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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 437.-2 OCTOBER, 1852.

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Part of an Article from the North British Review. Scott by Burns~a scene which we think Sir' Life of Lord Jeffrey; with a Selection from his William Allan would have delighted to paint. Correspondence. By Lord COCKBURN, one of the The other story, we believe, is now told for the Judges of the Court of Session in Scotland. 2 first time by Lord Cockburn. Somewhere about Vols. Edinburgh, 1852.

the very day on which the foregoing incident hap

pened, little black creature of a boy, we are It was in the winter of 1786-7 that the poet told, who was going up the High Street of EdinBurns, a new prospect having been suddenly opened burgh, and staring diligently about him, was up to him by the kind intervention of Blacklock, attracted by the appearance of a man whom he and a few other influential men in Edinburgh, saw standing on the pavement. He was taking a abandoned his desperate project of emigrating to good and leisurely view of the object of his curiosthe West Indies, and hastened to pay his first and ity, when some one standing at a shop-door tapped memorable visit to the Scottish metropolis. him on the shoulder, and said, " Ay, laddie, ye During that winter, as all who are acquainted with may weel look at that man! that's Robert Burns.” his life know, the Ayrshire ploughinan, then in The little black creature," thus early addicted to his twenty-ninth year, was the lion of Edinburgh criticism, was Francis Jeffrey, the junior of Scott society. Lord Monboddo, Dugald Stewart, Harry by four years, and exactly four years behind him Erskine, Dr. Robertson, Dr. Hugh Blair, Henry in the classes of the High School, where he was Mackenzie, Dr. Gregory, Dr. Black, Dr. Adam known as a clever, nervous little fellow, who never Ferguson—such were the names then most con- lost a place without crying. It is mentioned as a spicuous in the literary capital of North Britain ; curious fact by Lord Cockburn, that Jeffrey's first and it was in the company of these men, alternated teacher at the High School, a Mr. Luke Fraser, with that of the Creeches, the Smellies, the Willie had the singular good fortune of sending forth, Nicols, and other contemporary Edinburgh celeb- from three successive classes of four years each, rities of a lower grade, that Burns first realized three pupils no less distinguished than Walter the fact that he was no mere bard of local note, Scott, Francis Jeffrey, and Henry Brougham. but a new power and magnate in Scottish litera- It is not for the mere purpose of anecdote that ture.

we cite these names and coincidences. We should To those who are alive to the poetry of coinci- like very much to make out for Scotland in general dences, two anecdotes connected with this residence as suggestive a series of her intellectual represenof Burns in Edinburgh will always be specially tatives as Lord Cockburn has here made out for interesting. What reader of Lockhart's Life of part of the pedagogic era of the worthy and long Scott is there who does not remember the account dead Mr. Luke Fraser. Confining our regards to there given of Scott's first and only interview with the eighteenth century, the preceding paragraphs Burns ? As the story is now more minutely told enable us to group together at least three conspicin Mr. Robert Chambers' Life of Burns, Scott, who uous Scottish names as belonging, by right of was then a lad of seventeen, just removed from the birth, to the third quarter of that century, Burns, High School to a desk in his father's office, was born in Ayrshire in 1759 ; Scott, born in Edinburgh invited by his friend and companion, the son of Dr. in 1769 ; and Jeffrey, born in the same place in Ferguson, to accompany him to his father's house 1773. Supposing we go a little further back for on an evening when Burns was to be there. The some other prominent Scottish names of the same two youngsters entered the room, sat down unno- century, the readiest to occur to the memory will ticed by their seniors, and looked on and listened be those of James Thomson, the poet, born in in modest silence. Burns, when he came in, Roxburgshire in 1700 ; Thomas Reid, the philososcemed a little out of his element, and, instead of pher, born near Aberdeen in 1710 ; David Hume, mingling at once with the company, kept going born at Edinburgh in 1711 ; Robertson, the histoabout the room, looking at the pictures on the rian, born in Mid-Lothian in 1721 ; Tobias Smolwalls. One print particularly arrested his atten- lett, the novelist, born at Cardross in the same tion. It represented a soldier lying dead among year ; Adam Smith, born in Kirkaldy in 1723 ; the snow, his dog on one side, and a woman with Robert Fergusson, the Scottish poet, born in Edina child in her arms on the other. Underneath the burgh in 1750; and Dugald Stewart, born at print were some lines of verse descriptive of the Edinburgh in 1753. And, if for a similar purpose, subject, which Burns read aloud with a voice falter- we come down to the last quarter of the century, ing with emotion. A little while after, turning to five names at least will be sure to occur to us, in the company and pointing to the print, he asked addition to that of Brougham-Thomas Campbell, if any one could tell him who was the author of the born at Glasgow in 1777 ; Thomas Chalmers, born lines. No one chanced to know, excepting Scott, at Anstruther, in Fifeshire, in 1780; John Wilson, who remembered that they were from an obscure born, if we may trust our authorities, at Paisley poem of Langhorne's. The information, whis- in 1789 ; Thomas Carlyle, born at Ecclefechan in pered by Scott to some one near, was repeated to Dumfries-shire in 1795; and Sir William HamilBurns, who, after asking a little more about the ton, born at Edinburgh before the close of the matter, rewarded his young informant with a look century. In this list we omit the distinguished of kindly interest, and the words, (Sir Adam Fer- contemporary Scottish names in physical science ; guson reports them,) “ You 'll be a man yet, sir.” we ought not, however, to omit the names of Sir Such is the one story, the story of the literary James Mackintosh, born near Inverness in 1765, ordination,” as Mr. Chambers well calls it, of land James Mill, born at Montrose in 1773. The LIVING AGE.

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CCCCXXXVII.

VOL. XXXV.

names.

short life of Burns, if we choose him as the centrals a large induction of instances, is, in reality, figure of the group, connects together all these nearer to the fact. Without maintaining at pre

The oldest of them was in the prime of ent that all Scotchmen are perfervid—that Scotc life when Burns was born, and the youngest of men in general are, as we have seen it ingenious them had seen the light before Burns died. argued, not cool, calculating, and cautious, by

On glancing in order along this series of emi- positively rash, fanatical, and tempestuous; it wi nent Scotchmen born in the eighteenth century, it be enough to refer to the instances which prove a will be seen that they may be roughly distributed | least that some Scotchmen have this character into two nearly equal classes-men of philosophic The thing may be expressed thus :--On referrin intellect, devoted to the work of general specula- to the actual list of Scotchmen who have attained tion, or thought as such ; and men of literary or eminence by their writings or speeches in this on poetic genius, whose works belong more properly the last century, two types may be distinguished, to the category of pure literary or artistic effort. in one or the other of which the Scottish mind In the one class may be ranked Reid, Hume, Adam seems necessarily to cast itself-an intellectual Smith, Dugald Stewart, Mackintosh, Mill, Chal- type specifically Scottish, but Scottish only in the mers, and Sir William Hamilton; in the other, sense that it is the type which cultured Scottish

Thomson, Smollett, Robertson, Fergusson, Burns, minds assume when they devote themselves to the Scott, Jeffrey, Campbell, Wilson, Irving, and Car- work of specific investigation; and a more popular lyle. Do not let us be mistaken. In using the type, characterizing those Scotchinen who, instead phrases “philosophic intellect” and “ literary of pursuing the work of specific investigation, genius,” to denote the distinction referred to, we follow a career calling forth all tho resources of do not imply anything of accurate discrimination Scottish sentiment. Scotchmen of the first or between the phrases themselves. For aught that more recondite and formal type are Reid, Smith, we care, the phrases may be reversed, and the men Hume, Mill, Mackintosh, and Hamilton, in all of of the one class may be styled men of philosophic whom, notwithstanding their differences, we see genius, and those of the other, men of literary that tendency towards metaphysical speculation habit and intellect. If we prefer to follow the for which the Scottish mind has become celebrated; popular usage in our application of the terms, it is Scotchmen of the other or popular type, partaking not with any intention of making out for the one of the metaphysical tendency or not, but drawing class, by the appropriation to it of the peculiar their essential inspiration from the sentimental term "genius," a certificate of a higher_kind of depths of the national character, are Burns, Scott. excellence than belongs to the other. Even ac-Chalmers, Irving, and Carlyle. However we may cording to the popular acceptation of the term, choose to express it, the fact of this two-fold forthseveral of those whom we have included in the going of the Scottish mind, either in the scholas literary category-as, for example, Robertson, tic and logical direction marked out by one must be denied the title of men of genius ; while, series of eminent predecessors, or in the popular according to no endurable definition of the term, and literary direction marked out by another series could the title of men of genius be refused to such of eminent predecessors, cannot be denied. men as Adam Smith, or Chalmers, or Hamilton. After all, however, (for we cannot yet leave this Nor, even when thus explained, will our classifica- topic,) there is, classify and distinguish as we may, tion bear any very rigid scrutiny. By a consider- a remarkable degree of homogeneousness among able portion of what may be called the fundamen- Scotchmen. The people of North Britain are more tal or unapparent half of his genius, Carlyle homogeneous—have decidedly a more visible basis belongs to the class of speculative thinkers ; while, of common character—than the people of South on the other hand, the case of Chalmers is one in Britain. A Scotchman may indeed be almost anywhich the thinking or speculative faculty, which thing that is possible in this world; he may be a certainly belonged to him, was surcharged and saint or a debauchee, a Christian or a sceptic, a deluged by such a constant food from the feelings spendthrift or a usurer, a soldier or a statesman, a that, instead of ranking him with the thinkers as poet or a statistician, a fool or a man of genius, above, we might, with equal or greater propriety, clear-headed or confused-headed, a Thomas Chaitrangpose him to the other side, or cven name him mers or a Joseph Hume, a dry man of mere secular on both sides. His thinking faculty, which was facts, or a man through whose mind there roll forwhat he himself set most store by, was so beset ever the stars and all mysteries. Still, under and begirt by his other and more active disposi- every possible form of mental combination or tions, that, insteai of working on and on through activity, there will be found in every Scotchman any resisting medium with iron continuity, it dis- something distinguishable as his birth-quality or charged itself almost invariably, as soon as it Scotticism. And what is this Scolticism of Scotchtouched a subject, in large proximate generaliza- men-this ineradicable, universally-combinable tions. On the whole, then, instead of the forego- element of peculiarity, breathed into the Scottish ing classification of eminent Scotchmen into men soul by those conditions of nature and of life which of speculation and men of general literature, one inhere in or hover over the area of Scottish earth, might adopt as equally serviceable a less formal and which are repeated in the same precise ensemclassification which the common satirical talk re- ble nowhere else ? Comes it from the hills, or the specting Scotchmen will suggest. The hard, cool, moors, or the mists, or any of those other features of logical Scotchman—such is the stereotyped phrase scenery and climate which distinguish bleak and in which Englishmen describe the natives of North rugged Scotland from green and fertile England ? Britain. There is a sufficient amount of true per- In part, doubtless, from these, as from all else ception in the phrase to justify its use; but the that is Scottish. But there are hills, and moors, appreciation it involves reaches only to the surface. and mnists where Scotchmen are not bred; and it The well-known phrase, perfervidum ingenium is rather in the long series of the memorable Scotorum, used, Buchanan tells us, centuries ago things that have been done on the Scottish hills on the continent to express the idea of the Scottish and moors—the acts which the retrospective eye character then universally current and founded on soes flashing through the old Scottish mists, that one is to seek the origin and explanation of whatever this pride of being Scotchmen. Penetrate to the Scotticism is. Now, as compared with England heart of any Scotchman, even the most Anglified, at least, that which has come down to the natives or the most philosophic that can be found, and of Scotland as something peculiar, generated by there will certainly be found a remnant in it of the series of past transactions of which their coun- loving regard for the little land that lies north of try has been the scene, is an intense spirit of the Tweed. And what eminent Scotchman can nationality.

be named in whose constitution a larger or smaller No nation in the world is more factitious than proportion of the amor Scotia has not been visible? the Scotch--more composite as regards the mate In some of the foremost of such men, as Burna, rials out of which it has been constructed. If in Scott, and Wilson, this amor Scotiæ has even been England there have been Britons, Celts, Romans, present as a confessed ingredient of their genius Saxons, Danes, and Normans, in Scotland there a sentiment determining, to a great extent, the have been Celts, Britons, Romans, Norwegians, style and matter of all that they have written or Danes, Anglo-Saxons, and Normans. The only attempted. difference of any consequence in this respect probably is, that whereas in England the Celtic ele

The roagh bar-thistlo spreading wide

Amang the bearded bearment is derived chiefly from the British or Welsh, I turned the weeding-heak aside, and the Teutonic element chiefly from the Conti- And spared the symbol dear. nental-German source, in Scotland the Gaels have

No nation, no station furnished most of the Celtic, and the Scandinavian

My envy e'er could raise Germans most of the Teutonic element. Nor, if

A Scott still, but blot still,

I know nae highor praiso. we regard the agencies that have acted intellectually on the two nations, shall we find Scotland to In reading the writings of such men, one is perhave been less notably affected from without than petually reminded, in the most direct manner, that England. To mention only one circumstance, the these writings are to be regarded as belonging to Reformation in Scotland was marked by a much more a strictly national literature. But even in those decided importation of new modes of thinking and Scotchmen in the determination of whose intelleonew social forms than the Reformation in the tual efforts the amor Scotiæ has acted no such obvi. sister country. But though quite as factitious, ous and ostensible part, the presence of somo therefore, as the English nation, the Scottish, by mental reference to, or intermittent communication reason of its very smallness, for one thing, has of sentiment with, the land of their birth, is almost always possessed a more intense consciousness of sure to be detected. The speculations of Reid and its nationality, and a greater liability to be acted Hume and Adam Smith, and, in some degree, also, upon throughout its whole substance by a common those of Chalmers, were in subjects interesting not thought or common feeling. Even as late as the to Scotchmen alone, but to the human race as year 1707, the entire population of Scotland did such ; and yet, precisely as these men enunciated not exceed one million of individuals ; and if, their generalities intended for the whole world in going farther back, we fancy this small nation good broad Scotch, so had they all, after their difplaced on the frontier of one so much larger, and ferent ways, a genuine Scottish relish for Scottish obliged continually to defend itself against the humors, jokes, and antiquities. The same thing is attacks of so powerful a neighbor, we can have no true of Carlyle, a power as he is recognized to be difficulty in conceiving how, in the smaller nation, not in Scottish only, but in all British literature. the feeling of a central life would be sooner de- Even James Mill, who, more than most Scotchveloped and kept more continuously active. The men, succeeded in conforming, both in speech and sentiment of nationality is essentially negative; in writing, to English habits and requirements, it is the sentiment of a people which has been relapsed into a Scotchman when he listened to a taught to recognize its own individuality by inces- Scottish song, or told a Scottish anecdote. But santly marking the line of exclusion between itself perhaps the most interesting example of the apand others. Almost all the great movements of pearance of an intense amor Scotia, where, from Scotland, as a nation, have accordingly been of a the nature of the case, it could have been least ernegative character, that is, movements of self-pected, is afforded by the writings of Sir William defence—the War of National Independence Hamilton. If there is a man now alive conspicuagainst the Edwards ; the Non-Episcopal struggle ous among his contemporaries for the exercise on in the reigns of the Charleses ; and even the Non- the most magnificent scale of an intellect the most Intrusion controversy of later times. The very pure and abstract, that man is Sir William ; and motto of Scotland, as a nation, is negative-Nemo yet, not even when discussing the philosophy of me impune lacesset. It is different with England. the unconditioned or perfecting the theory of There have of course been negative movements in syllogism which is universal, does Sir William England too, but these have been movements of forget his Scottish lineage. With what glee, in: one faction or part of the English people against his notes, or in stray passages in his dissertations another; and the activity of the English nation, themselves, does he seize every, opportunity of as a whole, has consisted, not in preserving its own adding to the proofs that speculation in general individuality from external attack, but in fully and has been largely affected by the stream of specific genially evolving the various elements which it Scottish thought-quoting, for example, the saying: finds within itself, or in powerful positive exertions of Scaliger, "Les Ecossois sont bons Philosophes ; of its strength upon what lies outside it. or dwelling on the fact that at one time almost

The first and most natural form of what we have every continental university had a Scottish procalled the Scotticism of Scotchmen, that is, of the fessorship of philosophy, specially so named ; or peculiarity which differences them from people of reviving the memories of defunct Balfours, and other countries, and more expressly from English- Duncans, and Chalmerses, and Dalgarnos, and men, is this amor patriæ, this inordinate intensity other “ Scoti extra Scotiam agentes” of other cens of national feeling. There are very few Scotchmen turies ; or startling his roaders with such geneawho, whatever they may pretend, are devoid of logical facts as thai Immanuel Kant and Sir Isang Newton bad Scottish grandfathers, and that the in their own Scottish accent, sometimes in an celebrated French metaphysician, Destutt Tracy, accent almost purely English, find the objects of was, in reality, but a transmogrified Scotchman of their solicitude and admiration, not in the land the name of Scott! We know nothing more re- lying north of the Tweed, but rather in England freshing than such evidences of strong national its rich green parks and fields, its broad ecclesias foeling in such a man. It is the Scottish Stagirite tical hierarchy, its noble halls of learning, its not ashamed of the bonnet and plaid ; it is the majestic and varied literature, the full and generphilosopher in whose veins flows the blood of a ous character of its manly people. We know Covenanter.

Scotchmen whose sentiment is more deeply stirred Even now, when Scotchmen, their native country by Shakspeare's famous apostrophe to

this Engharing been so long merged in the higher unity of land,” than by Scott's to the land of brown heath Great Britain, labor altogether in the interest of and shaggy wood. And as Scotland and England this higher unity, and forget or set aside the are incorporated, such men are and must be on the smaller, they are still liable to be affected charac- increase. But even they shall not escape. If teristically in all that they do by the consciousness their native quality of Scotticism does not survive that they are Scotchmen. This will be found true in them in the more palpable and open form of whether we regard those Scotchmen who work mere national feeling, mere amor Scotiæ, it survives, side by side with Englishmen in the conduct of nevertheless, in an intellectual habit, having the British public affairs or British commerce, or same root, and as indestructible. And what is those Scotchmen who vie with Englishmen in the this habit? The popular charges of dogmatism, walks of British authorship and literature. In opinionativeness, pugnacity, and the like, brought either case the Scotchman is distinguished from against Scotchmen by Englishmen, are so many the Englishman by this, that he carries the con- approximations to a definition of it. For our part, sciousness of his nationality about with him. we should say that the special habit or peculiarity Were he, indeed, disposed to forget it, the banter which distinguishes the intellectual manifestations on the subject to which he is perpetually exposed of Scotchmen—that, in short, in which the Scotin the society of his English friends and acquaint- ticism of Scotchmen most intimately consists—is ances, would serve to keep him in mind of it. It the habit of emphasis. All Scotchmen are emis the same now with the individual Scotchman phatic. If a Scotchman is a fool, he gives such cast among Englishmen as it was with the Scottish emphasis to the nonsense he utters as to be innation when it had to defend its frontier against finitely more insufferable than a fool of any

other the English armies. He is in the position of a country ; if a Scotchman is a man of genius, he 8maller body placed in contact with a larger one, gives such emphasis to the good things he has to and rendered more intensely conscious of his indi- communicate, that they have a supremely good viduality by the constant necessity of asserting it. chance of being at once or very soon attended to. But this self-assertion of a Scotchman among Eng- This habit of emphasis, we believe, is exactly that lishmen, this constant feeling “ I am a Scotch- perfervidum ingenium Scotorum which used to be man,” rests, like the feeling of nationality itself, remarked some centuries ago, wherever Scotchmen on a prior assertion of what is in fact a negative. were known. But emphasis is perhaps a better For a Scotchman to be always thinking “I am a word than fervor. Many Scotchmen are fervid Scotchman," is, in the circumstances now under too, but not all; but all, absolutely all, are emview, tantamount to always thinking “ I am not phatic. No one will call Joseph Hume a fervid an Englishman.' The Englishman, on the other man, but he is certainly emphatic. And so with hand, has no corresponding feeling. As a member David Aume, or Reid, or Adam Smith, or any of the large body, whose corporate activity has of those colder-natured Scotchmen of whom we always, from the very circumstance of its being the have spoken ; fervor cannot be predicated of them, larger, been positive rather than negative, the but they had plenty of emphasis. In men like Englishman simply acts out harmoniously his Eng- Burns, or Chalmers, or Irving, on the other hand, lish instincts and tendencies, the feeling of not there was both emphasis and fervor; so also with being a Scotchmán, never (except in the case of a Carlyle ; and so, under a still more curious comstray Englishman located in Scotland) either spon- bination, with Sir William Hamilton. And as we taneously remaining in his mind, or being roused distinguish emphasis from fervor, so would we disin it by banter. The Scotchman, in short, who tinguish it from perseverance. Scotchmen are works in the general field of British activity, has said to be persevering, but the saying is not his thoughts conditioned, to some extent at least, universally true ; Scotchmen are or are not morally by the negative of not being an Englishman; the persevering, but all Scotchmen are intellectually Englishman thinks under no such limitation. emphatic. Emphasis, we repeat, intellectual em

And this leads us to a definition more essential phasis—the habit of laying stress on certain and intimate of the peculiarity of Scottish as com- things rather than coördinating all-in this conpared with English thought. The rudest and most sists what is essential in the Scotticism of Scotchnatural form of what we have called the Scotticism men. And, as this observation is empirically of Scotchmen, consists, we have hitherto been verified by the very manner in which Scotchmen saying, in simple consciousness of nationality, enunciate their words in ordinary talk, so it might simple amor Scotiæ, or, under mere restricted cir- be deduced scientifically from what we have already cumstances, the simple feeling of not being an said regarding the nature and effects of the feeling Englishman. There are some Scotchmen, how- of nationality. The habit of thinking emphatically ever, in whom this first and most natural form of is a necessary result of thinking much in the Scotticism is not very well pronounced, and who presence of, and in resistance to, a negative; it is are either emancipated from it, or think that they the habit of a people that has been accustomed to are. We know not a few Scottish minds who have act on the defensive, rather than of a people peacereally succeeded in transferring their enthusiastic fully self-evolved and accustomed to act positively; regards from Scotland as such to the higher unity it is the habit of Protestantism rather than of of Great Britain-men, who, sometimes speaking Catholicism, of Presbyterianism rather than of Episcopacy, of Dissent rather than of Conform-| them, such as Whewell, Maurice, Hare, Henry ity.

Taylor, and some others, seem to feel the necesThe greatest effects which the Scottish mind has sity of persisting towards first principles. The yet produced on the world—and these effects, by essays of Henry Taylor and of Arthur Helps are, the confession of Englishmen themselves, have in this respect, most characteristically English. not been small—have been the results, in part at As writings, they are most sweet, solid and soothleast, of this national habit of emphasis. Until ing; and yet there is many a Scotchman with towards the close of last century, the special de- not half the intellect of either of the writers, to partment of labor in which Scotchmen had, to any whom, by reason of his native tendency to seek for great extent, exerted themselves so as to make a the emphatic, they would appear almost shallow. figure in the general intellectual world, was the so, also, with that much praised old English book, department of Philosophy-Metaphysical and Di- Browne's Religio Medici, and with many other old alectic. Their triumphs in this department are English prose writings. The truth is that, if Scotchbistorical. What is called the Scottish Philosophy, men have, so far, a source of superiority over Engconstitutes, in the eyes of all who know anything lishmen in their habit of dwelling only on the emof history, a most important stage in the intellectual phatic, they have also in this same habit a source of evolution of modern times. From the time of inferiority. Quietism, mysticism, that soft medithose old Duncans, and Balfours, and Dalgarnos, tative disposition which takes things for granted in mentioned by Sir William Hamilton, who dis- the coördination established by mere life and usage, coursed on philosophy, and wrote dialectical treat- pouring into the confusion thus externally given ises in Latin in all the cities of the continent, the rich oil of an abounding inner joy, interpenedown to our own days, we can point to a succes- trating all and harmonizing all these are, for the sion of Scottish thinkers in whom the interest in most part, alien to the Scotchman. No, his walk, metaphysical studies was kept alive, and by whose as a thinker, is not by the meadows, and the labors new contributions to mental science were wheat-fields, and the green lanes, and the ivy-clad continually being made. It was by the Scot- parish churches where all is gentle, and antique, tish mind, in fact, that the modern philosophy and fertile, but by the bleak sea-shore which parts was conducted to that point where Kant and the the certain from the limitless, where there is Germans took it up. The qualifications of the doubt in the sea-mew's shriek, and where it is Scottish mind for this task were, doubtless, va- well if, in the advancing tide, he can find footing rious. Perhaps there was something in that on a rock among the tangle ! But this very tenspecial combination of the Celtic and the Scan- dency of his towards what is intellectually exdinavian out of which the Scottish nation, for treme, injures his sense of proportion in what is the most part, took its rise, to produce an apt- concrete and actual; and hence it is that when he itude for dialectical exercises. Nay, further, it leaves the field of abstract thought, and betakes would not be altogether fanciful to suppose that himself to creative literature, he produces nothing those very national struggles of the Scotch in the comparable in fulness, wealth, and harmoniousness course of which they acquired so strong a sense to the imaginations of a Chaucer or a Shakspeare. of their national individuality, that is, of the dis- The highest genius, indeed, involves also the capatinction between all that was Scotch, and all that bility of the intellectual extreme; and, according was not Scotch, served, in a rough way, to facil- | ly, in the writings of those great Englishmen, as itate to all Scotchmen that fundamental idea of the well as in those of the living English poet Tennydistinction between the Ego and the Non-Ego, son, there are strokes in abundance of that pure the clear and rigorous apprehension which is intellectual emphasis in which the Scotchman dethe first step in philosophy, and the one test of lights; but then there is also with them such a the philosopher. But, in a still more important genial acceptance of all things, great or small, degree, we hold the success of the Scottish mind in their established coördination, that the flashes in philosophy to have been the result of the na- of emphasis are as if they came not from a battle tional habit of intellectual emphasis. A Scotch- done on an open moor, but from a battle transacting man, when he thinks, cannot, so easily and com- itself in the depths of a forest. Among Scottish fortably as the Englishman, repose on an upper thinkers, Mackintosh is the one that approaches level of propositions coördinated for him by tra- nearest to the English model--a cireumstance dition, sweet feeling, and pleasant circumstances ; which may be accounted for by the fact that much that necessity of his nature which leads him to of what he did consisted, from the necessities of emphasize certain things rather than to take all the object-matter of his speculations, in judicious things together in their established coördination, compromise. drives him down and still down in search of cer- But even in the field of literature we will not tain generalities whereon he may see that all can abandon the Scotchman. His habit of emphasis be built. It was this habit of emphasis, this ina- has here enabled him to do good service too. His bility to rest on a level of sweetly-composed expe- entry on this field, however, was later than his rience, that led Hume to scepticism ; it was the entry on the field of philosophy. True, there had same habit, the same inability, conjoined, however, been, contemporary with the Scottish philosophers, with more of faith and reverence, that led Reid tó or even anterior to them, Scottish poets and general lay down, in the chasm of Hume's scepticism, prose writers of note-Dunbar, Gawin Douglas, certain blocks of ultimate propositions or princi- King James, Buchanan, Sir David Lindsay, Henples, capable of being individually enumerated, derson, Sir George Mackenzie, Allan Ramsay, and and yet, as he thought, forming a sufficient base- the like. True, also, in those snatches of popular ment for all that men think or believe. And the ballad and song which came down from generation. same tendency is visible among Scotchmen now. to generation in Scotland, many of them written It amazes Scotchmen to see on what proximate by no one knew who, and almost all of them oferpropositions even Englishmen who are celebrated flowing with either humor or melancholy, there as thinkers can rest, and how little the best of I was at once a fountain and a promise of an ex

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