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inquirer, it is well to have a good ground to start from. The generation of parasites is at all times of great interest, but, with reference to the Entozoa, there is so much still unknown, that the natural historian who would be able to throw light on this branch of his favourite study would deserve the thanks of those who, while they take an equal interest in it with himself, have not the opportunity, or perhaps the industry, which he possesses.
The symptoms of the presence of worms in the dog should be carefully noted and anxiously looked for, if the health of the animal is of any importance. They are, an unhealthy appearance of the coat, the hair looking dead and not lying smoothly and evenly ; appetite ravenous in proportion to the condition, which is generally low, though worms may exist for months without interfering much with the presence of fat. After a time, however, the fat of the body is absorbed, and the muscles, without being firm and prominent, are marked with intervening lines from its absence. The fæces are passed frequently and in small quantities, the separate passage of a small quantity of mucus each time being particularly indicative of worms, especially if there is first a solid lump, and then a small portion of frothy mucus. The spirits also are dull, the nose hot and dry, and the breath offensive. These signs are only present to the full extent when the dog is troubled with tape-worm, or with the round-worm in large quantities; the maw-worm being only slightly injurious in comparison with the others, and seldom producing the whole of the above train of symptoms. The kidney-worm, of course, has no effect upon the intestinal secretions, but it produces bloody urine, more or less mixed with pus. Still, as these are often present without this worm, it is impossible to predict its existence during life, with any degree of certainty. When worms are suspected, in order to distinguish the species, it is better to give a dose of calomel and jalap (16), unless the doy is very weakly, when the areca nut may be substituted (65); and then, by watching the fæces, the particular worm may be detected and the treatment altered accordingly.
The expulsion of the worms is the proper method of treatment in all cases, taking care afterwards to prevent their regeneration, by strengthening the system, and by occasional doses of the medicine suited to remove the worm in question. All vermifuges act as poisons to the worms themselves, or as mechanical irritants; the former including the bulk of these medicines, and the latter powdered glass and tin as well as cowhage. These poisons are all more or less injurious to the dog, and in spite of every precaution fatal results will occur after most of them ; even the areca nut, innocent as it is said to be, having occasionally nearly destroyed the life of valuable dogs under careful superintendence. There is a wonderful difference in the power of resisting the action of remedies in certain individuals of the dog tribe, as well as in the worms themselves ; so that whereas in some instances a remedy may clear a dog easily without the slightest ill effect upon him, in another, apparently under the very same circumstances of health and strength, remedy and dose, a fatal result, or nearly so, shall be produced, and even without bringing away the worms. Hence there is always some little risk in conducting the removal of these troublesome parasites, which directly and indirectly cause more
deaths than all other diseases put together; the former by their own prejudicial effects, and the latter from the abuse of the powerful drugs which are employed.
The following list of remedies against the various worms is inserted :
For round and maw-worms :
Betel nut (Nut areca).
Spirit of turpentine (Spiritus terebinthinæ).
The areca nut was first recommended in this country as a vermifuge about ten years ago, by Major Besant, who had seen it used in India for that purpose. Since that time it has been very generally adopted, and appears to answer the purpose remarkably, well, if it is frequently used, and dependence is not placed on a single dose. It should be given every week or ten days, for six or seven times, if the round-worm is present; but two or three doses occasionally given will suffice for the maw-worm. Six or eight hours afterwards, a dose of castor oil should be given. The dose of the freshly powdered areca nut is about two grains to every pound of the dog's weight. Thus a dog of 30 lbs. will take one drachm, or half an average nut. The powder should be merely the nut roughly grated with a coarse “grater ;” and it should be quickly mixed with some good broth, thickened with oatmeal, and given before the bitter taste is extracted by soaking, after which the dog will not voluntarily take it.
Stinking hellebore is very innocent, and even useful in other ways. The dose for a 30 lbs. dog is five or six grains mixed up with eight or ten of jalap, and formed into a bolus, to be given every five or six days.
Indian pink is a very powerful vermifuge ; but it also occasionally acts very prejudicially on the dog; and it must never be given without knowing the risk which is incurred. I have myself used it in numberless instances without injury; but its employment has so frequently been followed by fatal results in other hands that I cannot do otherwise than caution my readers against it. How, or why, this has been, I have never been able to ascertain ; but, that it is so, I have no doubt whatever. If it is determined to use it, half an ounce of the drug, as purchased, should be infused in half a pint of boiling water; and of this infusion, after straining it, from a table-spoonful to two table-spoonfuls should be given to the dog, according to size, followed by a dose of oil.
Calomel is a powerful expellant, but it also is attended with danger. The dose is from three to five grains, mixed with jalap. (See 12, page 346.)
Wormwood may be given with advantage to young puppies, being mild in its operation ; but I do not believe it to be as generally useful as the areca nut. The dose is from ten to thirty grains, in syrup or honey.
Santonine is an admirable remedy, when it can be procured in a pure state. The brown is the best, of which from one half to three grains is the dose, mixed with from five to fifteen grains of jalap, and given at intervals of a week.
Couchage, poudered tin, and glass, all act by their mechanical irritation, and may be given without the slightest fear at any time. The first should be mixed with treacle, and a tea-spoonful or two given occasionally. The second and third are better mixed with butter, the dose being as much as can be heaped upon a shilling.
Spirit of turpentine is without doubt the most efficacious of all worm medicines ; but, if not given with care, it is apt to upset the health of the dog, by irritating the mucous membrane of the alimentary canal, and of the kidneys also. I am satisfied, however, that it is not necessary to give it in its undiluted form, and that by mixing it with oil its dangerous qualities are altogether suppressed. I have known young puppies, under two months of age, cleared of worms without the slightest injury, by giving them from three to ten drops, according to their size, in a tea-spoonful of oil. The old plan was to tie up the turpentine in a piece of bladder, which is then to be given as a bolus; but this is either broken in the throat, causing suffocation by getting into the windpipe, or it is dissolved in the stomach, which is then irritated by the almost caustic nature of the turpentine. The ordinary dose given in this