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then was the great mode unperfect, and the small mode Allow me to add, in conclusion, that Alsted and and time perfect. But if the first figure were a figure Solomon de Caus are no authorities in musical of two, thus C 23, then were both modes unperfect, and matters. If your correspondent wishes to know time perfect. But if it were thus, C 22, then were all more about our early musical symbols, I beg to unperfect. But, if in al the songe there were no Large, refer him to Thomas Ravenscroft's Briefe Disthen did they set downe the signes of such notes as

course of the true but neglected use of charactring were in the song ; so that if the circle or semicircle were set before one onelie cifer, as 0 2, then did it signifie Diminution in Measurable Musicke, 4to. Printed

the Degrees by their Perfection, Imperfection, and the lesse mode : and by that reason, that circle now last

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. set downe, with the binarie cifer following it, siguified by E. Allde, 1614. the lesse mode perfect, and time unperfect. If thus, C3, then was the lesse mode unperfect and time per

KING LEAR." fect. If thus, C 2, then was both the lesse mood and time unperfect, and so of others. But since the prola.

(Vol. vi., pp. 6. 42.) tion was invented, they have set a pointe in the circle or

In the passage from Act II. Sc. 1., MR. SINGER halfe circle, to show the more prolation, which notwithstanding altereth nothing in the mode nor time.”

would change and found into unfound; but he

makes no remark upon the object of the word Our modern binary and ternary times were dispatch. Mr. COLLIER, on the other hand, would formerly reversed. The ancients called the binary retain and found, but he understands the object of measure imperfect, and the ternary perfect time.

“ dispatch” to be Edgar, who is to be first caught For this reason they expressed the latter by a and then dispatched ! circle, as the most perfect of all figures. Binary,

In such a dilemma, it is surely excusable, in this as we have seen, was expressed by a demi or im

case at least, to be a "rigid stickler for the inteperfect circle, which is our sign for common time. grity of the old copies." ° I, and doubtless nine, The reason why the ternary or triple time was

tenths of the readers of Shakspeare, understand called perfect may perhaps be traced back to very the passage in this way: ancient opinions among the Pythagoreans, who held

“Let him fly far; the number three to be perfect, while they con- Not in this land shall be remain uncaught; sidered the number two to be connected with the

And found, -! Dispatch — The noble Duke," &c. evil principle, and as the indication of mischief and

Here there is an expressive pause after found, confusion: hence the second month of the year

as though the punishment consequent upon Edgar's dedicated to Pluto by the Romans. The signs thus invented for musical purposes, immediate utterance.

capture were too terrible and indeterminate for

Dispatch is addressed to

In all were afterwards applied to a different use.

Edmond, and simply means,

“Get on with your the old dance-books (vide Playford's English story," which in fact he does at the conclusion of Dancing Muster, 1651, &c.), men and women are

Gloster's speech. distinguished by the circle, with the central point, and the demi or half circle. This use of the early in Act IV.), I protest against it also. It would be

As to the second proposed correction (first line musical character was evidently founded upon the injurious to the true sense, which requires the ideas of perfection and imperfection above

alluded opposition of known (or open) contempt, to conthe circle, which is a perfect figure, denoting tempt concealed by fattery. the man, and the semicircle, which is imperfect, the woman.

Sir Joshua Reynolds has so well explained this Your correspondents suggestion as to the origin passage that to say anything more would be to

repeat
him

A. E. B. of the crossed C is entirely wrong, as I shall now

Leeds. proceed to show. The "vertical line impaling the two lozenges, with a third lozenge between them, but on one side,” which is found in old (not the oldest) church music, relates to the pitch, and has nothing

(Vol. v., pp. 510. 569.) whatever to do with the time. It is the old F clef, a compound character, formed of three notes,

Your inquirer on this subject will find his one placed on the line, and two others in the ado doubts resolved by referring to a review of the joining spaces. The vertical line may be added or

books in question in vol. Ixxiv. of the Quarterly ; not. The C clef was distinguished from the F by where (p. 223.) it is stated, that in consequence of having only the two notes in the spaces. These

à controversy respecting its authenticity, which clefs are common to the Gregorian music. A full had arisen in the German newspapers, the editor, account of them may be found in Gafurius, Practica Dr. Meinhold, published in the Allgemeine Zeitung Musica, lib. i. cap. iii. fol. 4. b, edit

. 1496. The that his design in practising this deception was to

a letter claiming the authorship, and it appears G clef, a compound character of the letters G and S, for the syllable Sol, was invented by Lampadius

mystify the "school of Strauss and Co.," in which

he seems amply to have succeeded, E. H. Y. about the rear 1530.

to ;

AMBER WITCH.

LINES ON SUCCESSION OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND.

Dr. Meinhold, the professed editor of the 1649 Cromwell, without the title, mounts the throne ; “Amber Witch," is himself the author. Some | 1660 False power, false pleasure flatter Charles recontroversy in the German newspapers as to whe

stor'd; ther it was an authentic history or not was put an

1685 'Gainst James the second, freedom draws her end to by a letter from Dr. Meinbold (which ap

sword ; peared in the Allgemeine Zeitung) distinctly avow

1688 The sceptre given to William's patriot hand;

A bloodless revolution saves the land ; ing himself as the author. I have heard that Dr.

1702 William and Mary dead, Anne mounts the Meinhold, being dissatisfied with the percmptory

throne; manner with which the Tubingen reviewers,

1714 To her, first George succeeds, Sophia's son ; Strauss and his followers, professed the unerring 1727 Next George the second wore his father's certainty with which they could discover, from

crown; internal evidence, the degree of credulity to be 1760 His grandson George now Britain's sceptre attached to any narrative whatever, determined to

sways, put their infallibility to the test, by writing the Whom God preserve, and bless with length of “Amber Witch.” His success was complete. The

days. Straussites were completely taken in, and pro

E. C. nounced in favour of the authenticity of the “Amber Witch" with as little hesitation as they

DODO QUERIES. had previously shown in deciding against the authenticity of great portions of the sacred writings.

(Vol. i., p. 261.)

R. C. C. MR. STRICKLAND will find in L'Univers PitOxon.

toresque, under the bead “ Iles de L'Afrique," the question of the discovery of the Mauritius, and adjacent islands, by the Portuguese, ably, and perhaps

as fully discussed as can be at present, until the (Vol. iii., p. 168.)

archives containing the hydrographical records of Began

the early Portuguese voyagers are opened to the Reign.

savans of Europe. A collection of old Portuguese 1066 William the Norman conquers England's state ; and other charts edited by Eugene de Froberville, 1087 In his own forest, Rufus meets his fate; and published at Paris a few years ago, are well 1100 Though elder Robert lives, Henry succeeds; worthy of the attention of those curious on the 1135 Stephen usurps the throne, and Albion bleeds; subject

. They are in the British Museum, may 11 54 Great Second Henry bows at Becket's shrine; be found under “ Africa, East Coasts," and their 1189 Brave Richard's doom'd in foreign bonds to pine ;

press or table mark is 1199 Perfidious John submits his crown to Rome ;

“ 69295. T. 20. 1216 A long and troubled reign's third Henry's

700. S. 1." doom ;

Froberville, in his account of Rodriguez, in the 1272 Edward the first, her king to Scotland gives; Iles de L'Afrique (ut suprà), quotes freely from a 1307 Edward the second cruel death receives ; 1327 Two captive monarchs grace third Eắward's MS. written by Pingré, which contained a longues train;

descriptions des animaux et des plantes de Rod1977 His grandson Richard is depos'd and slain ;

riguez;” and also states, apparently on the autho1899. Domestic foes, fourth Henry's arms engage;

rity of this MS., that the Solitaire was in existence 1413 France feels at Agincourt, fifth Henry's rage;

as late as the year 1761. 1422 The sixth good Henry, realms and son must

MR. STRICKLAND, in his valuable work, The

Dodo and its Kindred, speaking of the MS. journal 1461 While the fourth Edward love and fame pur- of Sieur D. B., hopes it “will not be allowed to sues ;

remain much longer unpublished. As Mr. S. 1483 Yet o'er his children's heads, the trembling (“N. & Q.," Vol.i.

, p.411.) again alludes to the

MS. of D. B., I beg leave to mention that it was Uncertain hangs, till Richard pulls it down; published at Paris, in 1694, under the following 1483 Stain'd with their blood, the fell usurper reigns, title, Les Voyages faits par le Sieur

D. B. aut 1485 Till the seventh Henry, Bosworth's battle gains, Isles Dauphine, ou Madagascar, & Bourbon, chu Unites the Roses, and dire faction quells;

Mascarenne, ès années 1669, 70, 71, g. 72. The 1509 Henry the eighth both monks and Pope expels; dedication of this work is signed Dubois ; and 1547 England laments sixth Edward's short liv'd in the Bibliothèque Universelle des Voyages, by bloom;

Richarderie, Paris, 1808, the author's name is 1553 Mary's short reign restores the faith of Rome ;

stated to be Dubois.

W. PINKERTON. 1558 Eliza forms the church and bumbles Spain; 1603 The crowns unite in James's peaceful reign;

Ham. 1625 Charles, by the axe, his errors must atone;

lose ;

crown

BURIALS.

genius is considered to approach nearer to in(Vol. v., pp. 320. 549. 596. 613.)

spiration than any other human talent or endowWill your correspondent ALFRED Gatty kindly and can only plead in excuse my want of acquaint

ment." I have to beg pardon for my mistake, point out any authority for his position, p. 613.,

ance with the writer's style. " that a clergyman would render himself liable to

2. As to the quotations from Goethe and Luther, suspension by his bishop, who either allowed in. Dr. Cumning considers that, since they are avowterments to take place in the churchyard without edly quotations, it was needless to mention the the burial service, or, on the other hand, used the work from which they were immediately derived. service in unconsecrated or unlicensed ground?

He states that the chapter on Romans viii. is the The question of the use of the burial service by only part of his Voices of the Night in which he a clergyman in unconsecrated ground has become has made any use of Olshausen, and that in others of great local interest in Birmingham, in conse

of his works he has amply acknowledged his obliquence of the rector of St. Martin's having regations to that commentator. He disavows all cently attended the funeral of a member of his intention of "parading" the names of other comcongregation in the "unconsecrated and unlicensed mentators, and states that his acquaintance with ground" of a joint-stock cemetery in the town, the Fathers is derived from their own writings, and there officiated in his canonicals

, using the not from secondary sources. And, generally, be whole Church of England service for the burial of is of opinion that express references are not rethe dead; although there is a Church of England quired in religious books of a popular and praccemetery, duly consecrated and established at great tical character. expense, immediately adjoining,

3. “It is perfectly true," writes Dr. Cumming, The irregularity and impropriety of such conduct

" that I did mistake Bettina for a creature of is indeed very glaring (Vol. v., p. 549.); but I can Goethe's imagination, and therefore supposed the find neither canon, rubric, nor law of the church noble and beautiful thought to be Goethe's own, that makes it illegal.

and Bettina merely to be the organ of it.” The 71st and 72nd appear to be the only canons

I am bound to acknowledge the candour and bearing on the point; the rubrics for the Com the good temper with which my remarks have been munion of the Sick and the Private Baptism of received ; and having, as I trust, now fairly stated Children contain a stringent caution as to their Dr. Cumming's side of the question, I shall not use out of church, ercept in cases of sudden danger add any comment on those parts of it as to which or inability to leave home; the Conventicle Act I am unable to agree with him. (22 Geo. II. c. 1.) only refers to the "exercise of N.B. - In the sixth line of the poetry, page 7, religion in other manner than according to the from bas been printed instead of for. Liturgy and practice of the Church of England;'

J.C. ROBERTSON. and finally, the statutes of Elizabeth respecting attendance at church speak only of "their parish church or chapel accustomed, or upon reasonable

ON SOME DISPUTED PASSAGES IN SHAKSPEARE. let thereof, some usual place of common prayer.".

(Vol. vi., pp. 8. 26.) The whole matter, therefore, seems to resolve itself into a question of good taste and consistent necessary to make to your readers for the large

After the apology which you have deemed it churchmanship. It would be a great favour to obtain an early answer.

Bexbow.

space occasionally occupied by Shakspearian critiBirmingham.

cism, I should have scrupled again to trespass in this way, but that I feel called upon to notice

MR. COLLIER's very courteous appeal to me reDR. CUMMING ON ROMANS VIII.

specting my note on two passages in King Lear (Vol. vi.

, p. 8.), in which I have unwittingly mis(Vol. vi., pp. 6, 7.)

represented his reading of one of them. On the publication of my remarks, I thought it It is true that the absence of the capital letter at right to call Dr. Cumming's attention to them, and the word “dispatch,"and the period after it, escaped in reply I have received a private letter from him, my observation; but I must confess that I do not feel with a request that I would communicate the sub- satisfied with the view Mr. Collier takes of the stance of it to “N. & Q."

passage, “ that Gloster intends to say when Edgar 1. In speaking of "the poet who is supposed to is found he should be dispatched.". The pointing tread nearest to the inspired," Dr. Cumming did of the old copies, in which a semicolon occurs after not intend to point to any individual, but to the the words " And found,” is in my mind decisively whole class of poets. The meaning, therefore, is against it. It may be that Gloster merely is meant not, as I supposed, " that poet who is generally to say, that all possible dispatch shall be used in regarded as approaching nearest to the inspired having the fugitive Edgar pursued. poets,” but “

a poet, a writer of that class whose Being one of those who received with acclaim

the emendation in Coriolanus found in Mr. Col- snow, rain and dew, hail-storm and thunder, which are LIER's second folio, of bisson multitude for bosom to be studied with entire submission of our own faculmultiplied, perhaps I may be allowed to add a few ties, and in the perfect faith that in them there can be words in reply to your correspondent A. E. B.

no too much or too little, nothing useless or incrt- but (Vol. vi., p. 26.), who, as he once designated him that, the farther we press in our discoveries, the more self “a charmed listener” to Shakspeare, will not

we shall see proofs of design and self-supporting listen approvingly to annotators "charm they never

arrangement, where the careless eye had seen nothing

but accident.” so wisely." On this occasion he dissents from the “general acclaim" with which this excellent

I conclude with these eloquent words, after the conjectural emendation has been received, in a dry bones of our verbal disputes, that the accesvery elaborate and ingenious argument, which I sory, as Sir Henry Wotton says, may help out the regret to say has failed to convince me. I still principal, according to the art of stationers, and to think that had MR. COLLIER's second folio only leave the reader con la bocca dolce. afforded this one very happy correction, it would

S. W. SINGER. have done good service to the text of a play in

Mickleham. which the printer's errors are numerous. To the argument of your excellent correspon

Replies to Minar Queries. dent, it seems to me, one fatal objection offers itself: the context requires a plural noun to be in

Milton and Tacitus (Vol. v., p. 606.). — There concord with they and their, and therefore " this is an oft-quoted line expressing the same sentibosome multiplied” cannot be right; for dare we ment: say the poet was wrong? Think of the greatest “ Ambition is the vice of noble minds." master of language the world ever saw writing Who is the proprietor of it? — author one can “ this bosome multiplied . . hardly call him ?

A. A. D. What's like to be their words: * We did request it:'" &c. Emaciated Monumental Effigies (Vol. v., p. 497.).

I submit that we may confidently read the pas- - There is in Lichfield Cathedral an emaciated sage thus :

figure shown as part of the monument of Dean “ Th' accusation

Heywood, who died October 25, 1492. Shaw Which they have often made against the senate, (Staffordshire, vol. i. p. 249.) quotes the following All cause unborn, could never be the motive Of our so frank donation. Well, what then?

account of the monument from Dugdale's VisitaHow shall this bisson-multitude digest

tion in the Herald's College :The senate's courtesy? Let deeds express

In a south wall opposite the choir is a very elegant What's like to be their words:" &c.

monument of a man in full proportion, with a red

gown and white hood, and over that a red one : his Your correspondent will see that I adopt hands are elevated as in prayer, and his head reclines Mason's correction of motive for native, which he, upon a blue cushion, and under that is placed a red I think unjustly, treats as meddling.' At the one. In the bottom of the monument immediately risk of being placed in the same category, I will under him is the figure of a corpse laid out in its add that in the very next speech of Coriolanus we winding sheet, his arms crossed over his gown. The bave another absurd printer's error. The first sheet is tied at the top, and the head is laid upon a folio gives us —

blue pillow." “ To iumpe a body with a dangerous physic."

Shaw gives an engraving of it in its complete The second folio improves this into jumpe.

state taken from Dugdale's Visitation; but I be

lieve the bottom part is all that now remains. I read (meo periculo), To impe a body, i. e. re

C. H. B. store or increase its power. This term from fal

30. Clarence Street, Islington. conry was familiar to the poet. We have all the same object in view, I trust;

La Garde meurt" (Vol. v., p. 425.; Vol. vi., that is, to restore, as far as it is possible, the text p. 11.). - A note to A Voice from Waterloo, one from the fatal injuries inflicted on it by careless of the most interesting and authentic and carefully printing and imprudent "meddling." 1 yield to compiled accounts of the battle which has yet apno one in awful reverence for its integrity, but peared, written by Serjeant-Major Cotton of the cannot persuade myself that the printers, or the 7th Hussars, who was orderly to Sir Hussey player-editors of the old copy, have infallibly given Vivian in the battle, tells us — what Shakspeare wrote, especially when it leads to “ It was Halkett himself who marked out Camabsurdity or nonsense.

bronne, and, having ridden forward at full gallop, was “Oh I mighty poet ! Thy works are not as those of

on the point of cutting down the French general, when other men, simply and merely great works of art; but * Note “On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth,” are also like the phænomena of nature, like the sun and by Mr. De Quincey, in the London Magazine, vol. the sea, the stars and the Aowers, like frost and

1823, p. 356.

the latter cried out for quarter and received it. This was there not an Irish goddess, with the attributes fact does not well agree with the words popularly as- of Vesta, named Bridget, whose pyreum was trans. cribed to Cambronne, La garde meurt, et ne se rend formed by Christianity into the fire of St. Bridget? pas.' After having surrendered, Cambronne tried to

The following account is given by Giraldus ( Topog. escape from Halkett, whose horse fell wounded to the Hibern. p. 729.): – ground. But, in a few seconds, Halkett overtook his prisoner, and seizing him by the aiguillette, hurried

“ In Kildare of Leinster, which the glorious Bridget hiin to the Osnabruckers, and sent himn in charge of a

made illustrious, there are many wonders worthy of

mention. sergeant to the Duke of Wellington. Cambronne was

Foremost among which is the Fire of subsequently sent to Ostend with Count Lobau and Bridget, which they call unextinguishable; not that other prisoners. It was only the old guard that wore

it cannot be extinguished, but because the nuns and the aiguillette.

holy women so anxiously and accurately cherish and “ The words ascribed to Cambronne, 'the guard

nurse the fire with a supply of fuel, that during so dies, it never surrenders,' of which we see such num- many centuries from the time of the Virgin it has ever bers of engravings, and which illustrates so many

remained unextinguished, and the ashes have never pocket handkerchiefs and ornaments so much of their accumulated, although in so long a time so vast a pile crockery, &c., have, notwithstanding they were never

of wood hath here been consumed. Whereas, in the uttered, made a fortune ; all French historians repeat time of Bridget, twenty nuns here served the Lord, them. I am in possession of a letter, written to me by she herself being the twentieth, there have been only a friend of Cambronne's, and who asked the general nineteen from the time of her glorious departure, and whether it was true that he had uttered the words in they have not added to their number. But as each question; the reply was (I quote Mr. E. G. Dickson's

nun in her turn tends the fire for one night, when the own words), • Monsieur, on m'a debité cette réponse.'

twentieth night comes, the last virgin baving placed The gallant Sir Colin Halkett, I believe, still the wood ready, saith, · Bridget, tend that fire of thine, survives, and, if he be a reader of “N. & Q.," for this is thy night.' And the fire being so left

, in the may perhaps condescend to correct any misstate- sumed in the usual way. That fire is surrounded by a

morning they find it unextinguished, and the fuel conments that there may be in the above tale. L. circular hedge of bushes, within which a male does not

I am surprised that two Numbers have appeared enter; and if he should presume to enter, as some rash without R. Ç. B.'s having been apprised of his

men have attempted, he does not escape divine ven

geance." strange mistake of attributing to Murat the noto

W. FRASER. rious myth which was invented for General Cam. bronne at Waterloo, and which have been, with Exterior Stoup (Vol. v., p. 560.). — There is an true French modesty and veracity, inscribed on a exterior holy water stoup at the north side of the monument erected to him (Cambronne) at Nantes, great western entrance of Walsingham Abbey. the fact being that he surrendered without resist

Edw. HAWKINS. ance, and was taken to the village of Waterloo. The French, imagining that he was killed, invented

- Henry, Lord Viscount Dover (Vol. vi., p. 10.).this fine saying for him, while he himself was at

The following Notes may

MR. D'Alton's the Duke of Wellington's quarters, making him- doubts as to this peer. The obscurity seems to self meanly remarkable by endeavouring to intrude have arisen from a confusion of titles. himself at the duke's dinner table.

C. Henry Jermyn, younger brother of Thomas,

Lord Jermyn of Bury, was created in 1683 (or Baxter's Saints' Rest" (Vol. vi., p. 18.).--MR. 1685) Lord Jermyn of Dover; and, out of deferBeally having spoken of the first impression of ence to his elder brother's title of Jermyn, he this work, may perhaps be able to verify the fol- seems to have been called Lord Dover, by which lowing severe criticism :

name he was sworn of the English Privy Council “ Mr. Baxter, in the two editions of his Saints' Ever. in 1686, and next year appointed a Lord of the lasting Rest, printed before the year 1660, instead of the English Treasury. He seems to have left England * kingdom of heaven,' as it is in the Scripture, calls it with James II., and accompanied him in 1689 to *parliament of heaven' (and, if like their own, it must Ireland, where we find him under the title of Lord have been a parliament without a king); and into this Dover, a Privy Councillor and Commissioner of parliament he puts some of the regicides, and other the Treasury in Ireland ; and some time after he like saints, who were then dead. But in the editions appears as Earl of Docer. after the Restoration, he drops them all out of heaven Protestants.) I presume that he was also created

(King's Sate of the again, and restores the kingdom of God to its place."

Viscount Dover; but the viscounty and earldom, The Scholar armed against the Errors of the Time, vol. ii.

Irish creations, after the Abdication, are nowhere pp. 51-2., Lond. 1795.

R. G.

recognised. This explanation, I think, clears up

all ÅR. D'ALTON's difficulties, except that I do The Bright Lamp that shone in Kildare's holy not find his name in the list of officers in King Pane (Vol. v., pp. 87. 211.). – This suggests the James's Guards, or even army. He seems to have Query, Who was St. Bridget, or St. Bride ? and been employed as a civilian.

C.

clear up

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