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Alteratives. - Anodynes. — Antispasmodics. — Aperients. - Astringents. – Blis

ters.- Caustics.— Charges.- Cordials.- Diuretics.- Embrocations.- Emetics. -Expectorants. — Fever medicines. — Clysters. — Lotions. – Ointments. Stomachics. — Styptics. — Tonics. Worm medicines. - Administration of Remedies.


These are medicines which are given with a view of changing an unhealthy into a healthy action. We know nothing of the mode in which the change is produced, and we can only judge of them by the results. The most powerful are mercury, iodine, hemlock, hellebore, and cod-liver oil, which are given in the following formulas:

1.- Æthiop's mineral, 11 to 5 grains.
Powdered rhubarb, 1 to 4 grains.

ginger, to 1. grain.
Mix and make into a pill, to be given every evening.

2.-Hemlock extract, or fresh-bruised leaves, 2 to 4 grains.

Plummer's pill, 14 to 5 grains.
Mix, and give every night, or every other night.

3.-Iodide of potassium, 2 to 4 grains.

Liquid extract of sarsaparilla, 1 drachm.
Mix, and give in a little water, once or twice a day.

4.—Stinking hellebore, 5 to 10 grains.

Powdered jalap, 2 to 4 grains.
Mix into a bolus, and give every other night.

5.-Cod-liver oil, from a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful. To be given twice a day.


Anodynes are required in the dog chiefly to stop diarrhæa, which is a very common disease in him. Sometimes also they are used for the purpose of relieving spasm. Opium is so little objectionable in the dog that it is almost the only anodyne used ; but the dose must be far larger than for human beings, and less than a teaspoonful of laudanum for an average dog will be found to be wholly inert.

For slight purging :

6.- Prepared chalk, 2 to 3 drachms.

Aromatic confection, 1 drachm.
Laudanum, 3 to 8 drachms.
Powder of gum arabic, 2 drachms.

Water, 7 ounces.
Mix, and give two tablespoonfuls every time the bowels are relaxed.

7.-Castor oil, from a dessert to a tablespoonful.

Laudanum, 1 to 2 drachms.
Mix, and give as a drench, repeating it in a day or two if necessary.
For long standing and severe purgation:

8.-Creasote, 2 drachms.

Laudanum, 6 to 8 drachms.
Prepared chalk, 2 drachms.
Powdered gum arabic, 2 drachms.
Tincture of ginger, 2 drachms.

Pepperment water, 6 ounces.
Mix, and give two tablespoonfuls every time the bowels are relaxed, but

not more often than every four hours.


Are useful in allaying cramp or spasm, but, as in the case of Alteratives, we do not know how they act. The chief are opium, æther, spirit of turpentine, and camphor, prescribed according to the following formulas:


Sulphuric æther, of each i to 1 drachm.

Camphor mixture, 1 ounce.
Mix, and give in any ordinary spasm, as colic, &c.

An antispasmodic injection :


Sulphuric æther,
Spirit of turpentine, of each 1 to 2 drachms.

Gruel, 3 to 8 ounces.
Mix, and inject with a common clyster syringe.


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Aperients, opening medicines, or purges, by which several names this class of medicines is known, are constantly required by the dog, though it is a great mistake to give them when they are not absolutely demanded by the necessity of the case. All act by quickening the ordinary muscular action of the bowels, but some also stimulate the lining membrane to pour out large quantities of watery fluid, and others either directly or indirectly compel the liver to increase its secretion of bile. Hence they are often classed into corresponding divisions, as laxatives, drastic purgatives, &c. The chief of these drugs used in the dog-kennel are aloes, colocynth, rhubarb, jalap, ipecacuanha, senna, calomel, and blue pill, all of which act more or less on the liver; while Epsom salts, castor oil, and croton oil open the bowels without any such effect. Syrup of buckthorn is commonly given, but has little effect; and, indeed, the syrup of red poppies is generally substituted for it by the druggist, who seldom keeps the genuine article, from the belief that it is inert.

A mild bolus :

11.-Barbadoes aloes, 10 to 15 grains.

Powdered jalap, 5 to 8 grains.
Ginger, 2 or 3 grains.

Soap, 10 grains.
Mix into one bolus for a large dog, or divide into two or three for

small ones, and give as required.

Strong bolus :

12.-Calomel, 3 to 5 grains.

Jalap, 10 to 20 grains. Mix with syrup, and give as a bolus.

A good common aperient, when the liver is sluggish:

13.- Podophyllin, $ grain.

Compound extract of colocynth, 12 to 18 grains.
Powdered rhubarb, 3 to 5 grains.

Oil of cloves, 2 drops.
Mix, and give as a bolus to a large strong dog, or divide into two or

three for smaller dogs.

Very strong purgative when there is an obstruction:

14.-Croton oil, 1 to 2 drops.

Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains.

Linseed meal, 10 grains. Mix the meal with boiling water into a thick paste, then add the oil

and spices, and give as a bolus.

Ordinary castor oil mixture:

15.-Castor oil, 3 ounces.

Syrup of buckthorn, 2 ounces.

Syrup of poppies, 1 ounce.
Mix, and give a tablespoonful to a medium-sized dog.

Very strong purgative mixture :

16.—Jalap, 10 grains.

Epsom salts, 2 drachms.
Subcarbonate of soda, 10 grains.
Infusion of senna, 1 ounce.
Tincture of senna, 2 drachms.

Tincture of ginger, 15 drops.
Mix, and give as a drench. For a small dog, give one half, one third, or

one quarter, according to size.

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