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are the science course, the art course, and the philosophy course.

The Three Sub-courses.-(1) The science course begins with mathematics as the necessary basis of all, passes upward through mechanics, physics, chemistry, biology and geology to complete itself—in that most complex and important of all sciences--that science to which all others are subsidiary, and without which all others are comparatively valueless—the science of sociology-of social organization and social progress. (2) The art course, including all modes of embodying thought and feeling. It commences with language, passses upward through literature, fine art, history (for history is but the continuous embodiment of the national thought), and, through philosophical history, leads up to and connects again from another side with sociology. (3) The philosophy course commences with logic, passes upward through philosophy propermental and moral-and again leads up to and connects from still another side within the all-embracing subject of sociology. These three courses, commencing below, far apart, converge as they arise, until they meet where all human knowledge and human effort ought to meet-on the lofty plane of sociology, and together form the beautiful triune arch of perfect culture.

Correlative Function.-Each of these, besides its general function of cultivating all the faculties, has its own characteristic function in an organized scheme-has some peculiar excellence not possessed in the same degree by the others. This I call its correlative and characteristic function. Thus the three sub-courses are complementary to one another. Each is perfect in itself, but all more perfect in their union.

The characteristic function of the science course is a cultivation of an intense love of truth for its own sake as the very aliment on which the mind lives and grows, a reverential worship of truth as the image of God in the human reason, and the diligent practice in the sure methods


by which truth is obtained. It gives certain, verifiable truth-little by little, like daily bread-coarse food it may be, too coarse for some delicate stomachs and vitiated appetites; but abundant and wholesome, and contributive to healthy growth. The process of gathering crumb by crumb may be slow, too slow for some nimble-witted spirits, but we are sure they are genuine crumbs from the Master's table, and are content.

The characteristic function of the philosophy course is first of all, and most important of all, that it alone gives the rational grounds of the validity of all knowledge, the firm foundations of belief, the meaning of existence, and the significance of human life. It gives, moreover, intellectual activity and enthusiasm by virtue of the nobleness of its subjects, and at the same time skill, dexterity, and keenness by virtue of the subtleness of the phenomena with which it deals. Its methods are less certain, its truths less verifiable, its food less substantial than the last. Food for the gods it may be, but for that very reason less easy of digestion and assimilation by our human stomachs. But, being food for the gods, it reminds us of what we are too apt to forget-that we too are ourselves sons of God.

The characteristic function of the language-art course is so clear that it is unnecessary to dwell upon it. It is the sensible embodiment of all truth, whether furnished by science or philosophy,--the cultivation of the power of expression, of turning thought and feeling into sensible forms, the sensible embodiment of our inner states in beautiful forms of speech, writing, painting, sculpture, music; in a word, the cultivation of the power of incarnating the human spirit. Food must be properly prepared before it can be asssimilated. It is the function of the language-art course to teach this intellectual cookery.

Their Coördinate Value.-The coördinate value of these correlative functions, and therefore of the three courses, is evident on the least reflection. If there be any doubt at all in the minds of some, it will be in regard to the language-art




course, which too many regard as a mere embellishment with little of what they call practical use. I stop a moment to enforce its equal value.

There are two general activities of the mind concerned in every accomplished work of man, viz., the faculty of thought and the faculty of expression-the faculty of conception and the faculty of execution. These two are linked as closely as soul and body. Even our most silent thinking embodies itself in unuttered words. Language is as characteristic of man as is reason. If language is conditioned on rational thought, so is rational thought on language. If strong, clear thinking clothes itself in strong, clear words, so does the effort to make expression clear and strong react on the thinking to make it clearer and stronger. But aside from this reactive effect of language and art on thought, our thoughts and our knowledge are not given us for ourselves alone, but also and mainly for others, i.e., in order to influence for good our fellow-men; and this, of course, is impossible, except by sensible embodiment. There are two laws of the intellectual as of the moral world—the law of receiving and the law of giving. By the one law we reach up toward the fountain of all truth to receive it into our bosoms as the image of God in the human reason; by the other we reach downward and outward, to distribute freely to our fellow-men. If giving is conditioned on receiving, so also is receiving conditioned on, and in proportion to, our giving. Our best thoughts, feelings, and imaginings "die heart-stified,” unless poured forth in appropriate expression.

Thus, a perfect symmetric culture may be likened to a grand temple with center building and two wings, each consisting of many stories, one above another; each complete in itself, but all uniting to form a whole far more complete and beautiful.

All I have thus far said belongs, not to the university proper, but to a preparation therefor. All our American institutions of higher learning combine college courses with

university courses. Now, all I have said thus far concerns a general culture, and therefore belongs to the college. The distinctive function of the university proper is not primarily culture, but preparation for active life; not a lifting to a high intellectual plane alone, but to prepare for efficient activity those lifted to that plane. The University is essentially a cluster of professional schools unified by the general course still continuing, although the general course itself assumes now a new significance, viz., that of preparation for active life in the highest field; that of original research and thought. Of the educational tree, the schools are the roots, the college the stately trunk, and the university the beautiful cluster of fruit-bearing branches firmly united with the continuing trunk. In an institution of mixed character like our American universities, therefore, the university proper consists essentially of the courses leading to higher degrees or what we call post-graduate courses.

The most essential characteristic of the university is research, research, and still ever research. The very spirit of the university, as distinguished from the college, is the spirit of independent thought-work, and thereby a preparation for the profession of original investigation in the field of nature and the field of thought. An institution is a university only in proportion as this spirit prevails. The object of a university is not instruction and training only, but also and mainly original work. The students not only learn, but are co-workers with the teachers. The workshops of these thought-workers are the laboratories and the library. Of the educational tree this is the trunk continuing through the clustering branches, greater than all, up-bearing and nourishing all, and giving dignity and beauty to all.

As already said, the three sub-courses described above, although they continue in the university proper, continue for a different purpose; no longer for culture primarily, but for preparation for life: and each of them leads most naturally to a distinct group of professions, each group having evolved out of one of the three traditional so-called liberal professions of Medicine, Law, and Theology; but now greatly expanded in each case.

The science course has always naturally led to the medical profession. It does so still; but now also to the scientific professions; to engineering of many kinds, to practical chemistry, and to scientific agriculture. The language-art course has always led to the law. It does so still; but now also to letters, journalism, and politics. The philosophy course has always led most naturally to the clerical profession. It does so still; but now also unites with the language-art course in preparation for law, letters, and politics.

The absolute necessity of the continuation of the educational course beyond the college is evident. If education be given for culture only, and that culture be carried only to the college plane, so far from fitting, it often actually unfits for practical life. The continuance of the pure culture life carries the student farther and farther away from the practical life. The special professional courses are intended to bridge this ever-widening chasm. The general culture may indeed be continued, if the student so desires, into the university. In that case it prepares for the highest, the noblest of all professions, the profession of the scholar, scientific investigator, philosophical thinker and writer, the leader of thought. Many we hope, will choose this highest profession. But knowledge in every department has so increased and become so exact that mere general culture is no longer enough. Special culture and special knowledge is absolutely necessary for success, and becoming more and more so every year.

The main object of the university must therefore ever be to furnish such special culture in many departments. This is especially true in that department where knowledge is most extensive and most exact; and where, therefore, the field of research and of professional activity is most subdivided, viz., in science. Therefore, in addition to the general culture which must remain as the supporting trunk and

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