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For this purpose, however, it is generally only necessary to keep up the dog's head, as he will not readily vomit without bringing his nose to the ground, and so it is the regular practice in large kennels, in giving a dose of physic, to put the couples on, and fasten them up to a hook, at such a height that the dog cannot lower his head, maintaining this position for two or three hours. A single dog may be watched, if such is preferred, but a lot of hounds in physic must be treated with less ceremony.
THE DOG’S SYSTEM RESEMBLES THAT OF MAN.
The effects of remedies on the dog are nearly the same as on man, so that any one who understands how to manage himself may readily extend his sphere of usefulness to the dog. On the other hand, horses require a very different treatment, which accounts for the ignorance of the diseases of the dog so often displayed by otherwise clever veterinary surgeons, who have confined their attention to the more valuable animal. Some remedies affect the dog differently, however ; thus laudanum, which is a very dangerous drug in human medicine, rarely does harm to the canine species, and treble the dose which is enough for a man will be required for the dog. On the other hand, calomel is quite the reverse, being extremely liable to produce great irritation on the lining membrane of the dog's stomach and bowels.
MODE OF GIVING A BOLUS OR PILL.
If the dog is small, take him on the lap, without harshness, and if inclined to use his claws tie a coarse towel round his neck, letting it fall down in front, which will muffle them effectually ; then with the finger and thumb of the left hand press open the mouth by insinuating them between the teeth, far enough back to take in the cheeks, and so to compel the mouth to open from the pain given by the pressure against the teeth, while it also prevents the dog from biting the fingers. Then raising the nose, drop the pill as far back as possible, and push it well down the throat with the forefinger of the right hand. Let go with the left, still hold the nose up, keeping the mouth shut, and the pill is sure to go down. A large dog requires two persons to give a pill, if he is at all inclined to resist. First, back him into a corner, then stride over him, and putting a thick cloth into his mouth, bring it together over the nose, where it is held by the left hand; the right can then generally lay hold of the lower jaw. But if the dog is very obstinate and inclined to resist, another cloth must also be placed over that, and then drawing them apart an assistant can push the pill down. Very often a piece of meat may be used to wrap the pill up in, and the dog will readily bolt it; but sometimes it is desirable to avoid this, as it may be necessary to give the medicine by itself. Even large dogs, however, are seldom so troublesome as to require the above precautions in giving pills, though they almost always obstinately refuse liquid medicine when they have tasted it once or twice.
MODE OF DRENCHING THE DOG.
If a small quantity only is to be given, the dog's head being held, the liquid may be poured through the closed teeth, by making a little pouch of the cheek; but this is a tedious process, as the animal often refuses to swallow it for a long time, and then struggles till half is wasted. A spoon answers for small quantities, but for larger a soda-water bottle is the best instrument. Then, having the dog held on either of the plans recommended in the last paragraph, pour a little down, and shut the mouth, which is necessary, because the act of swallowing cannot be performed with it open. Repeat this till all is swallowed. Then watch the dog, or tie his head up, till it is clear that the medicine will be retained on the stomach.
CLYSTERS, OR INJECTIONS.
When the bowels are very much confined, a pint or two of warm gruel will often be of great service, if thrown up into the rectum. The dog should be placed on his side, and held in this position on a table by an assistant, while the operator passes the pipe carefully up into the rectum, and then pumps the fluid up.
THE APPLICATION OF THE MUZZLE.
When any operation is to be performed which is likely to make the dog use his teeth, he must be muzzled, either with an instrument made on purpose, or with a piece of tape, which is to be first wound round the nose of the dog, as close to the eyes as possible without touching them, then tied in a knot between them, and both ends brought back over the forehead to the collar, where they are to be made fast. When a muzzle is required to be worn by a savage dog, either in-doors or out, it must be so made as to allow of his readily putting his tongue out. For this purpose either a cone of leather pierced with holes, or of wire, is strapped on by a neck-strap and two or three short side-straps.
Simple Ephemeral Fever, or Cold. – Epidemic Fever, or Influenza. – Typhus
Fever, or Distemper. - Rheumatic Fever. – Small-Pox. – Sympathetic Fever.
The dog is peculiarly liable to febrile attacks, which have always a tendency to put on a low form, very similar in its nature to that known as typhus in human medicine. This is so generally the case, that every dog is said to have the distemper at some time of his life, that name being given to this low form of fever. Hence, an attack may commence with a common cold, or any inflammatory affection of the lungs, bowels, &c.; but, this going on to assume the low form, it becomes a case of genuine typhus fever, or distemper. Nevertheless, it does not follow that the one must necessarily end in the other; and so the dog may have simple fever, known as “a cold,” or various other complaints, without being subjected to the true distemper. The fevers occurring in the dog are : 1st, Simple ephemeral fever, commonly called “a cold;" 2nd, Simple epidemic fever, or influenza ; 3rd, Typhus fever, known as Distemper; 4th, Rheumatic fever, attacking the muscular and fibrous systems; and, 5thly, Small-pox.