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prosecute his researches to some purpose. The more remarkable eminences are-Cleeve Cloud, or Cleeve Hill, near Cheltenham, 1081 feet; Leckhampton Hill, 978; Birdlip Hill, 969; Painswick Hill, 929 ; Breedon Hill, 919; and Stinchcomb Hill, 725. The principal rivers are the Severn, Wye, Upper and Lower Avon and Thames. The vale districts are remarkable for their fertility, and for the early maturity of their agricultural produce. The Cotswold Hills are noted for their fine breed of sheep.
The early history of Gloucestershire is soon told. It is generally agreed that its name is derived from Caer Glowe, signifying the “fair city," which was originally applied to the county town. Under the Roman sway the county was divided, one portion being included in the province of Britannia Prima, whilst the remainder formed part of Britannia Secunda. The City of Gloucester, then designated Glevum, was an important military station, and Cirencester was the principal city, as appears from the great quantity of Roman remains in its vicinity. These divisions of the county were broken up by Constantine, and the whole included in the province called Flavia Cæsariensis. Under the Saxon sway Gloucester was included in the kingdom of Mercia. Before the Norman invasion the people of this county were distinguished for their prowess and bravery in arms, and were remarkable for the share they took in the subjugation of Wales. When the Conqueror came over, he pursued here the same policy as in other parts of the kingdom, dispossessing many of the old Saxon nobility and bestowing their estates on his followers. The more noted of the old Saxons are mentioned in connection with their castles and manors in other parts of this work. This county had its share of the commotions and troubles of subsequent times. At Berkeley Castle King Edward II. was murdered (1327); and at a later date (1471) Tewkesbury is noted in history as the scene of a sanguinary battle between the houses of York and Lancaster, in which the Lancastrians were defeated, and the youthful Prince Edward, with his mother Margaret, taken prisonersthe former being soon after cruelly murdered by the Duke of Gloucester (afterwards Richard III.) and his brother the Duke of Clarence. During the unhappy reign of Charles I. very many skirmishes were fought in this county by the contending parties, especially at Bristol, Cirencester, Gloucester, and Tewkesbury. The latter place was on more than one occasion garrisoned for the king, but by some means lost. The history of subsequent times has not presented many outstanding facts of importance, being mostly occupied with the details of the growth of the cloth manufacture and other branches of industry. A dreadful riot occurred at Bristol in the year 1831, amid the Reform Bill excitement, resulting in the destruction of an immense amount of property.
Gloucestershire has numerous remains of the work of its earlier inhabitants. There are British barrows and fortifications in various parts of the county ; in some places, as at Cirencester, occupied and altered by
the Ronians. Various Roman roads pass through the county, and can be traced with tolerable ease in parts of their course. The chief of these are-Ikenild Street, entering the county at Eastleach, and proceeding westward to Cirencester and Aust Passage, the Trajectus Augusti of Ptolemy; Ermin Street, supposed to have led from Caerleon, in Monmouthshire, to Gloucester, then to Cirencester and Cricklade, whence it passed onwards to Southampton ; the Foss Way, entering the county at Lemington and passing through Moreton-inthe-Marsh to Stow-on-the-Wold, and thence pretty well marked near Northleach, crossing the Coln at Foss Bridge, and joining Ikenild Street a little to the east of Cirencester. In some of the oldest churches in the county antiquarians profess to find Saxon work; but though they are possibly right in one or two cases, there can be no doubt that most of the rude early circular architecture which they claim as Saxon is Early Norman. Of this order of architecture there are numerous beautiful examples in the cathedrals of Gloucester and Bristol, the Abbey Church of Tewkesbury, the Castle of Berkeley, etc. Subsequent styles are well represented by various other churches and castles.
Many eminent persons were born in this county. The Lords de Berkeley, and other early proprietors of castles and manors, acquitted themselves for the most part as good soldiers of the king and pious sons of the church. Their history is given with much prolixity by the old county historians, but contains nothing of sufficient importance to be reproduced here. The following are some of the chief names, taken chronologically:Robert of Gloucester, a rhyming chronicler in the latter part of the 11th century ; Alexander Ales, or Hales, the “ Irrefragable Doctor," died 1245; Edward Fox, bishop of Hereford, “the principal pillar of the Reformation as to the managery of the political and prudential part thereof,” died 1538; Sebastian Cabot, first discoverer of America, 1477-1557 ; Sir Ralph Butler, Lord Treasurer of England in the reign of Henry VI. ; Sir William Winter, Vice-Admiral of England, who rendered various gallant services against the French and Spanish, died about the end of the 16th century; Sir Thomas Overbury, an elegant miscellaneous writer, poisoned in the Tower of London through the machinations of the Earl of Rochester, 1613; Sebastian Benefield, an eminent divine, 1559-1630 ; William Cartwright, poet, 1611-1643 ; John Taylor, the water poet, 1580-1654 ; Edward Fisher, author of the Marrow of Modern Divinity—a work, the republication of which excited a fierce controversy, called the “Marrow Controversy," in the Church of Scotland—died about the middle of the 17th century ; Clement Barksdale, author of a Life of Grotius, and many other works, 1609-1687 ; Sir Robert Atkyns, author of a History of Gloucestershire, 16211711; Thomas Chatterton, the poet, 1752-1770; John Lightfoot, the distinguished botanist, died 1788; Robert Southey, the poet, 1774-1843; and Rev. John Eagles, the “sketcher,” 1784-1855.
The area of Gloucestershire is 805,102 statute acres, and the population 485,770 ; being 229,009 males, and 256,761 females. There are 92,831 inhabited houses ; 4701 uninhabited ; and 559 building. The increase since last census has been 26,965 persons, or 6 per cent. The total increase since 1801 is 94 per cent. The parliamentary representation consists of 15 members, of these 4 are returned by the county at large, 2 for each of the cities of Gloucester and Bristol, and 2 for each of the towns of Cirencester, Tewkesbury, and Stroud, and 1 for the borough of Cheltenham. Ecclesiastically this county is within the province of Canterbury and diocese of Gloucester and Bristol. It is divided into twenty-eight hundreds, possesses 2 cities, 28 market-towns, and about 350 parishes.
The principal manufactures are :-Woollen cloths, occupying 2655 males, and 3765 females ; silk, 193 males 923 females ; cotton, 323 males, 480 females ; calico printing and dyeing, 6 males, 390 females ; flax, 58 males, 68 females. The farmers are 3910 males and 266 females ; and the agricultural labourers, 24,536 males and 2555 females, exclusive of 887 indoor female servants in farm-houses. There are 2639 coal miners, 5 copper miners, 319 iron miners, and 205 miners whose special work is not stated. Of manufactures in metals-Iron employs 606 men; boilers, 176; nails, 285 ; ships, boats, and their appurtenances employ 719 men ; and there are 2224 seamen. 8049 women are milliners, 2175 shirtmakers, 2115 tailors, and 1730 bootmakers.
The county is traversed, and communication afforded with all parts of the kingdom, by the lines of the Great Western and Midland Railways, both of which are admirably conducted.