Environmental Standards: Combined Exposures and Their Effects on Human Beings and Their Environment

Capa
The rapid growth of the world population - nearly six-fold over the last hundred years - combined with the rising number of technical installations especially in the industrialized countries has lead to ever tighter and more strained living spaces on our planet. Because ofthe inevitable processes oflife, man was at first an exploiter rather than a careful preserver of the environment. Environmental awareness with the intention to conserve the environment has grown only in the last few decades. Environmental standards have been defined and limit values have been set largely guided, however, by scientific and medical data on single exposures, while public opinion, on the other hand, now increasingly calls for astronger consideration of the more complex situations following combined exposures. Furthermore, it turned out that environmental standards, while necessarily based on scientific data, must also take into account ethical, legal, economic, and sociological aspects. A task of such complexity can only be dealt with appropriately in the framework of an inter disciplinary group.
 

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Índice

The Various Effects of Insects on Ecosystem Functioning
3
References
19
Insect Herbivores Nutrient Cycling and Plant Productivity
27
References
46
References
66
References
85
Belowground Herbivores and Ecosystem Processes
93
BottomUp Effects and Feedbacks in Simple
115
The Ecology Driving Nutrient Fluxes in Forests
213
References
235
Problems and Possibilities
243
References
253
References
273
The Role and Value
277
Reducing Herbivory Using Insecticides
303
Results of Surveyed Studies
320

References
130
References
150
References
169
Food Web Interactions and Ecosystem Processes
175
References
186
A General Rule for Predicting When Insects Will Have
193
References
349
HerbivoreSpecific Transcriptional Responses
357
References
375
Testing the Role of Insects in Ecosystem Functioning
382
References
400
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