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was present in a greater or less degree ; and in five of which the disease was communicated to other dogs.

If the rabid dog is not molested he will seldom attack any living object; but the slightest obstruction in his path is sufficient to rouse his fury, and he then bites savagely, and in the most unreasoning manner, so as to be wholly uncontrollable by fear of the consequences. The gait, when at liberty, is a long trot, without any deviation from the straight line, except what is compulsory from the nature of the surrounding objects.

The arerage time of the occurrence of rabies after the bite is, in the dog, from three weeks to six months, or possibly even longer; so that a suspected case requires careful watching for at least that time ; but, after three months, the animal suspected to have been bitten may be considered tolerably safe.

The duration of the disease is about four or five days, but I have myself known a case fatal in forty-eight hours.

As there has never yet been discovered a cure for rabies, so the best plan in all cases is to destroy the dog as soon as he is clearly shown to exhibit the disease. In the interval he should be secluded in a safe place, where he cannot possibly get at any living animal.


Resembling rabies in some degree, tetanus differs from it in the absence of any affection of the brain, the senses remaining perfect to the last. It is not common with the dog; and, when it does manifest itself, is generally produced by a severe injury, and shows itself in the form known as “lock-jaw.” Hence in France it is known as mal de cerf, from its supervening upon wounds from the horns of that animal. It consists in spasmodic rigidity of certain muscles, alternately with relaxation; but the stiffness continuing for some length of time, and not appearing and disappearing as quickly as in cramp. If the tetanic spasm affects the muscles of the jaw, the state is called “lock-jaw.” When it seizes on all the muscles of the back, the body is drawn into a bow, the head being brought nearly close to the tail. Sometimes the contraction is of one side only, and at others of the muscles of the belly, producing a bow in the opposite direction to that alluded to above. These various conditions exactly resemble the contractions produced by the poison of strychnine; so that when they occur, as the disease is extremely rare, it is fair to suspect that poison has been used. Nevertheless, it should be known that they were witnessed long before this poison was in use; and, therefore, they may arise independently of it.

The successful treatment of tetanus is a hopeless affair, if the case is clearly established. Purgatives and bleeding may be tried, followed by chloroform, which will always relieve the spasm for the time; but, as it returns soon after the withdrawal of the remedy, no good is likely to accrue from its use. Excepting in the case of very valuable or highly valued dogs,' I should never advise any remedies being tried, and the most humane course is at once to put the poor animal out of his misery, the spasms being evidently of a most painful nature.


Is more frequently seen in the dog than tetanus; but, nevertheless, is by no means common. It consists in some obscure affection of the brain, resembling the “gid” of sheep, and most probably produced from the same cause, namely, from the presence of a hydatid. (See Worms, Chap. V.) The dog has no fit, but keeps continually turning round and round, and at last dies worn out. It is most commonly met with in high-bred puppies, whose constitutions are of great delicacy; and I have known a whole litter carried off, one after the other, in this way. As far as I know, no remedy is of any avail; but bleeding, blistering, and purgatives are said to have restored some few cases. The seton, also, has been recommended, and is, in my opinion, more likely than any other remedy to produce a cure, taking care to keep the strength supported against the lowering effects of this remedy.


Ophthalmia, or simple inflammation of the eyes, is very common in the dog, especially in the latter stages of distemper, when the condition of this organ is often apparently hopeless ; though a little patience will show that no mischief eventually occurs. On more than one occasion I have saved puppies from a watery grave, whose eyes were said to be hopelessly gone; but without any remedy being applied locally, and simply by attending to the general health, the organ has recovered its transparency, and the sight has become as good as ever. The appearance of this form, as seen in distemper, consists in an unnatural bluish redness of “ the white” of the eye, together with a film over the transparent part, which may or may not show red vessels spreading over it. There is great intolerance of light, with a constant watering; and, if the eye is opened by force, the dog resists most strenuously, giving evidence of pain from exposure to the rays of the sun. This state resembles the “strumous ophthalmia ” of children, and may be treated in the same way, by the internal use of tonics, the pills (62) being especially serviceable. In the ordinary ophthalmia the “white” of the eye is of a brighter red, and the lids are more swollen, while the discharge is thicker, and the intolerance of light is not so great. The treatment here which is most likely to be of service is of the ordinary lowering kind, exactly the reverse of that indicated above. Purgatives, low diet, and sometimes bleeding, will be required, together with local washes, such as (55) or (56). If the eyes still remain covered with a film, a seton may be inserted in the back of the neck with advantage, and kept open for two or three months.

Cataract may be known by a whiteness more or less marked in the pupil, and evidently beneath the surface of the eye, the disease consisting in an opacity of the lens, which is situated behind the pupil. It may occur from a blow, or as the result of inflammation, or from hereditary tendency. No treatment is of any use.

In amaurusis the eye looks clear, and there is no inflammation ; but the nerve is destroyed, and there is partial or total blindness. It may be known by the great size of the pupil.


From high feeding generally, and exposure to the weather, many dogs (especially of a sporting kind) contract an inflammation of the membrane or skin lining the ear. This produces irritation, and the dog shakes his head continually, which together with the tendency to spread externally, causes an ulceration of the tips of the ears of those dogs, such as the hound, pointer, setter, spaniel, &c., which have these organs long and pendulous. Hence, the superficial observer is apt to confine his observation to this external ulceration, and I have even known the tips of the ears

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