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State superintendent to those holding a first-grade certificate who have taught twenty-four months or more (eight within the State) successfully under a firstgrade certificate and shall also pass in geometry, trigonometry, physics, zoology, botany, rhetoric, English literature, mental science, and general history, and the subjects required for a first-grade certificate, and make an average of 85 and of 60 or more in any subject; it holds for five years. Any teacher holding a State certificate who has taught successfully in a high school in this State for the period of thirty months may be granted a life certificate without further examination, if indorsed by three persons holding State certificates as possessing eminent teaching ability, but special life certificates may be granted eminently successful kindergarten or primary teachers who have taught three years, only good, however, for those departments. Second and third grade certificates are good only in the county where issued, but a first-grade certificate may be indorsed by the superintendent of any county. Two examinations are held annually, and applicants for first, second, or third grade are examined by county superintendents. The county board appoints three teachers having the highest grade certificates to grade the papers, each to receive $2 per diem and a mileage of 5 cents.
Teachers are required to inculcate the moral and personal virtues, to prevent defacement of school property, to avoid severe and degrading punishments, to suspend pupils, and to hold a public examination.
Preliminary training.–One white male or female student from each senatorial district in the State shall be admitted to all the rights and privileges of the literary and classical departments of the Florida normal school and business institute, the appointment to be made by the senator of the district. The normal school for colored pupils, organized on the same plan as that for whites, is also under the control of the State board of education.
Meetings.—The State superintendent and the county school boards are authorized to hold teachers' institutes.
Attendance.-Character of instruction.—Text-books.—Buildings. (A law of 1895 makes it punishable by a fine or imprisonment to admit persons of either color into the same school, whether “public, private, or parochial,” when sustained by any individual body, association, or corporation.)
Attendance.- White and colored children shall not be taught in the same school. Schools must be taught at least four months in each year, and be open to all children 6 to 21 years of age. Any county neglecting to maintain schools shall forfeit its proportion of the common-school fund.
Character of instruction.—[The subjects taught in the schools may be inferred from the subjects of the third grades of certificates granted teachers. See Teachers, Appointment and qualifications.] The county board of public instruction shall do whatever is necessary for grading and classifying the pupils and providing separate schools for the separate classes and for establishing, when required by the patrons, higher grades of instruction when the number competent to pursue them is sufficient.
Text-books.-No public official or teacher shall receive any private fee, donation, or compensation of any kind in any manner for the introduction or exchange of any schoolbook, on penalty of fine of not fewer than $50 or imprisonment not fewer than thirty days.
Buildings. The county board of education shall provide a site for each school, with not less than one-half an acre in the rural districts and as nearly as large as may be in villages and cities, the situation to be dry, airy, healthful, and pleasant and reasonably central, and to erect, rent, furnish, and repair schoolhouses and their appurtenances.
4. FINANCES. Funds (permanent and special).—Taxation. Funds (permanent and special).—The proceeds of all lands that have been or may hereafter be granted to the State by the United States for public school purposes, unspecified donations to the State, State appropriations, escheated property and forfeitures, and 25 per cent of the sales of public lands which are now or may hereafter be owned by the State shall be the State school fund, the interest of which shall be applied exclusively to the support and maintenance of free public schools, and apportioned among the counties according to the children 6 to 21 years of age.
Taxation.- A special tax of 1 mill on the dollar shall be apportioned annually for the support of public schools among the counties, according to the children 6 to 21 years of age. Each county shall be required to assess and collect annually for the sapport of public free schools a tax of not fewer than 3 nor more than 5 mills. In special districts an additional tax of not more than 3 mills may be raised.
1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM. State superintendent of education.-County superintendent.--County educational
board (of examiners).—Township superintendent. State superintendent of education. There shall be elected biennially a State superintendent of education, at a salary of $2,250 per annum, who shall give bond with sureties in the sum of $15,000. He shall have an office at the capital, where the records of his office shall be kept open to all interested and where he shall give attendance when not absent on official business. He may employ a clerk at a salary of $1,500. His duties shall be to improve and to exercise a general supervision over all the educational interests of the State, and, more specifically, he shall require school officers to report on matters relating to the educational fund, on the condition of schools and the management thereof, and in case of noncompliance may remove the offender. He shall, as far as practicable, visit every county in the State for the purpose of inspection of the condition of the schools and of the accounts of the local officers, and for the purpose of diffusing information regarding the importance of public schools, shall encourage and assist in organizing and conducting teachers' institutes, shall apportion the educational fund, prepare and distribute all forms and books required by officers or teachers, shall keep a debtor and creditor account with each township or other school district in the State of all funds accruing thereto for educational purposes, shall institute sait for the recovery of money belonging to the educational fund, shall require and supervise the collection of all poll taxes, shall elicit information regarding school affairs outside of the State, print and distribute the laws, and shall report annually to the governor in writing, giving a brief account of his labors, an abstract of the reports from the county superintendents, estimates and accounts of expenditures of school money, an itemized account showing the disbursement of the contingent and other funds under his control, and such other matters as he may deem expedient.
County superintendent.-Unless elected by the people a county superintendent of education shall be appointed by the State superintendent for each county for a term of two years. The bond of the county superintendent shall be fixed by the State superintendent, but in no case shall it be less than double the amount of public money coming into his hands and must have good and sufficient sureties. He shall receive for his services $75 and 2 per cent per annum upon the amount of all educational moneys disbursed by him. His duties are to be at his office on the first Saturday of each month, from the beginning of the scholastic year until the close of the public schools for that year, to take charge of the moneys coming into his hands for school purposes, and use the same in paying the expenses of the schools, to make an annual report to the State superintendent, under penalty of fine and removal, showing the amount of money received by him from all sources, his disbursements by items, the amount on hand for each race, and the manner in which he has discharged his duties, delivering a duplicate of the same to the county judge of probate, who shall lay it before the county commissioners' court or board of revenue.
County educational board.—(See Teachers, Appointment, etc.)
Township superintendents.-When not elected by the people or appointed under special acts there shall be appointed by the county superintendent a township superintendent for each township (see Schools, Attendance) or other school district, subject to the approval of the State superintendent, who shall serve for two years. He shall have the immediate supervision of the public schools of the township and shall have power to establish, subject to the approval of the county superintendent of education, one or more schools of either race in such township. He shall convene the parents of children of school age and consult with them and with a view to subserve their wishes and interests he shall determine the number of schools which shall be established in his district for the current scholastic year, fix the location of each school and the length of session, apportion the school money to each school according to the children of school age who will probably attend it, shall determine what children shall be transferred to another district, and do such other acts as may carry out the law. He shall within 10 days after the meeting report to the county superintendent the number and location of schools, the names of the teachers employed, and the amount of money apportioned to each school. His decision may be appealed from to the county superintendent. He shall contract with teachers, visit schools, enumerate children every second year by race and sex of school age. He is exempt from road and jury duty and poll tax.
2. TEACHERS. Appointment, qualifications, and duties.- Preliminary training.-Meetings. Appointment, qualifications, and duties.-All contracts with teachers must be in writing and shall be approved by the county superintendent to be valid. There shall be three grades of certificates, and every teacher in the public schools must obtain a certificate in one of such grades, but in no case shall an applicant receive a certificate who fails to answer correctly 70 per cent of the questions propounded by the board of examiners.
Every applicant for a teacher's certificate must be examined on the following subjects: For the third grade, in orthography, reading, penmanship, practical arithmetic through fractions, primary geography, and the elementary principles of physiology and hygiene; for the second grade, on all the foregoing subjects, and also in practical arithmetic, history of the United States, English grammar, intermediate geography, and elementary algebra; for the first grade, on all the foregoing subjects, and also in higher algebra, natural philosophy, geometry, and the theory and practice of teaching, but no certificate of the first or second grade shall be granted to any person who has not passed a satisfactory examination in physiology and hygiene with special reference to the effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants, and narcotics upon the human system. A third-grade certificate shall be valid for one year, a second-grade for two years, and a first-grade for three years in the county where issued.
There shall be established in each county of the State an educational board, composed of the county superintendent and two teachers, either in public or private schools of the county, appointed by the superintendent annually. The board shall meet quarterly or oftener and shall examine in writing all applicants to teach in the public schools of the county, each of whom, if licensed, shall pay a fee of $1, to be divided between the two appointed members. A diploma from any chartered institution of learning will entitle the applicant to a license on proof of the other qualifications of a good moral character and
payment of the fee. Every teacher must forward a quarterly report to the county superintendent setting forth the enrollment, the attendance, transferred pupils, the branches taught and the pupils in each, distinguishing by sex, the monthly pay from school revenue from the townships, the number of days taught, and the amount due. Failure to report works forfeiture of pay.
Preliminary training.--[Normal schools are established under special acts and maintained by the State both for white and for colored persons. The schools are under a board of directors and receive from $2,500 to $3,000 and in one case $1,500 annually from the State treasurer. "Graduates shall receive a State certificate from the State superintendent, which will entitle the holder to teach anywhere in the State. )
Meetings.-It shall be the duty of the board of education in each county to organize and maintain therein three teachers' institutes for white and for colored persons, provided there are at least ten licensed teachers of the race in the county holding the institutes. Every teacher holding a license shall be a member, but no fee or assessment shall be imposed on a member without his consent. All per: sons holding license shall attend at least one county institute, the business of which shall be devoted mainly to discussions and instructions in regard to the methods of teaching and disciplining schools and to the text-books and other matters connected with the schools and school laws.
It shall be the duty of the State superintendent to hold or have held within each Congressional district one or more teachers' institutes for one or more weeks during the summer months; and unappropriated money shall be drawn from the State treasury to defray the expenses thereof, but not to exceed $500 in any year nor the amount given for the same purpose by the Peabody Education Fund.
Attendance. --Buildings. Attendance.—The general assembly shall establish, organizo, and maintain a system of public schools throughout the State for children 7 to 21 years, but separate schools shall be provided for children of citizens of African descent. Every
township and fraction of a township which is divided by a State or county line, or river, creek, mountain, or other barrier, and every incorporated city or town having 3,000 inhabitants or more shall constitute a separate school district, and each of them shall be under a township superintendent. The township superintendent shall not establish more than two schools for either race in any township in which the fund of such race does not exceed $50. He shall fix the location of each school, the time of its opening, and the length of the session, which shall not be fewer than twelve weeks.
Buildings.-When but one school is established in a township it shall be located so as to accommodate the largest number of pupils and, to encourage the building of a permanent schoolhouse, as near the center of township as possible.
Funds (permanent or special).—Taxation. Funds (permanent or special).—The interest at 6 per cent on all sums of money which have heretofore been or may hereafter be received by the State as the proceeds of sales of lands granted or intrusted by the United States to the State, or to the several townships thereof; the annual interest at 4 per cent on that part of the surplus revenue deposited with the State by act of Congress, June 23, 1836; all the annual rents, incomes, and profits arising from the proceeds of sales of all such lands as have been or may hereafter be given by the United States, or by this State, and by individuals, for the support of the pablic schools of the State; all such sums as may accrue to the State as escheats; licenses required to be paid into the county school fund, and the sum of $350,000, from any money not otherwise appropriated annually, for the maintenance of schools, together with the specific taxation given below, in the manner there set forth shall be annually appropriated for the maintenance of a system of public schools throughout the State. The State treasurer shall annually set apart $1,000 of any unappropriated money in the treasury as a contingent fund, payable to the order of the department of education.
As soon as the State auditor has certified to the superintendent of education the amount to the credit of the educational fund, including unexpended balance of preceding year, the latter-named officer shall set apart the sum necessary to pay the expenses of the education department and of the normal schools, as fixed by law, and shall then apportion the balance among the several townships and school districts of the State in the following manner: He shall set apart to each township or other school district the amount due from the State as interest on that township or district's 16th section or other trust fund held by the State, and then apportion the remainder to the respective townships according to the latest official returns of the population of school age, according to race.
Taxation.-Each county shall receive as school money all the poil tax collected therein, and each township or other school district is entitled to receive all the poll tax paid by its citizens, the white population receiving what it has paid, the colored the amount paid by it. [The Constitution requires the General Assembly to provide for the collection of an annual poll tax not to exceed $1.50 on each poli, to be applied to the support of public schools.)
All local school funds raised for the support of public schools, by taxation or otherwise, shall be apportioned and expended in the districts in which raised.
1. ORGANIZATION OF THE SYSTEM. State board of education. --State superintendent of education.—County school
board.—County superintendent.--District school trustees. State board of education.-There shall be a board of education consisting of the secretary of state, attorney-general, and superintendent of public education for the management and investment of the school funds, and to regulate all matters arising in the practical administration of the school system. The board may adopt a course of study.
State superintendent of public education.—There shall be a superintendent of public education in each county, who shall be appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, for a term of four years. He shall give bond for $5,000, shall provide a seal, shall have general supervision of the free public schools, and may prescribe such rules and regulations for the efficient organization and conducting the same as he may deem necessary, and shall solicit reports from all public and private educational institutions of the State. He shall preserve all school
books, maps, apparatus, etc., as shall be purchased or donated, apportion semiannually the school fund to the counties and separate school districts. He shall make a biennial report to the legislature showing the receipts and disbursements of the common-school fund, the number of school districts, schools, teachers employed and pupils taught therein, and the attendance of pupils and studies pursued by them, the financial condition of the schools, their receipts and expenditures, value of schoolhouses and property, cost of tuition, and salaries of teachers, the condition, educational and financial, of the normal and higher institutions connected with the school system of the State of the private schools, academies, and colleges, as far as can be ascertained, and, finally, such general matters, information, and recommendations relating to the educational interests as he may deem important.
County school board.—There shall be a county school board, consisting of one member from each supervisor's district, to be appointed for the term of four years by the county superintendent, the appointments to be ratified by the board of supervisors. Their pay shall be $3 for each day's actual service, but they shall not be paid more than $9. The county superintendent shall be president of the board. Its duty shall be to fix the boundaries of school districts or to alter them (separate school districts excepted). In districts containing not more than one chartered institution of learning the board shall locate the public school at the site thereof, all parties consenting, and the public school shall be conducted in accordance with the rules of the chartered institution in so far as they do not conflict with the provisions of the law.
County board of examiners.-Two first-grade teachers, to be appointed annually prior to the fall examination, one by the county school board and one by the board of supervisors, shall, with the county superintendent, constitute an examining board; but a teacher of a normal training school shall not be appointed on the board.
County superintendent of public education.—There shall be a superintendent of education in each county, who shall be appointed by the State board of education, with the advice of the senate, or shall be elected by the people, for a term of four years. He must be a qualified citizen, a resident of the State for four years and of the county for two years immediately preceding his appointment or election, and shall have passed an examination required for a first-grade teacher's certificate, presided over by 3 persons, 2 of whom shall be college graduates or holders of teachers' first-grade licenses. He shall be provided with an office and shall not teach. It shall be his duty to employ teachers recommended by the local trustees. or in case they fail to recommend,
to appoint them offhand, examine their monthly reports when necessary, and require the trustees to certify to them; to fix the pay of teachers; to enforce the course of study and the use of text-books adopted in the county; to enforce the rules in reference to the examination of teachers; to visit schools, and to perform such other duties as may be required of him. If he fail to make a report to the State superintendent he shall be fined $50. He must also report to the county authorities.
District school trustees.-Separate districts shall be made for each race, excluding" separate school districts.” A regular school district as laid off by the county school board shall not contain fewer than 9 square miles nor fewer than 45 educable children of the race for which the district is established, unless natural features of the territory prevent attendance. Under such circumstances 10 educable children are requisite, but when fewer than 5 children attend school it shall be discontinued. For every district there shall be three trustees chosen for three years by the patrons of the school, one to retire annually, vacancies
to be filled by the county superintendent. The trustees select the teacher, or in default the county superintendent acts, scrutinize the census, may suspend or dismiss pupils, and watch over the school property and the interest of the school, making provision for the comfort and welfare of pupils.
Any municipality of 300 or more may be declared a separate school district by an ordinance of the mayor and board of åldermen, if it maintain a free public school for at least seven months; any part of a county or counties adjoining a municipality may be included in its separate school district by a vote of the resident freeholders of the territory to be added and the consent of the municipal authorities.
2. TEACHERS, Appointment, qualifications, and duties.- Preliminary training.-- Meetings. Appointment, qualifications, and duties. No teacher shall be allowed to teach unless licensed, and if the district trustees fail to select a licensed person the county superintendent shall appoint one. Two first-grade teachers, to be appointed annu