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teristics of the bulldog breed, but by an ordinary observer this would be scarcely noticed. There is, however, a remarkable want of symmetry and true proportion in this bitch, which the portrait conveys exactly.
She was again put to “ Preston,” a very fast dog belonging to her owner, and from them the produce was “Hecuba,” a large black bitch of good shape, and, as I before remarked, scarcely dis
* From a daguerreotype in the possession of Hugh Hanley, Esq., 1st Life Guards.
tinguishable from the pure greyhound. She was very fast, but could not work very cleverly, and her staying powers were very limited indeed.
Mr. Hanley sent her to the celebrated dog “ Bedlamite,” expecting in this fourth cross to have some good runners, but they were all remarkably deficient in stoutness, though fast as well as clever. One of them is represented on the next page, having run in public as “llysterics.”
This bitch has been put to “Ranter,” a son of “ Bedlamite ;” but the result of this, the fifth cross, is not as yet, I believe, more satisfactory than the fourth.
Before resorting to any particular strains, with a view of improving upon defects, it is necessary to consider what breeds are remarkable for each quality which is likely to be desired, namely, speed, courage, nose, and sagacity. Of these, the first is so remarkably prominent in the greyhound, that there is no necessity for going further, and whenever it is desired to increase the pace of any kind of dog, no discussion would arise as to the best means of effecting the object, this breed being immediately selected. So also the bulldog is proverbial for courage, and fortunately he is so formed as to be readily made to amalgamate with other breeds. Even the greyhound recovers his peculiar shape completely in the fourth generation, and in the third it would be difficult to discover any certain proof of the existence of the cross.
With regard to nose, there may be a difference of opinion depending upon the purpose to which it is devoted ; but as it is seldom that this quality is wanted to be engrafted on speed or courage, the reverse being the usual course, it is scarcely necessary to dilate upon it. Thus it may be desirable to alter or improve the nose of the hound, the pointer, the setter, the spaniel, or the terrier, and in that case it would only be necessary to have recourse to the best specimens, as regards nose, in each breed, because there is a peculiarity attending on each mode of using the nose, which renders it more adapted to the work to be done than any other. Hence the pointer, when crossed with the foxhound, is apt to hunt too low, besides other faults which interfere with the usefulness of the cross, and the same may be said of the cross with the setter and spaniel. So that it may be laid down as a rule, that in the article nose, it is not safe to look beyond the particular breed for improvement in this important quality.
Sagacity may be looked for in several breeds, but it is most highly developed perhaps in the poodle, the Newfoundland, and the terrier; chiefly, I imagine, because these dogs are more frequently the companions of man than the sporting dogs, which are kept in kennels. No dog is more capable of being taught than the half-bred bull-terrier, although the bulldog is by no means so, and, as he is almost always tied up, the reason is obvious enough. Solitary confinement makes all animals, and even man himself, more or less idiotic, and if any dog is to be rendered as sagacious as possible, he must be constantly associated with his master. Hence it is that the poacher's dog is so much more clever than the fair sportsman's, for, being the constant companion and friend of his master, he understands every word he says, and is ready also to communicate his own ideas in return.
To sum up, it may be assumed that the following breeds may be taken as types of the qualities so remarkable in each, and may be resorted to when any other kind is deficient in them. Thus, speed is typified in the greyhound, courage in the bulldog, and nose or scenting power in the bloodhound; for hunting purposes, the pointer or setter, when required in conjunction with setting; and the spaniel or terrier, for finding or “questing" both fur and feather. Lastly, sagacity is displayed in the poodle, Newfoundland, and terrier, chiefly because they are the constant associates of man.