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A purgative clyster :

17. – Castor oil, i ounce.

Spirit of turpentine, 2 to 3 drachms.
Common salt, i ounce.

Gruel, 6 to 8 ounces.
Mix all together, and inject carefully per anum.

ASTRINGENTS

Produce contraction in all living tissues with which they are placed in apposition, either directly or by means of absorption into the circulation. Of these, opium, gallic acid, alum, bark, catechu, sulphate of zinc, nitrate of silver, and chloride of zinc are the most commonly used.

An astringent bolus for diabetes or internal hemorrhage :

18. – Gallic acid, 3 to 6 grains.

Alum, 4 to 7 grains.

Purified opium, 1 to 2 grains.
Mix with syrup, and give two or three times a day to a large dog.

or,

19. – Nitrate of silver, 1 grain.

Crumb of bread, enough to make a small pill.
To be given twice a day.

Astringent wash for the eyes :

20.-Sulphate of zinc, 5 to 8 grains.

Water, 2 ounces. - Mis.

or,

21. — Extract of goulard, 1 drachm.

Water, 1 ounce. - Mix.

or,
22. — Nitrate of silver, 2 to 6 grains.

Distilled water, 1 ounce. - Mix.

Wash for the penis :

23. — Chloride of zinc, 1 to 2 grains.

Water, 1 ounce. -Mix.

Astringent application for piles :

24. — Gallic acid, 10 grains.

Extract of goulard, 15 drops.
Powdered opium, 15 grains.

Lard, 1 ounce.
Mix, and apply night and morning.

BLISTERS

Are not often used for the dog, because unless he has a proper muzzle on he will lick them off, and injure himself very materially. Sometimes, however, as in inflammation of the lungs, they are absolutely necessary. Iodine blisters to reduce local swellings may often be applied with a bandage over them, but even then, unless there is a muzzle on, the dog soon gets the bandage off, and uses his tongue. The chief are cantharides, turpentine, sulphuric acid, mustard, ammonia, tincture of iodine, and biniodide of mercury; the last two having some peculiar effect in producing absorption of any diseased substance lying beneath. In all cases the hair ought to be cut off as closely as possible.

A mild blister:

25. - Powdered cantharides, 5 or 6 drachms.

Venice turpentine, 1 ounce.
Lard, 4 ounces.

Mix, and rub in.

Strong blister:

26. -- Strong mercurial ointment, 4 ounces.

Oil of origanum, 1 ounce.
Finely powdered euphorbium, 3 drachms.
Powdered cantharides, 1 ounce. — Mix.

Very quick blister:

27. – Flour of mustard, 4 ounces.

Spirit of turpentine, 1 ounce.

Strong liquor of ammonia, 1 ounce.
Mix the mustard with water into a paste, then add the other ingredients

and rub in.

For bony growths or other tumours :

28. — Tincture of Iodine.
Painted on every day, by means of a common painter's brush.

or,

29. -- Biniodide of mercury, 1 to 13 drachms.

Lard, 1 ounce.
Mix, and rub in a piece the size of a nutmeg every day, keeping the

part wet with tincture of arnica, š ounce, mixed with half a pint of water.

CAUSTICS.

This name is given to substances which either actually or potentially destroy the living tissue; the actual cautery is an iron heated in the fire, the potential of some chemical substance, such as corrosive sublimate, lunar caustic, caustic potash, a mineral acid, or the like. The actual cautery, or firing, is not often used for the dog, but in some cases it is of great service. Both kinds are used for two purposes : one to relieve the effects of strains, and other injuries of the limbs, by which the ligaments are inflamed; and the other to remove diseased growth, such as warts, fungus, &c.

30. Firing, when adopted for the dog, should be carried out with a very

small thin-edged iron, as the dog's skin is thin, and very liable to slough. No one should attempt this without experience or previously

watching others. 31. -- Lunar caustic, or nitrate of silver, is constantly required, being very

manageable in the hands of any person accustomed to wounds, &c. 32. —- Sulphate of copper, or bluestone, is much milder than the lunar caustic,

and may be freely rubbed into the surface of fungus or proud flesh.

It is very useful in ulcerations about the toes. 33. — Fused potass is not fit for any one but the experienced surgeon. 34. — Corrosive sublimate in powder may be applied, carefully and in very

small quantities, to warts, and then washed off. It is apt to extend

its effects to the surrounding tissues. 35.-- Yellow orpiment is not so strong as corrosive sublimate, and may be

used in the same way. 36. - Burnt alum and white sugar, in powder, act as mild caustics.

CHARGES.

Charges are plasters which act chiefly by mechanical pressure, being spread on while hot, and then covered with tow. They are not much used among dogs, but in strains they are sometimes useful, as they allow the limb to be used without injury. The best for the dog is composed as follows:

37.-Canada balsam, 2 ounces.

Powdered arnica leaves, ounce. Melt the balsam, and mix up with the powder, with the addition of a little

turpentine, if necessary. Then smear over the part, and cover with tow, which is to be well matted in with the hand; or use thin leather.

CORDIALS.

Warm stimulating stomachics are so called. They may be given either as a ball or a drench.

Cordial ball :

38.- Powdered caraway seeds, 10 to 15 grains.

Ginger, 3 to 5 grains.
Oil of cloves, 2 drops.
Linseed meal, enough to make a ball, first mixing it with

boiling water. Cordial drench :

39.— Tiucture of cardamoms, 1 to 1 drachm.

Sal volatile, 15 to 30 drops.
Tincture of cascarilla, 1 to 1 drachm.
Camphor mixture, 1 02.-Mix.

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