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TROCHILUS AND CROCODILE,

the date of the creation to be about 4138 B.C.; of the eyelid. There appears, therefore, no reason and, consequently, the end of the 6000 years of why the crocodile should not have recourse to the world, and opening of the seventh millennium, similar aid in similar necessity. by approximation, about A.D. 1862. For this piece

GEORGE MUNFORD. of information, I am also indebted to Mr. Elliott. East Winch.

WILLIAM DODGE. The only modern traveller, I believe, who has Hazelbury Bryan, Blandford,

witnessed anything approaching to the story told by Herodotus of the Trochilus and Crocodile,” is Mr. Curzon: he describes it as of the plover species,

and as large as a small pigeon. In his Monasteries (Vol. vi., p. 75.)

of the Levant, he says he was out crocodile shooting I am pleased to see the Query of your corre- one day, and having espied one asleep on a bank, he spondent S. L. P. respecting these animals in a re approached cautiously to get a shot at him ; when cent Number, as it may possibly have arisen from he observed that he was attended by a ziczac (the a remark made by myself in the concluding para- common name for the Trochilus). "He goes on to graph of some brief observations on the credibility say: of the ancient naturalists, which you have done me “ The bird was walking up and down close to the the favour to admit into your 141st Number. crocodile's nose. I suppose I noved, for it suddenly

Although the statement of Herodotus is con- saw me, and instead of Aying away, as any respectable firmed by Aristotle and Pliny, and other ancient bird would have done, he jumped up a foot from the writers, it has been very generally discredited in ground, screamed Ziczac ! ziczac! with all the powers modern times. Recent inquiries, however, show of his voice, and dashed himself against the crocodile's that in this, as in most of his relations, the Father face two or three times. The great beast started up, of History is justified by the fact.

and immediately spying his danger, made a jump into The term bdella has hitherto been translated the air, and, dashing into the water with a splash which leech, as from Boatw, to suck ; but, in the opinion covered me with mud, he dived into the river and disof Bähr, Herodotus intended to describe flies, or

appeared." rather gnats, which also live by suction, and not

The above account is to be found in p. 150. leeches. And M. Geoffrey St. Hilaire has chap. xii. of Mr. Curzon's book.

P. W. adopted the opinion that the word Boella corresponds to culex, that is, a gnat, myriads of which

SAUL'S SEVEN DAYS. insects swarm on the banks of the Nile, and attack the crocodile when he comes to repose on the sand.

(Vol. vi., p. 75.) His mouth is not so hermetically closed but that Perhaps the following explanation may render they can enter, which they do in such numbers, the passage in 1 Sam. xiii. 8. more intelligible to that the interior of his palate, which is naturally your correspondent Beoticus. of a bright yellow, appears covered with a darkish Gilgal was one of those places to which Samuel brown crust. The insects strike their trunks into used to go in circuit to judge Israel ; the others the orifices of the glands, which abound in the being Bethel and Mizpeh, and bis dwelling was at mouth of the crocodile; and the tongue of the Ramah, and at each of them there was an altar animal being immoveable, it cannot get rid of unto the Lord. Of these places Gilgal seems to them. It is then that the trochilus, a kind of have been chief in importance, for the first altar plover, closely allied to the Charadrius minor of was erected there after the passage of the Jordan, Meyer, or, in the opinion of M. St. Hilaire, C. and the entrance of the Israelites into the proEgyptiacus, but which Pliny, confounding with mised land, when “the Lord rolled away the reanother bird of the same name, calls “the king of proach of Egypt." Saul went on his errand to the birds," in its pursuit of the gnats, hastens to his prophet to Ramah, and there Samuel anointed him, relief; the crocodile always taking care, when he and gave him a prophetic charge, chap. x. 8., viz.: is about to shut his mouth, to make certain move- “ Thou shalt go down before me to Gilgal, and be ments which warn the bird to fly away. Thus the hold, I will come down unto thee to offer burnt offerancient story is not so unreasonable as might be ings, &c. : seven days shalt thou tarry till I come to thought. It is matter of every-day observation, thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do.” that gnats will attack bulls and other large ter- It appears from other parts of Saul's history that restrial animals of the fiercest nature, and that this was no passing injunction for a particular ocwagtails and other insectivorous birds will peck casion, that of his proclamation as king, for inthe insects from the muzzles of the quadrupeds ; stance; but that on all occasions of difficulty or while in India it is common to see the ox ap- danger Saul was to go down to Gilgal, and there proaching its eye deliberately to the ground, by wait seven days for Samuel, to learn from him the holding its head on one side, to enable the Mina, a will of the Lord. species of starling, to take an insect from the hairs The first time we hear of his going down to

VENICE GLASSES.

Gilgal was to “renew the kingdom," 1 Sam. xi. 14. Another property was also ascribed to Venetian

The next occasion was after he had “reigned two glass, that of sustaining violent blows or shocks years over Israel," when the Philistines threatened with impunity. This quality is alluded to in the him, and then he disobeyed the commandment. Miscellanies, p. 132., of credulous old Aubrey. A The last time he was met by Samuel at Gilgal, certain Lady Honywood entertained doubts as to was after the slaughter of the Amalekites, when he her salvation, and her spiritual adviser, Dr. Bolton, " came to Carmel and set him up a place," i.e. was endeavouring to reassure her: pitched his camp preparatory to dividing the spoil ; but his heart misgave him, for it was told Samuel, a Venetian glass in her hand, as this glass will be

« • I shall as certainly be damned,' said she, holding “ he is gone about, and passed on, and gone down broken,' and at that word threw it hard upon the to Gilgal.” He must make some excuse for the ground, and the glass remained sound, which did give booty he had brought away,- it was to be for sa- her great comfort

. The glass is yet preserved among crifice. Samuel then came to him as at other the cimelia of the family." times, but refused to offer sacrifice until Saul be. Howell, however (Epistolæ Ho-Eliana, p. 310.), sought him; and then it is said he “came no more

, to see Saul until the day of his death,” i.e. came no

entertained a different opinion of its tenacity: more down to Gilgal to meet him,

“ A good name is like Venice glass, quickly cracked, It is clear, then, that the charge which was given never to be amended, patched it may be." to Saul

, chap. x. 8., was one of great moment; that we may note from this that the excellence of it informed him of the manner in which he was to Venice glass was such that it had become proworship the Lord and learn His will; and that on

verbial as an illustration of perfection. his due observance of it the stability of his kingdom It may not be considered irrelevant to remind was to depend.

H.C. K.

your correspondent that similar virtues have been Rectory, Hereford.

attributed from the earliest ages to the horn of the rhinoceros. This opinion obtained in India when the English made their first voyage thither in

1591, and the horns of this animal were carefully (Vol. vi., p. 76.)

preserved by the native monarchs on account of The popular error, current in the Middle Ages, their reputed efficacy. Calmet, in his Dictionary that drinking-glasses manufactured at Venice pos- of the Bible, also alludes to this belief, and says sessed the valuable property of shivering to pieces that drinking-cups were made of this horn, and upon a poisoned liquid being poured into them, used by Oriental monarchs at table because it was may probably have arisen partly from the extreme

believed that "it sweats at the approach of any desirability of some such detective instrument in kind of poison whatever.” that “age of poisons,” and partly from an ex- According to Thunberg, the same belief preaggerated idea of the excellence of the Venetian vailed in Africa. He states in his Journey to Kafmanufacture. Sir Thomas Browne discourses fraria, that upon the fallacy (Vulgar Errors, b. vii. c. 17.): “ The horns of the rhinoceros were kept by some

“ Though it be said that poison will break a Venice people both in town and country, not only as rarities, glass, yet have we not met with any of that nature."

but also as useful in diseases and for the purpose of de

tecting poisons. As to the former of these intentions, And says further :

the fine shavings were supposed to cure convulsions and “ Though the best of China dishes, and such as the spasms in children. With respect to the latter, it was Emperor doth use, be thought by some of infallible generally believed that goblets made of these horns virtue to this effect; yet will they not, I fear, be able would discover a poisonous draught that was poured to elude the mischief of such intentions."

into them, by making the liquor ferment till it ran Lord Byron (The Two Foscari, Act V. Sc. 1.) quite out of the goblet. Of these horns goblets are makes the Doge, in alluding to the ascribed pro- made which are set in gold and silver and presented to perty, disclaim his own belief in it:

kings, persons of distinction, and particular friends, or Doge. 'Tis said that our Venetian crystal has

else sold at a high price, sometimes at the rate of fifty

rix.dollars each." Such pure antipathy to poisons, as

To burst if aught of venom touches it. Our traveller made the matter a subject of ex• Lor. Well, Sir ?

periment: Doge. Then it is false, or you are true ;

“When I tried these horns," says he, “both wrought For my own part, I credit neither :- 'tis An idle legend."

and unwrought, both old and young, with several sorts

of poisons, weak as well as strong, I observed not the Mrs. Radcliffe, too, has made use of the same least motion or effervescence; but when a solution of fiction in that fine imaginative work The Mysteries corrosive sublimate or other similar substance was of Udolpho; and W. Harrison Ainsworth bas doue poured into one of these horns, there arose only a few the like in his Crichton.

bubbles, produced by the air which had been enclosed in the pores of the horn, and which were now disen- fabric, must have lost much if he did not witness gaged."

the magnificent collection of Venetian glass brought A writer in The Menageries (vol. iii. pp. 19–22.) together and exhibited by the Society of Arts in thinks that the great value set upon the horn of 1850. Possessing one or two specimens of the this animal, on account of its imaginary virtues, art, and having but little knowledge concerning it suggested the image to the Psalmist, "My horn except what I have stated, I shall be very glad if shalt thou exalt like the horn of the unicorn," and my Reply and Query elicit any further information

on the subject.

EMABEE. that consequently this animal and the rhinoceros are identical. I hope that my discursive and desultory remarks

Replies to Minor Queries. may afford your correspondent Rt. some part of the information he desires. WILLIAM Bates. Styles of Dukes and Marquises (Vol. vi., p. 76.). Birmingham.

- The proper style of a duke is Most Noble, that

of a marquis Most Honourable. The style Most These glasses, as their name implies, were ma- Noble bas of late been constantly misapplied to nufactured at Venice, or rather at Murano, one of marquises; most improperly, if there be any utility her isles. At the time these glasses were in the in distinctions, and in being correct. The official greatest repute, Venice was the only European notices in the London Gazette, from many public city possessing a glass manufactory. No orna- departments, are, in respect to the styles of people, - mental glass vessels, which can positively be as- frequently wrong; so much so, at times, as to be cribed to Germany, are known of an earlier date of no authority, as in the instance referred to by than 1553. The earliest English glass-houses for L. T.

G. the manufacture of fine glass, those of the Savoy and Crutched Friars, were not established until that I may have spoken too positively, yet I can

Burials (Vol. vi., p. 84.). — It is quite possible the middle of the sixteenth century, and they ap- not help thinking that his bishop could catch the parently were for a considerable time much inferior to the Venetian; for in 1635, nearly a

clergyman whose irregularity is described, if the hundred years later, Sir Robert Mansel obtained of the rubric of the burial service, and, I should

bishop chose to try. Such conduct is a violation a monopoly for importing fine Venetian drinking, have thought

, a breach of the Act of Uniformity; glasses. Probably Venice owes the introduction If a clergyman be at liberty to use the rites and of her glass manufacture to her share in the conquest of Constantinople in the beginning of the ceremonies of the church just as he likes, so long

as he keeps outside the consecrated boundary, perthirteenth century. The glass bowls, salvers, bottles, &c., painted in enamel, and vessels with haps the profanation of the Lord's Supper by adcoloured threads or “canes" enclosed in the stems, punishable. I have heard that this was done at

ministering the elements to a monkey was not for which Venice became so celebrated, were the the instigation of the notorious Lord Sandwich, immediate effects of this participation, which were further stimulated by the immigration of Greek who made himself vile," was rewarded with a

when at the head of the Navy, and that the priest, artists into Italy 250 years later, on the breaking valuable benefice.

ALFRED GATTY. up of the Empire of the East. The peculiarity of the Venice workmanship consists in its exceeding If Benbow will look into the Act of Uniformity lightness, no lead being employed in its material. prefixed to the Book of Common Prayer, he will I was not aware that the superstition of the power soon discover that “the whole matter” of burials, of a Venice glass to detect poison hud ever ob- about which he writes, does not " resolve itself into tained in modern times. Sir Thomas Browne, a question of good taste and eminent churchmanin his work on Vulgar Errors, published in 1646, ship," but of heavy pains and penalties, to which remarks

every clergyman is liable, if he uses any of the “ Though it be said that poison will break a Venice

open prayers" otherwise than is set forth in glass, yet have we not met any of that nature."

the said book.”

Benbow seems to be a feigned name : if he Might not this superstition arise from these glasses desired an early answer for the authority of the being sometimes used in alchemical processes ? Rev. ALFRED GATTY's position, he might no doubt When made for this purpose they were grotesque have easily obtained it, through Her Majesty's in shape, and frequently in the form of the signs Post Office messengers, by addressing his Query of the zodiac. Some amusing information of Mu- direct, and under his own proper signature. rano and her glass manufacture may be obtained As to burial in unconsecrated ground, if from Howell's Familiar Letlers, Nos. 28 & 29. He

any

one prefers some other spot than “God's Acre," was sent to Venice by Sir Robert Mansel to obtain information concerning the art. Your cor

or other consecrated ground, where he wishes his

remains to be deposited, in that he may certainly aspondent, if really interested in this beautiful have his own choice; but he thereby excommunicates himself from the services of the church and the there, that he expunged the passages after the ministrations of her ministers. H. T. ELLACOMBE. Restoration ; but Leslie, in his Šnake in the Grass, Clyst St. George.

charges the Quakers, Fox and Burrough, with ex.

punging the fierce and warlike language from their Shakspeare Emendations (Vol.v., pp. 410. 436. books, in the editions printed after 1660, when the 554.). - In the passage discussed (but not to my sword was taken away from the saints, and using, mind satisfactorily settled) by MR. SINGER and from thenceforth, a language of peace. The A. E. B., there is another difficulty. “I am put editions printed between 1650 and 1660 are the to know seems an awkward phrase for “I must valuable ones.

A. N. needs know," which, as A. E. B. justly says, must be the meaning. Would it not be somewhat Meaning of "slow" in Goldsmith's Traveller" clearer if read, “ I am not to know," i.e. “I am (Vol. v., p. 135.).—Me. CORNISH has given a wrong not now to learn ?” This emendation is so much version of the anecdote relative to the above word, in the style of those in Mr. Collier's folio, that I putting a piece of nonsense into Johnson's mouth think it worth offering.

which he never uttered. Johnson thus tells the I wish I could offer anything as plausible in- story himself in Boswell: stead of " all at once," in the passage in As You “Chamier once asked him what he meant by slow,' Like It (discussed Vol. v., p. 554.), which I believe the last word in the first line of The Traveller : was originally some single word, a climax to “ insult and excite." All at once seems to me not

• Remote, unfriended, melancholy, slow :' merely surplusage, but almost nonsense; but it Did he mean tardiness of locomotion ? Goldsmith, has hitherto passed unquestioned, except by a

who would say something, without consideration very slight guere of Steevens.

c. answered, • Yes.' I was sitting by, and said, “ No, sir;

you do not mean tardiness of locomotion : you mean Bronze Medals (Vol. v., p. 608.).—6. Laura that sluggishness of mind which comes upon a man in soliCorsi was the wife of Jean Vincent Salviati, Mar

tude.' Chamier believed then that I had written the quis of Montieri, who died November 26, 1693. line as much as if he had seen me write it." She was the mother of several sons; Salviati is one This affords a curious illustration of the saying, of the oldest Florentine families. It appears in that poets, like prophets and the utterers of oracles, bistory as far back as A.D. 1200.

often do not understand their own words. 4. As to Aragonia, I have no doubt this alludes A “slow fellow,” in school phrase, means a to the celebrated Mary of Aragon, sister of the no mopish unsocial person; and "slow" is applied to less famous Joan of Aragon, who was the mother anything stupid or tiresome. JARLTZBERG. of that Marc Antony Colonna whose name is bound up with the battle of Lepanto. They were both

Bells on Horses' Necks (Vol. vi., p. 54.). — This daughters of Ferdinand of Aragon, Duke of Mon- custom still exists in parts of Worcestershire and talto, third natural son of Ferdinand King of Herefordshire, where the two counties join. Four Naples

. Mary became the wife of Alphonso or five bells of good size are suspended under a d'Avalos, one of Charles V.'s best generals. Brau- frame of wood, which is covered with worsted tome says he met her when she was near sixty, and fringe, and carried by the leader horse. even then her autumn surpassed all the springs This practice is of use to denote the approach of and summers in the room. Thuan (ad ann. 1552) a team in any of the numerous winding lanes, speaks of the island of Ischia as chiefly remarkable which, though adding to the beauty of the landfor her retreat: “ Maxime Maria Arragoniæ scape by their thick hedges and lofty elms, yet, Avali Vastïi viduæ secessu nobilem.” Jerome being narrow and thus shut in, do not allow of Ruscelli collected together all the pieces of poetry two waggons passing at every part. J.D.A. written on her by the wits of the day. It was Bells on horses' necks are seen occasionally in printed at Venice in 1552, 4to., by Griffins. He North Lincolnshire, In bygone times they were calls her the archetype of beauty.

fastened to the harness of horses, to give notice 2. Mr. Boase appears to be right in his conjec of their approach, as the roads were at that time ture about Conestagius. There is another work by without stone, and consequently so bad that the the same author, Historia della Guerre della Ger- drivers could not turn upon the side with much maniæ inferiori di Jeronimo Conestagio Gentilhuomo expedition.

K. P.D.E. Genovese, published at Venice, 1614, and at Leyden, 1634.

C. K. W.

The custom of hanging bells on the necks of

horses, inquired after by Å. C., obtains in most of Baxter (Vol. vi., p. 86.).-If my memory serves the counties of England. I have notes of having me, R.G. will find extracts of Baxter's blasphemies observed it in Derbyshire, Cheshire, Nottinghamconcerning Christ's Long Parliament, and the regi- shire, Leicestershire, Yorkshire, Shropshire, Lancides sitting with Him therein, in Sikes on Paro- cashire, Oxfordshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, chial Communion. I do not remember having read Devonshire, Cornwall, Cambridgeshire, Northamp

time ago.

tonshire, and other counties. The form of the bell Foubert Family (Vol. vi., p. 55.). - A Treatise is much the same in most of the counties enume- composed by Thos. Foubert, Author of several rated ; and it may interest A. C. to know that curious Performances of Mechanism, London, 1757. bells of similar form have been found on Roman This notice of the works of Foubert is in the sites during the progress of excavations.

centre of a highly embellished frontispiece, at the L. Jewitt. foot of which are two elegant female figures : one

seated with compasses fixed across the globe; the Burial in unconsecrated Ground (Vol. v., pp. 320. other carries a scroll and pencils, while portraits 404.).— Your numerous correspondents who have and books strew the ground. At the head of all written on this subject, seem to have overlooked this, standing on a plinth, is a foot-soldier in a two notable cases in point, which occurred some cocked hat, with musket, and in marching order,

in this neighbourhood :--the one that of sword as well as bayonet. The plinth carries, John Trigg, whose eccentric will is given p. 1325. “Pro Aris et Focis ;" the whole surmounted and of Hone's Every Day Book, whose coffin is now surrounded by emblematical devices, the arts and to be seen placed on the beams of a barn at sciences, with

a great display of drums, guns, flags, Stevenage; the other that of Richard Tristram, and all the “pride, pomp, and circumstance" of who was buried in a field in the parish of Ippolitts. war; and a graceful festoon of fiddles and French The gravestone marking the resting place of Tris- horns. At the foot of the print we may presume tram was, till quite lately, a lion of the neighbour- the artist insisted upon the addition of a line in bood; but a sacrilegious farmer, annoyed at the French, thus : injury done to his hedges by the visitors to the “ Traité composé par Th'. Foubert, Londres, 1757. tomb, bas either removed the stone, or sunk it

A. Walker, delin, et sculp." below the level of the ground. Local tradition

J. H. A. assigns a singular cause to their burial in these spots. It is stated that they were shocked at the Andrews the Astronomer (Vol. iv., pp. 74.162.).— unceremonious way in which the sexton in a For the sake of its preservation, and as an addition neighbouring churchyard treated the remains dis- to the notices that have already appeared, I send interred whilst digging a tomb, and therefore they the epitaph inscribed to the memory of Mr. Anleft the most stringent injunctions that their burial drews, from the New Burial Ground, Royston, might place them beyond the reach of similar where he was interred : usage.

L. W.

“ In memory of Mr. Henry Andrews, who, from a Hitchen.

limited education, made great progress in the Liberal

Sciences, and was justly esteemed one of the best AstroI beg to add to your list of bodies deposited nomers of the Age. He departed this life, in full assurin unconsecrated places, 1. “The Miller's Tomb,” ance of a better, January 26th, 1820, aged 76 years." on Highdown Hill

, near Wortbing, some no- Andrews built a house in the High Street, Rose tice of which may be seen in Hone's Every Day ston, in 1805, and in it he spent the remainder of Book, vol. iv. p. 1392. 2. The leaden coffin en his life. He paid the builders for the work as they closing the body of one Thomas Trigg, a farmer, progressed in it, they being in poor circumstances. of Stevenage, Herts, which is deposited (according | One of their receipts, penned by Andrews, is in to his will) on a tie-beam of the roof of a building

my_possession. which was once his barn, but now belongs to a For the information of the curious in portraits, public-house in the above place. It is still exhi. I may add that Mr. W. H. Andrews of Royston bited to the curious by the hostler. 3. The coffin has recently caused a fresh impression of his with the corpse (unless both are utterly decayed) father's portrait to be struck off.

H. G. D. of another eccentric character (whose name I for

Knightsbridge. get), which lies on a table in a summer house in Northamptonshire, somewhere between Towcester Portrait of Cromwell (Vol. vi., p. 55.). - One and Green's Norton.

J. R. M., M. A. of your Correspondents lately asked whether one

of the portraits of Cromwell were not missing?" Canongate Marriages (Vol. v., p. 370.). - In There is a remarkably good half-length, attrithe first volume of the Grenville Papers is a letter buted by connoisseurs' to Walker, at Newbridge from Mr. Jenkinson to Mr. Grenville, which de- House, co. Dublin, among a collection made by serves the attention of R. S. F. of Perth. Mr.

Pilkington. Can this be the one for which he inJenkinson informs his frieud that, love getting the quires? Is it known how many likenesses of better of duty, Lord George Lennox had set out Cromwell were taken by Walker ? URSULA. with Lady Louisa Ker, to be married at Edinburgh. The letter bears date 1759. Your correspondent's Foundation Stones (Vol. v., p. 585.; Vol. vi., Query refers to “about the year 1745."

p. 20.). - As a Note upon this subject, permit me WILLIAM Brock. io send you the inscription which (according to

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