical representation favourite God. (Hear, and a laugh.) The great of the Coronation of Buonaparte, copied from a Jaggernaut was not exempted from their visitation; fine picture, by David. The effect produced by it is for there being some delay in the payment of the greater than the most sanguine lover of the arts could revenue of a certain province, this government laid anticipate; the anecdote which marked Bonaparte's their hands upon hini, by way of security, and kept Coronation is too well known to require particular him in pawn till the whole amount was paid up. detail: suffice it to say, that he crowned himself (Laughter.) The motion was then agreed to. and his Empress Josephine: it is this moment which the painter has chosen. The Pope is represented in the act of giving his benediction; and the Cardinal also offers up his prayers for the prosperity of the new Emperor; and a figure of a Mameluke seems to be acting the part of Champion. The whole produces an entirely novel effect, and bids us still hope to see this collection further improved and enlarged. We were led to the above reflections by a desire to place this truly pleasing art in its proper light; and as we profess to be siucere admirers of whatever tends to the improvement of the Arts and Sciences, we trust the above will not be uninteresting to the public.

Fine Arts.

[From a Correspondent.]

THE

THE FINE ARTS, AS CONNECTED WITH
FIGURES BY MADAME TUSSAUD, NOW EXHI-
BITING.

ment would certainly be strengthened by the opi-
nions collectively and individually expressed. But
that would not be the immediate effect. In a former
session, when the Honourable Gentleman stated his
intentions to make a motion of this kind, be (Mr.
Cauning) earnestly but civilly dissuaded him from
his purpose, because the information was defective
in one material point, namely, that though it was
impossible then to say that the Governor-Gene-
ral was inattentive to this object, or that he had
not pursued it in the most proper manner, yet they
had no means of forming a correct judgment of
the effects which had been produced. He would ask
his Honourable Friend (Mr. Buxton) whether, if he
was legislating as the conqueror of a Catholic coun.
try, he would thick his influence well exercised
under these circumstances. Let him suppose one,
out of the many cases which would occur, of young
females offering themselves to take the veil before
their minds could either be well made up, or accu-
rately informed with respect to the nature of the
engagement they were about to contract; would his
Honourable Friend think that his influence would
be well exercised by sending some one to inquire
for the victim at the cloister or the monastery, in
order to examine her, and to tear her, upon her
manifesting the slightest hesitation in answer to
such inquiries, from the sacrifice that she was on
the point of performing? The feelings of the Hin-
doos were not less acute upon such subjects than
would be those of the destined nun in the imaginary
case which he had just been citing. India was to
be regarded as a country retaining, by the habits of
education as well as by our own policy, all its
ancient institutions. The Honourable Gentleman,
who made this motion, and of whose speech he (Mr. The study of the Fine Arts has always been en-
Canning) was sorry to have missed any part-so couraged by nations that pride themselves upon
much had he been gratified with that portion of it their advancement in civilization, and the decline |
which he bad heard-bad stated (not invidiously to of empires now fallen, aud debased by misrule, was
be sure, but in a way that might be open to such a marked by the decline of the Arts and Sciences.
construction) that other conquerors in India, whom The Greeks were the first who arrived at eminence,
we had superseded, had found no difficulty in ex- and this they owed to the encouragement given to
tinguishing similar superstitious rites and sacrifices, artists by distributing national rewards for works of
But the Honourable Gentlemen must have forgot-genius. Statuary and Architecture occupied their
ten, that by a singular and unprecedented indul chief attention, and they have left behind them
gence of colonial policy we had left the religious specimens which have never been equalled. The
system of India as we found it. That system was not Romans, their successors in the cultivation of the
forcibly invaded by us, but merely placed under a arts, wisely encouraged them, as a means of lead-
more efficient protection than it had previously en-ing to that national refinement at which they soon
joyed. That protection, secured by us alone, the after arrived. It was then, that painting, so much
rulers of an empire which contained upwards of an admired in the present age, was brought to an ex-
hundred millions of inhabitants, without there being cellence which rendered it the admiration of all
one amongst us who might fairly call one foot of Europe, and it was followed by the cultivation of
the territory his own, was, perhaps, one of the most the minor liberal arts. Modelling in wax was not
signal and splendid effects of human wisdom and introduced until the 10th century: it took its rise in
human fortune which could be named. The Hon. the monasteries of Italy, where the monks used to
Gentleman had said, that it was to gradual means, place the figures of their patron saints on the altars
such as those which he had mentioned, that we must dedicated to them. They duly appreciated the effect
look for the improvement of these people, and that to be produced by the resemblance of real life; and
the diffusion of knowledge was the sole legitimate the custom is continued to the present day, particu-
and effective mode of subduing ignorance. He larly in Sicily, where, and in other countries, figures
(Mr. Canning) concurred in this opinion; but he modelled in wax are carried in processions: hence
thought also that this was the sole legitimate means arose the idea of forming collections of figures for
of subduing superstition. The Honourable Gen-exhibition. In Italy the art has been confined
tleman had seemed to hold out the conduct of the chiefly to scriptural subjects: but it was reserved
Mohammedan conquerors as an example to be fol- for Monsieur Courcis, uncle to Madame Tussaud,
lowed by us; but the Honourable Gentleman well
knew that the great distinction between the two
religions, professed by the two races of Conquerors,
was, that the one was the religion of arms, and the
other of persuasion; that the one had fought its way
with the sword, and that the other prevailed in spite of
power; and that this latter and purer faith must be
left to win its silent way among those nations before
the total extirpation of their frightful sacrifices

would be looked for.

Mr. FOWELL BUXTON, in explanation, begged to observe, that if the East India Company had unfortunately been advised to retract their regulations, he should feel it his duty to bring that subject at an early opportunity before Parliament. The British Government in India had interfered in other cases of almost equal enormity. There was the murder

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first to bring it to variety and perfection. He copied
historical subjects so faithfully, that they bore a
comparison with the great originals. His reward
was commensurate to his abilities: Louis the Six-
teenth appointed him artist to his family, with an
appropriate salary. His collection at Paris be-
came the resort of every stranger who visited
that capital, and his fame spread throughout Eu-
rope. His cabinet portraits were eagerly sought
by the admirers of talent, and are now highly
prized as specimens of his skill, and are not
equalled by any artist since his time. How dif.
ferent was the situation of this pleasing art in
England! Some Italian, allured by the flou-
rishing state of this country, began to mudel an
exhibition which has for many years been well
known under the name of the London Wax Works,

Correspondence.

TO THE EDITOR.

SIR,-Professing myself to be a plain Englishman and a Manchesterian, you must give me leave to enter my protest against the illiberal remark of your indefatigable correspondent Pyrus.

I allude to a passage in his last letter, or (as he modestly styles them) essays, in which he observes, that we breathe Boeotian air; or, in plainer terins, that ours is the land of dulness. Now, Mr. Editor, is it to be tolerated, that, because a pedant chuses to cram his writings with scraps of Latin (which not the one half of readers in general understand;) is it to be borne, I repeat, that, upon his being respectfully solicited to give a translation, he should turn round and task the riter with dulness; and not him only, but the very air he breathes; and for what? Why, truly, for not being so learned as himself. I have observed, it has been very much the practice of late, for such writers as Pyrus, to interlard their compositions with French, Greek, and Latin. This answers a twofold purpose; first it tickles the author's vanity, as it shows his learning; and, secondly, it is a great help to those whose ideas are not over exuberant, as it materially serves to lengthen out the paper. I wish not to make an invidious comparison between our towns, but I cannot allow Manchester to be the region of dulness. Liverpool, no doubt, is, of the two, the more literary; it is the residence of a Roscoe; but I think you must allow that the papers produced by our Philosophical Society are of the first order. It was not my intention to trouble you with so much writing on so trifling a subject; but, as honour pricked me on, I hope you will excuse it. Herewith, I have sent you one or two more of my poetical attempts, known only to myself. If you think then worthy of insertion, well and good; if not, it will be the same to your constant reader,

Manchester, 27th June, 1821.

ALCANDER.

TO THE EDITOR.

SIR, The letter of A. Q. W. who exposes the anomalies, and shows the capriciousness of our language, is deserving of attention. I am ignorant of the sixth sound of the letters ough, unless it be the word lough.* I remember reading, somewhere, an epigram, where the letters ough were often repeated in a very small compass. The lines were on the occasion of Bishop Goodenough preaching before the House of Lords, in 1806 or 1807. They ran as follows:

« "Twas right enough, that Goodenough
Before the House should preach;
For, sure enough, quite bad enough
Were those he had to teach.
Yours, &c.

CANDIDUS.

In Johnson's Dictionary, lough is said to be Irish for lake; and Walker pronounces it lok. If this be admitted as the sixth sound of ough, there is a seventh, au, to be found in the word thought.-Edit. Kal.

TO THE EDITOR.

SIR,-If you think the following suitable for your Kaleidoscope, I should be glad to see it inserted the first opportunity.

In a remote part of Newton, in Cheshire, not far from Ashton-under-Lyne, there lies a gravestone over the body of one James Hill, who, it seems, strangled himself (according to tradition) in a wood not far distant; and the public feeling being so much excited by so uncommon a circumstance, at that time, expressed a wish that his body might be interred at three lane ends; and a stone laid upon the place with an appropriate inscription, to cast an odium on so shocking a deed.

The literati in the neighbourhood were called upon to compose something for the purpose, and a remuneration held out for the best production. The competitors were numerons. The successful candidate for poetic fame was the late Thomas Moss, one of the seven sons of the late John Moss, of Ashton-under-Lyae, of ringing celebrity.-The in.scription is,

"Here was deposited the body of the unfortunate James Hill, late of Droylsden; who ended his life, May 6, 1774, in the 42d year of his age.

"Unhappy Hill with anxious cares oppress'd,
Rashly presum'd to find in death his rest
With this vague hope in lonesome wood did he
Strangle himself, as jury did gree;

For which a Christian burial he's denied, And is consigned to lie by this way side. "Reader, reflect then, what may be the consequence of a crime which excludes all possibility of repentance."

Oue of the competitors (the late Isaiah Bardley) 'feeling himself chagrined at his own production not being accepted, wrote the following parody on that of Moss; which is said to have had such an effect on the mind of Moss that he never could forget it. The parody is,

Unhappy Moss! with itch of verse oppress'd,
Rashly presum'd to rhyme himself to rest;
With this vague hope, in rueful style did he
Write six bad lines, as judges do agree,
Which even a Pagan funeral were denied ;
And, to be laugh'd at, laid at this way side.

I have what I conceive to be a good specimen of the pompous style of writing which I transcribed from an American paper above forty years ago. Also, the "Wonders of the Peak," a poem of the 17th century, by Charles Cotton, Esq., author of "Virgil Travestie," translator of the Essays of Montaigne, &c. which I think would not be unacceptable to many of the numerous readers of the Kaleidoscope, and should have no objection to favouring you with both, on condition that you return the poem, which

is rather a scarce work; if you notice this in your
next Kuleidoscope I shall have au early opportunity
of sending both down free of expense to a friend in
Liverpool, who, I understand, is acquainted with
you, and would deliver them safe, and probably
call at your office for the poem when you have done
with it.
Yours,
A CONSTANT READER.
Flowery Field, Hyde, near Manchester,
15th of June, 1821.

We feel obliged to our correspondent for his polite offer of the work in question, which we shall peruse and take proper care of. In consulting a biographical notice of Cotton, we find, however, in reference to the work in question, the following comment: "A poem, published by Cotton, in 1681, entitled The Wonders of the Peak,' shows that he was absolutely disqualified for describing the sublime or beautiful scenes of nature.". Edit. Kal.

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THE CORONATION JUBILEE.

TO THE EDITOR.

In addition to the variety of amusements which are said to be in the contemplation of our Mayor and Corporation to gratify the people, on the day of the Coronation, I think it would afford considerable amusement, if there should be a SWIMMING RACE in the Regent's Dock; a sort of St. Leger Stakes; admitting as many candidates as chose to enter the lists, each of whom should be furnished with a light and decent dress for the occasion, as worn in many of the swimming schools abroad. The number of expert swimmers in this town, since the establishment of the Floating Bath, has become very considerable; and the extent of the dock would put them "pon their mettle. A prize might also be provided for the best diver, which would be productive of still greater amusement. Yours, &c. Liverpool.

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To Correspondents.

TOWN EMBELLISHMENTS.-The letter of PYRUS shall have a place in the first number of our second volume this day se'nnight. The proposal to convert the old stone quarry behind the Mount Gardens, into a beautiful cultivated promenade, was suggested in the Mercury, vol. 8, pages 414 and 416; and we understand, from unquestionable authority, that estimates have subsequently been made of the probable expense of clearing and laying out the ground, and planting it with variegated shrubs. We have been told that it would require a considerable sum of money to carry the plan into execution; but we trust that circumstance will not operate upon a wealthy and publicspirited Corporate Body; particularly when the capitar employed would be so soon repaid, with good interest, by a small toll, to be paid by all visitors. The number of labourers which would be requisite to complete so grand a metamor hosis, is another strong recommendation of the measure. We shall have occasion to resume the subject next week, when we notice the communication of PYRUS, with whom we differ somewhat upon certain minor points.

THE LEARNED LANGUAGES.Our correspondent, ALCANDER of Manchester, is somewhat too warm with PYRUS, and other writers who occasionally interlard their compositions with quotations from foreign or dead languages. It very often happens that the idiom of one language is much better adapted for the expression of a particular idea, than our native language; and in such instances we can see no pedantry in the adoption of the more suitable phrase. We agree, however, with ALCANDER and Á SUBSCRIBER from Manchester, that such foreign auxili aries should be as sparingly used as possible, and seldom employed, when our native force is competent to accomplish the purpose. But we must protest against our correspondents quarrelling on the subject; and it is with regret that we foresee a gathering storm, which we must endeavour to avert, by the suppression of irritating phrases, which in our judgment are more harsh than the occasion justifies. One of the correspondents, we have just noticed, has pressed into his service the high authority of the Prince of Poets, rather happily in the following lines:

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FEUILLE D'ANNONCES JUDICIARES, &c.-The singular advertisement for a rara avis, with a copy of which we have been favoured by a friend, shall appear in our next, with a translation; without which we must not presume to introduce it, lest we should rekindle the wrath of certain of our correspondents, who are so truly English as to hold every other living or dead language in sovereign contempt.

AMATEUR is informed that we shall, in all probability,

introduce into our second volume, the series of critical situations in the game of Draughts, according to the promise we made at an early period of our career. CHARMING OF SNAKES.-We some time age received an interesting article on this subject, transcribed from the Calcutta Journal, by some kind friend, to whom, we believe, we have unintentionally neglected to make our acknowledgments until now. We shall take an early opportunity of giving it a place in our columns.

RAUF BOBBIN has some humour, but is rather too coarse. The disorder of the animal to which he alludes would afford as little amusement to our readers as to the poor creature itself.

If CENSOR is bent upon breaking a spear in our arena. it must be with a champion who will not disgrace the list. The thing which he would tilt, is really too mean to excite anger, or any other sentiment than utter contempt. There are things so filthy, that, to use a kitchen phrase, one would not take them up even with a pair of tongs.

STEAM ENGINE NUISANCES.-The evidence taken on this important subject before the Committee on the House of Commons, shall be inserted in the next or the succeeding number of the Kaleidoscope, illustrated by a wood-cut.

A CONSTANT READER, who has favoured us with an extract on the Pores of the Skin, &c. will oblige us by further communications at his leisure. ARREARS. The necessity we were under to complete the "Walks in Derbyshire," and the "Notes to the Siege of Lathom House," within the first volume, has induced us to extend it to 53 numbers instead of 52, and must plead our excuse for the transfer of many communications to our next volume, to which it is our intention to devote the most unremitting care to render it worthy of the very flattering patronage it has attained, not only at home, but abroad. Amongst the articles displaced to enable us to complete the arrangements alluded to are J. N. S.-PRO BONO PUBLICO-G.P. THEODOSIUS TIGHTLACE—A READER A QUEER TAKE-IN-H.-A VERY OLD MAN.

Letters or parcels not received, unless free of charge.

The word preventative, in the last Kaleidoscope, is, of course, a typographical error, and ought to have been Printed, published, and sold by E. SMITH and C. preventive.

54, Lord-strect, Liverpool.

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